Abbildungen der Seite

peasant. Neither does the difference of food, or very good credit, that his father kept a goose of accommodation, make any change in the dura- known to be fourscore years of age, and as yet tion of life. Men who are fed on raw flesh or sound and Justy, and like enough to have lived dried fish, on sago or rice, on cassada or roots, live many years longer, had he not been forced to kill as long as those who use bread and prepared' vic- her for her mischievousness, worrying and destroytuals. If luxury and intemperance be excepted, ing the young geese and goslings. In another nothing can alter those laws of mechanism which part of his valuable work, Mr. Willoughby tells us, invariably determine the number of our years. " that he has been assured by credible persons, that Any little differences which may be remarked in a goose will live a hundred years and more. In the term of human lite, scem to be chiefly owing man and quadrupeds, the duration of life bears to the quality of the air. In general, there are some proportion to the times of their growth. But, more old men in high than in low countries. The in birds, their growth, and their powers of repromountains of Scotland, of Wales, and of Switzer- duction, are more rapid, though ihey live proporland, have furnished more examples of longevity tionally longer. Some species of birds, as all the than the plains of Hollaud, Flanders, Germany, or gallinaceous tribes, can make use of their limbs Poland. But, if we take a survey of mankind, the moment they issue from the shell; and, in a whatever be the climate they inhabit, or their mode month or five weeks after, they can likewise emof living, there is no very essential difference in ploy their wings. A dungbill cock does not acthe duration of life. When men are not cut off quire liis full growth in less than a year. The by accidental diseases, individuals may every where smaller birds are perfect in four or five months. be found who live ninety or a hundred years. They grow more rapidly, and produce much soonOur ancestors, with few exceptions, never exceed-er than quadrupeds, and yet they live proportioned this period; and, since the days of David, kiog ally much longer. In man and quadrupeds, the of the Jews, it has undergone no variation. Beside duration of life is about six or seven times piore accidental diseases, which are more frequent, as than that of their growth. According to this rule well as more dangerous, in the latter periods of a cock or a parrot, which arrive at their full growth life, old men are subjected to natural infirmities and powers in one year, should not live above six that originate solely from a decay of the different or seven. But nature knows none of our rules. parts of the body. The muscles lose their tone, She accommodates her conduct, not to our shalthe head shakes, the hands tremble, the limbs tot- low, and often presumptuous, conclusions, but to ter, the sensibility of the nerves is blunted, the the preservation of species, and to the support and cavities of the vessels contract, the secretory or- general balance of ihe great system of animated gans are obstructed, the blood, the lymph, and the beings. Ravens, thougli capable of providing for other Auids, extravasate, and produce all those themselves in less than a year, sometiines have symptoms and diseases which are commonly as their lives protracted more than a century. The cribed to a vitiation of the humors. The natural Count de Buffon informs us, that, in several places decay of the solids, however, appears to be the in France, ravens have been known to arrive at original cause of all these maladies. It is true, this extraordinary age, and that, at all times, and in that a bad state of the fluids proceeds from a de- all countries, they have been esteemed birds of pravity in the organization of the solids. But the great longevity. effects resulting from a noxious change in the fluids From the facts which have been enumerated, it produce the most alarming symptoms. When the appears, that all animals, as well as vegetables, Huids stagnate, or if, by a relaxation of the vessels, have stated periods of existence, and that their an extravasation takes place, they soon corrupt, dissolution is uniformly accomplished by a gradual and corrode the weaker part of the solids. Hence hardening and desiccatiou of their constituent the causes of dissolution gradually, but perpetually, parts. No art, no medicine, can retard the operamultiply; our internal enemies grow more and more tions of nature. It is, therefore, the wisdom and powerful, and at last put a period to our existence. the duty of every human being to sail down the

With regard to quadrupeds, the causes of their dis- irresistible current of nature with all possible transolution are precisely the same with those which de- quillity and resignation. Life, whether short or stroy the human species, with the exception of those long, whether fortunate or unfortunate, when the which depend upon the vices and intemperance of fatal period arrives, is of little consequence to the mankind." The times of their growth bear, likewise, individual. Society, knowledge, virtue, and besome proportion to the duration of their lives. nevolence, are our only rational enjoyments, and

