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of a paper kite, properly fitted up for the purpose, LIMBS, ARTIFICIAL. Under this denominawith a long fine wire string, which he raised when tion, surgical writers speak of the various machines a thunder storm was perceived to be coming on; and contrivances which have been invented for and with the electricity thus obtained, be charged supplying the place, and in some measure executpbials, kindled spirits, and performed all other such ing the office, of limbs which are naturally imperelectrical experiments, as are usually exhibited by fect or wanting, or which have been amputated, an excited glass globe or cylinder. By a number or otherwise lost. Anciently, it was as much the of experiments Mr. Canton soon after observed duty of the surgeon to provide his patient with a that soine clouds were in a positive, while some wooden leg after amputation, as to cut off the were in a negative state of electricity; and that member, which endangered life and could not be the electricity of his conductor would sometimes preserved. At present, however, the business of change from one state to the other, five or six times furnishing artificial limbs is left almost entirely to in less than half an hour. How it happens that the mechanic, though it cannot be denied, that the particular parts of the earth, or the clouds, come attention of a judicious surgeon will often be well into the opposite states of positive and negative bestowed in taking care, that the pressure of such electricity, is a question not absolutely determined, machines is contrived to fall as little as possible though it is easy to conceive that when particular upon that part of a stump which is most tender, clouds, or different parts of the earth, possess op- and inclined to ulcerate. The end of a thighposite electricities, a discharge will take place stump, indeed, can ill bear the effects of pressure, within a certain distance; or the one will strike and in this case, it is usual to make the thigh part into the other, and in the discharge a flash of light of the wooden member in the form of a conical ning will be seen. Mr. Canton inquires whether box, which is calculated to receive the stump, and clouds do not become possessed of electricity by at the same time not allow the end of the bone to the gradual heating and cooling of the air; and meet with any material resistance below. The whether air suddenly rarefied, may not give electric pressure partly falls on the sides of the remaining fire to clouds and vapors passing through it, and portion of the thigh, and partly on the pelvis, round air suddenly condensed receive electric fire from which a strap proceeds from the upper part of the them. Mr. Wilcke supposes, that the air contracts machine. Artificial hands and arms may also be its electricity in the same manner that sulphur and procured, which have movable fingers, and by the other substances do, when they are heated and ingenuity of the mechanism, may be made to percooled in contact with various bodies. Thus, the form many little useful offices in grasping and air being heated or cooled near the earth, gives holding things. electricity to the earth, or receives it from it; and the electrified air being conveyed upwards by va- LIME. Lime, or calcareous earth, predominates rious means, communicates its electricity to the in most stones which are soft enough to be scratchclouds. Others have suggested, whether since ed with a knife. These are chalk, limestone, marthunder commonly happens in a sultry state of the ble, spars, gypsum, or plaster-stone, and various air, when it seems charged with sulphureous va- others. As the lime is most frequently combined pors, the electric matter then in the clouds may not with carbonic acid, it is usual for mineralogists :0 be generated by the fermentation of sulphureous drop a small quantity of nitric acid upon the stones vapors with mineral or acid vapors in the air. they are desirous of classing ; and if they froth by Some physicians are of opinion, that when a per- the escape of the acid, they conclude that lime son is killed by lightning, there is an instantaneous enters into the composition. To obtain pure caland total destruction of the vital principle in every careous earth, powdered chalk must be repeatedly part of the animal machine, and consequently that boiled in water, which will deprive it of the saline any effort to restore animation would be useless; impurities it frequently contains. It must then be but others suppose that the influence of lightning, dissolved in distilled vinegar, and precipitated by or of a powerful shock of clectricity, is chiefly ex- the addition of concrete volatile alkali
. The prepended in disturbing or destroying the functions cipitate, when well washed and dried, will consist of the brain, and that, therefore, cases may occur of lime united to carbonic acid ; the laiter of which in which suspended animation might be restored may be driven off by heat, if necessary. by preserving the animal heat, and maintaining If chalk, marble, limestone, spar, or any other artificial respiration till the body resumes its func- specimens of this earth, containing carbonic acid, tions.