Some birds afford instances of great longevity. ought to be cultivated with diligence. In this class of animals, the duration of life is by With regard to animals in general, the actual no means proportioned to the times of their growth. duration of their lives is very different. But the Most of them acquire their full dimensions in a comparative shortness or length of life, in particufew months, and are capable of multiplying the lar aniinals, probably depends on the quickness or species the first spring or summer after they are slowness of the ideas which puss in their minds, hatched. In proportion to the size of their bodies, or of the impressions made upon their senses. A birds are inuch more vivacious, and live longer rapid succession of ideas or impressions makes than either men or quadrupeds. Swans have been time seem proportionally long. There is likewise said to live three hundred years; but, though a connexion between the quickness and slowness njentioned by respectable writers, the assertion is of ideas, and the circulation of the blood. A man not supported by any authentic evidence. Mr. whose pulse is slow and sluggish, is generally dull Willoughby, in his Ornithology, remarks, “We and phlegmatic. Raise the same man's pulse with have been assured by a friend of ours, a person of | wine, or any other exhilarating stimulus, and you immediately quicken his sensations, as well as the ing one hour for every fifteen degrees, and proportrain of his ideas. In all young animals, the cir- tionally for minutes. So, also, difference of time culation of the blood is much more rapid than may be converted into difference of longitude, by after they have acquired their full growth. Young allowing fifteen degrees for every hour, and proanimals, accordingly, are frolicksome, vivacious, portionally for a greater or less time. Consequentand happy. But, when their growth is completed, ly, the one known, the other is easily found. the motion of the blood is slower, and their manners, of course, are more sedate, gloomy, and LOOKING GLASS. A plain glass mirror, pensive. Another circumstance merits attention. which being impervious to the light, reflects the The circulation of the blood is slower or quicker images of things placed before it. in proportion to the magnitude of animals. In large animals, such as man and quadrupeds, the LOOP. A folding or doubling of a string or & blood moves slowly, and the succession of their noose, through which a lace or cord may be run ideas is proportionally slow. In the more minute for fastening. kinds, as mice, small birds, squirrels, &c. the circulation is so rapid that the pulsations of their ar- LORD. In Modern History, a title of courtesy, teries cannot be counted. Now, animals of this given to all British and Irish noblemen, from the description astonish us with the quickness of their baron upwards; to the eldest sons of earls; to all movements, the vivacity of their manners, and the the sons of marquises and dukes; and to various extreme cheerfulness of their dispositions. officers; as the mayor of London, the chamberlain

Reaumur, Condillac, and many other philoso- of the king's household, and the high chancellor phers, consider duration as a relative idea, de- of the kingdom. pending on a train of conscious perception and Lord is also a general term, equivalent with sentiment. It is certain that the natural measure peer; wherefore the House of Peers is also called of time depends solely on the succession of our the House of Lords. ideas. Were it possible for the mind to be totally occupied with a single idea for a day, a week, or a LORD OF A MANOR. In England, a person month, these portions of time would appear to be that had a fee, and consequently the homage of nothing more than so many instants. Hence a the tenants within his manor, and also the privilege philosopher often lives as long in one day, as a of holding a court baron. Lords of the manor clown or a savage does in a week or a month spent still retain some of the old manorial rights. in mental inactivity and want of thought.

LORICATION, or COATING. In Chemistry, LONGIMETRY. The measuring of lengths is the covering of a glass or earthern vessel with a or distances, both accessible and inaccessible. coat or crust of a matter able to resist the fire, to

prevent its breaking in the performing of an operaLONGITUDE. In Geography, the distance of tion that requires great violence of fire. any given point from another, in the direction of When vessels are exposed to a fire too strong for east or west; as latitude is that distance, in the their structure, or to the corrosive quality containdirection of north or south. Latitude is reckoned ed in them, or on the throwing on of fresh cold in degrees from the equator; longitude, from a fuel into the fire where they stand, it frequently meridian, (one of the perpendicular lines, on maps happens that they crack and burst ; for the preor globes, or a line parallel to these) which is fixed venting of which, the operator has recourse to upon at pleasure. Thus the meridian that passes this method of coating or loricating his vessels. over Greenwich, is the meridian of Greenwich ; It is performed in the following manner: take a and it is from this point, that the English reckon quantity of washed clay, with an admixture of pure the distance of places.

sand, powder of calcined flints, or broken cruciAs perpendicular lines, drawn from the opposite bles; and instead of pure water, moisten it with poles of a globe, are necessarily wider apart at its fresh blood that has not yet been coagulated, dilutgreatest circumference, than at any other pointed with twice or three times its quantity of water ; between that and those poles, it follows, that the make the clay with this into a thin paste, and work width of a degree of longitude, which is determin- into it some cow's hair, or other hair not too long ed by those lines, increases, either in a south ward or too stiff, and a little powdered and sifted glass, or northward direction, in the ratio that it ap- if you have it at hand; smear over the vessel inproaches the equator. When, therefore, a degree tended to be used with this paste, by means of a of longitude is mentioned, it is impossible to know pencil, and set it to dry; when dry, besmear it what number of miles it contains, unless the de- again, and repeat the operation till the vessel have gree of latitude be also ascertained.

a crust of a third, or a quarter of an inch, at least, In order to find the longitude with the required thick of this matter, and let it be thoroughly dry precision, it is necessary to construct a perfect before it is used. timepiece: for since, by the motion of the earth round its axis, every point upon its surface de- LORY. This name has been given to some of scribes the circumference of a circle, or three the parrot tribe, from their frequently repeating hundred and sixty degrees, in twenty-four hours' the word. They have, however, no distinct chartime, it is plain it must describe fifteen degrees in acters of sufficient importance to separate them one hour, because the twenty-fourth part of three from the great genus psittacus. They are very hundred and sixty, is fifteen. Hence the difference active and gay, even in captivity. They are found, of longitude may be converted into time, by allow for the most part, in the Moluccas, and are held in

great estimation in some parts of the East. The may have all those affections of the pleasurable most prized is the scarlet lory, which was for a long kind, which objects and incidents raise in us, love, time unknown in Europe, as the Dutch were at -and all those of the painful kind, hatred. Thus first wholly unsuccessful in transporting it thither; we are said to love not only intelligent agents of the birds generally died on the voyage. They are morally good dispositions, but also personal pleasnow, however, brought across the ocean without ures, riches, and honors, and to hate poverty, dismuch difficulty, and are marked by their tender- grace, pain, bodily, and mental. When our love ness and attachment to their masters. The Jav- and hatred are excited to a certain degree, they put anese appear to have a great predilection for them, us upon a variety of actions; and may be termed and raise them in great numbers. But the most desire and aversion, by the latter of which Dr. valuable of these birds is the yellow-collared, which Hartley understands active batred. is of a deep red color, with a circle of yellow If the affection of love be conceived separate around its neck. It is principally found in New from any alteration in the body, it is called intelGuinea. It is very docile and familiar, and has lectual or rational love; if it be attended with an great aptness in learning to speak ; this, added to agitation of blood and spirits, it is called sensitive its beauty, and its extreme delicacy, as well as the or passionate love. It is observed by moral writers, difficulty of rearing it, renders it very highly es- that those passions in which love predominates teemed. A single bird has been sold in London are more agreeable to the original intention of naas high as twenty guineas.