be exposed to continued ignition, they give out
carbonic acid and water, to the amount of nearly LIGNUM VITÆ. Guaiacum or pockwood, a half their weight. The remainder, consisting genus of plants, native of warm climates. The chiefly of lime, has a strong tendency to combinacommon Lignum vitæ is a native of the warm tion, and attracts water very powerfully. The adclimates of America. It becomes a large tree, dition of water to lime produces a very considerahaving a hard, brownish, brittle bark, and its wood ble heat, attended with noise, and agitation of the firm, solid, ponderous, very resinous, of blackish parts, which break asunder; a considerable vapor yellow color in the middle, and of a hot aromatic arises, which carries up with it part of the lime; taste. It is of considerable use in medicine and and a phosphoric light is seen, if the experiment the mechanic arts, being wrought into utensils, be made in the dark. Lime thus saturated with cogs, and various articles of turnery.
water is said to be slaked. Water dissolves about
one five-hundredth part of its weight of lime, and LILAC. A tree of the syringa tribe, which is then called limewater. This solution has an bears a pretty flower early in the spring. acrid taste, and turns sirup of violets to a green
color. If lime-water be exposed to the open air, | cases where an external stimulus is required; and the lime attracts carbonic acid, and is by this means the carron oil, a liniment of great efficacy in burns converted into chalk; which, not being soluble in and scalds, made of olive oil and lime-water equal water, forms a crust on the surface, formerly called parts. The tincture of soap, alone or with opium, cream of lime, which, when of a certain thickness, is called anodyne liniment or opodeldoc, and is breaks, and falls to the bottom: and in this way used to rub parts of the body affected with rheuthe whole of the lime will in time be separated. matic or other pains. Stimulant liniments are If the fire have been too violent in the burning of useful in chronic diseases of the viscera, both by lime, the stones become hard, sonorous, and inca- their own powers exciting the skin to action, and pable of absorbing water with the requisite degree by relieving the internal parts; and also by the of avidity. This effect seems to arise from part friction itself. of the calcareous earth having entered into fusion with the clay, flint, or other contaminating earths, LINNAAN SYSTEM. A system of natural with which it forms a glass that covers and defends history, so called from Linnæus, the Swedish natthe rest.
uralist. It comprehends a scientific arrangement The paste of lime and water, called mortar, bas of all natural objects, as animals, plants, and mina degree of adhesion and ductility, though much erals into three kingdoms, subdivided into classes, less than clay. When dry, it is more or less fria- orders, genera, species, and varieties, with a deble, like chalk. A mixture of sand, or broken scription of their generic and specific characters. earthen vessels, greatly increases its firmness, which it seems to effect by rendering it more difficult for LINEN. În Commerce. The linen manufacthe parts to be removed with respect to each other. ture was probably introduced into Britain with the When mortar is left to dry by the gradual evapo- first settlements of the Romans. The flax was ration of its superfluous water, it is very long be- certainly first planted by that nation in the British fore it obtains its utmost degree of firmness. But soil. The plant itself indeed appears to have been if dry quicklime be mixed with mortar, it gradu- originally a native of the east. The woollen draally absorbs the superfluous water, and the mass pery would naturally be prior in its origin to the becomes solid in a very short time.
linen, and the fibrous plants from which the threads Line has an affinity for tannin, whence it is of the latter are produced, seem to have been first probable that a portion of it is retained in tanned noticed and worked by the inhabitants of Egypt. leather, perhaps not to the improvement of its In Egypt, indeed, the linen manufacture appears quality. It has an edulcorative power with respect to have been very early ; for even in Joseph's time to animal oils, by combining with the putrid gela- it had risen to a considerable height. From the tine in them; but its action on them in forming a Egyptians the knowledge of it proceeded probably soap is too strong to admit of its being used for to the Greeks, and from them to the Romans. this purpose with advantage, unless in small quantities. Feathers, however, may be very conveni- LINNET. A small singing bird, of the finch ently cleaned by steeping three or four days in kind. The bird in America called indigo bird is a strong lime-water, and afterward washing and dry- variety of the linuet. ing them.