ture than those which are ranged under hatred;

because they are found to have a more friendly LOT. According to the Hebrew history, a influence upon the body, and tend, within proper nephew of Abraham, who to avoid dissensions bounds, to the preservation and happiness of life, between his followers and those of Abraham, went which the others do not. east into the plain of Jordan, towards Sodom, while his uncle dwelt in Canaan. Having been LOUIS D'OR. A French coin, first struck in taken captive by some marauding chiefs, Lot was the reign of Louis XIII. in 1640, equal in value to delivered by Abraham from their hands. Having twenty shillings sterling. The modern Louis d'or received two angels into his bouse in Sodom, an is equal only to sixteen shillings and eight pence. attack was made upon it by night, by the inhabitants, who were struck blind, and the impending LUCK. That which happens to a person ; arr destruction of the city was announced to Lot. He event, good or ill, affecting a man's interest or hapescaped from the devoted spot, with his family; piness, and which is deemed casual ; fortune: luck but his wife, looking back at the scene of devasta- respects persons and their proceedings. We never tion, became a pillar of salt,' which Josephus, and say, in a literal sense, that a plant has the luck to Benjamin of Tudela, declare existed in their times, grow in a particular place; or a fossil has the luck and, according to some late travellers, was to be to be of a particular form. We say, a person bas seen not long ago. The text is by some, under the good luck to escape from danger; or the ill stood merely to signify, that she was rendered a luck to be ensnared or to suffer loss. He has had statue, that is motionless, by being incrusted with good luck, or bad, in gaming, fishing or hunting. salt. Lot afterwards became the father of Moab Luck, or what we call chance, accident, fortune, is and Ammon, by his two daughters.

an event which takes place without being intended

or foreseen, or from some cause not under human LOTTERY. A kind of public game at hazard, control; that which cannot be previously known in order to raise money for a particular purpose. or determined with certainty by human skill or It consists of several numbers of blanks and prizes, power. which are drawn out of wheels, one of which contains the numbers, and the other the correspond- LUGGER. A small vessel carrying either two ing prizes and blanks.

or three masts, with a running bowsprit, upon Lotteries were invented by the Romans, to en- which lugsails are set, and sometimes topsails liven their Saturnalia. The first English lottery adapted to them. mentioned in history, was drawn A. D. 1569.

LUKE. Author of one of the Gospels, which LOVE. In its usual and more appropriate is distinguished for fulness, accuracy, and traces signification, denotes that affection, which, being of extensive information; also of the Acts of the compounded of intellectual and sensitive love, or Apostles, in which he gives a methodical account of animal desire, esteem, and benevolence, becomes of the origin of the Christian church, and, particthe bond of attachment and union between indi- ularly, of the travels of the apostle Paul. Though viduals of the different sexes; and makes them these two books were designed merely for his feel in the society of each other a kind of happiness friend Theophilus, they soon attained a canonical which they experience no where else.

authority, and were publicly read in the churches.

Concerning the circumstances of the life of this ‘LOVE IN ETHICS. Love in Ethics is one of evangelist, nothing certain is known, except that the primitive passions ; and may be generally de- he was a Jew by birth, was a contemporary of the fined to be the gravitation or tendency of the soul apostles, and could have heard accounts of the life towards goochAccording to Dr. Hartley, who of Jesus from the mouths of eye-witnesses, and traces all our passions to the sources of pleasure was for several years a companion of the Apostle and pain, they may be first and generally distribut- Paul, in his travels ; so that, in the Acts of the ad into the two classes of love and hatred ; i. e. we Apostles, he relates what he himself had seen and participated in. The conjecture that he was a LUSTRATION. The ceremony of purification physician is more probable than the tradition which performed by the ancient Romans every five years; makes him a painter, and which attributes to him whence that space was called a lustrum. an old picture of Christ, preserved at Rome. On account of this latter tradition, however, he is the LUSTRE. In Mineralogy, one character of patron saint of painters, and a celebrated academy mineral bodies, which in that respect are distin.' of these artists, at Rome, bears his name. guished into splendent, shining, glistening, glim

LUNACY. A kind of madness, so called be- mering, and dull. cause supposed to be influenced by the moon.

LUTE. A musical instrument with strings. . LUNATICS. Are properly such as have dis- The lute consists of four parts, viz. the table; the eased imaginations, which deprive them of the use body or belly, which bas nine or ten sides; the of their reasoning faculty, sometimes altogether neck, which has nine or ten stops or divisions, and sometimes only on particular subjects. marked with strings; and the head, or cross, where LUNATION. Otherwise called the Synodical proper pitch of tone are fixed. In the middle of

the screw for raising and lowering the strings to a Month. A revolution of the moon, or the time the table there is a rose or passage for the sound; between one new moon and another.

there is also a bridge that the strings are fastened LUNGS. The organs of respiration, situated to, and a piece of ivory, between the head and the in the cavity of the chest

. They are divided into neck, to which the other extremities of the strings lobes, of which the right side contains three, and are fitted. In playing, the strings are struck with the left only two, in order to allow room for the the right hand, and with the left the stops are heart and great vessels. All the blood of the body pressed. The lutes of Bologna are esteemed the passes through the lungs, in order to be there ex- best, on account of the wood, which is said to have posed to the influence of the external air, by which an uncommon disposition for producing a sweet it undergoes a change necessary to make it saluta- sound. ry for the body, which it is not, after having once circulated through it. The blood irculates through

LYMPH. A fine fluid, separated in the body the lungs always contained in vessels, and it is be- from the mass of blood, and contained in peculiar lieved to be exposed to the action of the air not vessels. It is distinguished into watery and coagdirectly, but through the medium of thin vesicles, ulable lymph; the former, as tears for an example, as the windpipe is continued by branches continu- is little else than water holding in solution a smali ally getting smaller and smaller, till at last they end portion of salt

, and still less of animal matter. in points too minute for sight.

Coagulable lymph, which is found in the dropsy, An organ of such importance as the lungs, so contains a very considerable portion of albumen, close to the moving centre of action, so abundantly

so as to be viscid to the touch, and when heated to supplied with blood, and so delicate in their own

coagulate firmly, like the white of an egg. ultimate structure, may be easily supposed to be liable to very numerous diseases, and those of the LYMPHATIC VESSELS. A set of vessels most dangerous kind. Accordingly a very large in the animal body, numerous and important, which proportion of fatal diseases are those which occur open into the cellular texture and into the various in the chest, either in the substance of the lungs cavities, and absorb the lymph and other watery themselves, in the membranes that line them, or in fluids, convey them through glands situated in the numerous vessels that ramify through them.

different parts of the body, till they pour the fluid Pleurisy, asthma, catarrh, consumption, spitting into the thoracic duct, the same to which the lacof blood, are some of the dangerous or painful teals convey the chyle; and from which the two diseases of the lungs; but the question often asked fluids are carried into the lungs, there to be comby non-medical persons with so much anxiety, pletely fitted for the purposes of the body. When about themselves or friends, whether the lungs are the lymphatic glands are diseased or any way obaffected, seems to have reference principally to the structed, they give rise to hard knotty swellings in symptoms of consumption.

various parts of the body; and they are thought

to be peculiarly the seat of scrofulous inflammaLUNETTE. In Fortification, an enveloped tion. Such swelled glands are often seen in the counterguard, or elevation of earth made beyond neck and groin. The best way to promote the the second ditch, opposite to the places of arms; healthy action of the lymphatic vessels and glands, or a covered place before the courtine, consisting is to wear warm clothing, to use moderate and of two faces that form an angle inward. It is constant exercise, to pay attention to diet, and to commonly raised in ditches full of water, to serve the regular action of the bowels, instead of fansse brays, to dispute the enemy's passage of the ditch.

LYDIAN STONE. A stope of a grayish black

color, which is found in Bohemia and other parts LUPINE. A sort of pulse, which bears a pa- of Germany, and also in Scotland. When polishpilionaceous flower. There are several species of ed, it is used as a test stone for determining the lupines cultivated in gardens, as the white lupine, purity of gold and silver. It was used for that the small blue lupine, and the great blue lupine, purpose among the ancients, by whom it received &c. which are all annuals except one species, this name, because it was found only in the Tmolus, called by distinction the perennial lupine.

a river of Lydia.