LINSPINS, or LINCHPINS. Small pins of LIMESTONE. The native carbonate of lime, iron, which keep the wheel of a cannon, or wagon, which is generally rather blue, from the presence on the axle-tree; for when the end of the axle-tree of iron.
is put through the nave, the linspin is put in to
keep the wheel from falling off. LIMITATION. In Law, a certain time prescribed by statute, within which an action must be LION The lion, like all other cats, is armed, brought.
in each jaw, with six strong and exceedingly sharp
cutting teeth, two formidable canine, and six othLINKIO. In Botany, a kind of water-planters, occupying the usual place of the molars, but among the Chinese, the fruit of which is of a differing from these by terminating in sharp protriangular pyramidical form, prominent every way, tuberances. Besides these, there is a small tooth, with a green thick rind, that grows reddish towards or tubercle, on each side of the upper jaw, immethe apex, and, when the fruit is dried, grows black. diately posterior to all the others. The tongue is The internal substance is exceeding white, its taste covered with rough and elevated papillæ, with Jike that of the chestnut, three or four of which it their points directed backwards. The claws, equals in bulk. The plant is found in standing which are five in number on the fore feet, and four waters, and has very slender leaves, that spread on the hinder, are of great length, extremely powthemselves over a large extent on the surface of erful, and much curved ; like those of the other the water, and the fruit lies concealed under wa- cats, they are retractile within a sheath enclosed in ter in great numbers.
the skin covering the paws. The lion is distin
guished from his kindred species by the uniformity LINIMENT. An oily or spirituous preparation of his color, which is pale tawny above, becoming for external use, of a consistence not so thick as somewhat lighter beneath, and never, except while an ointment. There are various useful liniments very young, exhibiting any markings; and also by employed in medicine; the volatile liniment, of the long and flowing mane of the old male, which, various strength, made of ammonia and oil, and covering the whole head, extends backwards over applied very beneficially in sore throats, and other his shoulders.
Notwithstanding the praises that have, from in captivity ; but this has been shown to be errotime immemorial, been bestowed on this animal, neous in some degree. It appears, however, that, for grateful affection, dauntless courage, and iner- in summer time, and especially before atmospheric ciful forbearance, he is nothing inore, in moral changes, he uniformly commences about dawn; and intellectual faculties, than a cat of immense at no other time is there any regularity in bis roar. size and strength, and endowed with all the guile- When enraged, his cry is still more appalling than ful and treacherous qualities of that treacherous his roar, he then beats his sides with his tail, agitribe. His dauntless courage is a mere conscious- tates his mane, moves the skin of his face and his ness of superiority over the animals by which he shaggy eyebrows, thrusts out his tongue, and prois surrounded, and wholly disappears in the neigh- trudes his dreadful claws. The lion requires about borhood of man; his merciful forbearance is no- sixteen pounds of raw flesh a day; he drinks often, thing more than that he never destroys more than lapping like a dog; but in this process his tongue satiates his hunger or revenge, and that, when un- is bent downward: his breath is very offensive, der the dominion of man, he suffers his keeper to and the odor of his urine insupportable. approach him without injury. The lion is only There is some variation, in the lions of different met with in the warmer regions of the old world, countries in external appearance, though, in essenand more particularly of Africa, in whose vast tial pafticulars, their habits are identical. The forests and arid deserts he reigns supreme and un- Asiatic variety seldom attains an equal size with controlled. He is met with, but rarely, in parts of the Cape lion; its color is a more uniform and India, Arabia and Persia, but his range in these pale yellow, and its mane fuller and more comcountries is becoming very limited. From Libya, plete, and being, moreover, furnished with a pecuwhence the Romans obtained so many, he has al- liar appendage of long hairs, which, commencing most disappeared ; and in classic Greece, where, beneath the neck, occupy the whole of the middle we are informed by Aristotle, he once occurred, line of the body beneath. Even the Cape lion none are to be found.