LYNX. A wild beast, of a tawny brown color, This kind of poem is distinguished from all with black spots, and very quick sighted, which in other odes, by the happy transitions and digressions its habits resembles the wild cat.

which it beautifully admits, and the surprising and

natural easy returns to the subject, which is not to LYRE. A musical instrument of the stringed be obtained without great judgment and genius. kind, much used by the ancients. Those odes The lyric is, of all kinds of poetry, the most which were sung to the lyre, and which were poetical, and is as distinct, both in style and thought, principally in praise of the gods and heroes, were from the rest, as poetry is in general from prose : styled lyric.

it is the boldest of all other kinds, full of rapture,

and elevated from common language the most that LYRIC. Lyric, in general, signifies something is possible : some odes there are likewise, in the sung or played on the lyre ; but it is more particu- free and loose manner, which seems to avoid all Jarly applied to the ancient odes and stanzas, an- method, and yet are conducted by a very clear one, swering to our airs and songs, and may be played which affects transitions seemingly without art, on instruments. This species of poetry was origi- but for that reason have the more of it; which are nally employed in celebrating the praises of gods above connexion, and delight in exclamations and and heroes, though it was afterwards introduced frequent invocations of the muses, which begin into feasts and public diversions. Mr. Barnes and end abruptly, and are carried on through a shows how unjust it is to exclude heroic subjects variety of matter with a sort of divine pathog from this kind of verse, which is capable of all the above rules and laws, and without regard to the elevation such matters require, The characteristic common forms of grammar. Pindar has set his of this kind of poetry is, according to Trap, the successors the example of digressions and excur. sweetness and variety of the verse, the delicacy of sions. To write a Jyric poem are required not the words and thoughts

, the agreeableness of the only a flowing imagination, brightness, life, subnumbers, and the description of things most pleas- limity, and elegance, but the nicest art and finest ing in their own natures. At first the lyric verse judgment, so as to seem luxuriant, and not be so; was only of one kind, but afterwards they so con- and under the show of transgressing all laws, to tinued to vary the feet and numbers, that the variety preserve them. of them now are almost innumerable,


MACADAMIZING. A method of making their motion. When they were first carried to roads, introduced by Mr. Mac Adam, which con- Europe, their great beauty and size caused them sists in breaking the stones so small that they may to be in much request, and they were considered bind with the earth into a solid smooth mass. as valuable presents between sovereign princes.

MACAW. These magnificent birds belong to MACE. The second coat or covering of the the parrot tribe, and are distinguished by having kernel of the nutmeg. It is a thin and membrantheir cheeks destitute of feathers, and the feathers ous substance, of an oleaginous nature, and a yelof the tail long. They are only found in the trop- lowish color; being met with in flakes of an inch ical regions of South America. They prefer moist and more in length, which are divided into a mulsituations, from the palm growing in such spots, titude of ramifications. It is of an extremely fraof the fruit of which they are very fond. They grant, aromatic, and agreeable favor, and of a usually go in pairs ; sometimes, however, they as- pleasant, but acrid and oleaginous taste. semble, in the morning and evening, in great numbers. Although they fly well, they seldom wander MACERATION. An infusion of, or soaking, far, except in quest of food, and regularly return ingredients in water, in order either to soften them, in the evening. They build their nests in the or draw out their virtues. hollow of rotten trees, and lay twice in the year, generally two eggs at a time. The male and fe- MACHINE. Any complication of artificial male share alternately in the labor of incubation bodies acting upon one another by contact, through and rearing the young. When young, they are the medium and motion of which any effect is easily tamed, and soon grow familiar with persons produced, is a machine. The initial force which whom they frequently see. But, like all the parrot puts the machine in motion, is called the first or tribe, they have an aversion to strangers and par- prime mover. The point at which that force is ticularly to children. In a domesticated state, they applied, is the acting point; and that in which the will feed on almost every article, but are especially effect is produced is the working point: the mafond of sugar, bread and fruits. They do not chine being the medium through which the power masticate the latter, but suck them by pressing is transferred, and by which it is modified so as to their tongue against the upper mandible. Like answer the intended purpose. When a simple the other parrots, these birds use their claws with body is the medium between the acting and the great dexterity, though, in climbing, they always working points, it is an instrument. begin by taking hold with their bill in the first instance, using their feet only as a second point of MACHINE, ELECTRICAL. The electric

« ZurückWeiter »