presents two varieties, known as the pale and the In America, this species never occurred, its black, distinguished, as their appellations imply, place being supplied by the puma. Naturalists by the lighter or darker color of their coats. The have differed greatly as to the longevity of this latter of these is the larger and more ferocious of animal. Buffon stated it to be from twenty to the two. The Barbary lion has the same full mane twenty-two years; but it far exceeds this, as the as the Asiatic, but exceeds him in size. The numone in the Tower of London, which died in 1760, ber of lions, as has been observed, has greatly dilived in captivity above seventy years; and another minished, judging from the multitudes spoken of died in the same place, at the age of sixty-three. by ancient writers, and those carried to Rome. The lioness brings forth from three to four at a Thus Sylla the dictator exhibited, during his prebirth. The cubs when first born are about the torship, one hundred of these animals; and Pomsize of a small pug dog, and continue to suck the pey presented six hundred in the circus. Lion mother for about a year. At this time, their color fights were common under the consulate, and duris a mixture of reddish and gray, with a number ing the empire, Adrian, it is said, often caused one of brown bands. The mane of the inale begins hundred to be destroyed at one exhibition; and to make its appearance when the animal is about Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius were equally three to three years and a half old. The male prodigal in gratifying the people. attains maturity in seven and the female in six At the Cape of Good Hope, lions are hunted, years. The strength of the lion is prodigious, a not only for the purpose of extermination, but also single stroke with his paw being sufficient to de- for their skins. In the daytime, and in an open stroy most animals. The bone of the fore leg is country, from ten to sixteen dogs will easily overremarkably fitted to sustain the great muscular come a lion of the largest size ; nor does there apstrain so powerful an exertion occasions. Its tex- pear to be any necessity that the dogs should be ture is so compact, that it will strike fire with steel. very large; as he is less swift than these animals, The lurking place of the lion is generally chosen they readily overtake hin, on which the lion turns near a spring, or by the side of a river, where he round, and waits for the attack, shaking his mane, has an opportunity of surprising such animals as and roaring in a short and sharp tone, or sits down resort to the water to quench their thirst. Here on his haunches to face them. The dogs then he lies in wait, crouched in some thicket, till his surround him, and, simultaneously rushing upon prey approaches, and then, with a prodigious leap, him, subdue him by their united efforts, though seizes it at the first bound ; if, however, unsuccess- not before he has destroyed several of them. But ful in this, he immediately retires to await another the mode of destroying them, usual among the opportunity. In the night, more particularly, the Bushmen, is by shooting them, either with firelion prowls abroad in search of his prey, the con- arms or poisoned arrows. The inhabitants know formation of his eyes being, like those of the that the lion generally kills and devours his prey common cat, well fitted for seeing in a dim light. at sunrise and sunset. On this account, therefore,
The roar of the lion is loud and terrific, espe- when they intend to hunt them, they notice where cially when heard in the solitary wilds he inhabits: the antelopes are feeding at daybreak: if they this roar is his natural voice; for, when enraged, perceive that these animals are alarmed, they conhe utters a short and suddenly repeated cry, while clude that they have been attacked by å lion. the roar is a prolonged effort, a kind of deep toned Marking the spot whence the alarm took place, grumbling, mixed with a sharp, vibrating noise. about mid-day, when the sun is very powerful, and It has been usually stated, that the lion had con- the object of their attack asleep, they carefully exstant and stated times for roaring, especially when amine the ground, and, if they find him, they lodge a bullet or poisoned arrow in him. Sometimes, of liquorice, as being brought originally from however, he is fairly brought to bay in the day. Spain. This has the same virtues as the root ittime, by the hunter, as the following account froin self; and is to be chosen firm, but not tough ; Pringle testifies. After his retreat is found, the hard ; and, when broken, of a fine shining surface ; approved plan is to torment him with till he such as me the month without leaving any abandons his covert, and wands at bay in the open barsh or gritty particles in the teeth, and does not plain.
taste of burning "The whole band of hunters then march forward togetber, and fire deliberately one by one. If he LITANY. A solemn form of supplication to does not speedily fall, but grows angry, and turns God, in which the priest utters some things fit to upon bis enemies, they must then stand close in a be prayed for, and the people join in their intercircle, and turn their horses' rear outward, some cession, saying, "We beseech Thec to hear us, holding them fast by the bridles, while the others good Lord, &c. kpeel to take a steady aim at the lion as he ap- At first, the rise of litanies was not fixed to any proaches, sometimes up to the very horses' hecis
, stated tiine, but were only employed as exigencies crouching every now and then, as if to measure required. They were observed, in imitation of the the distance and strength of his enemies. This is Ninevites, with ardent supplications and fastings, the moment to shoot him fairly in the forehead, or to avert the threatening judgments of fire, earthsome other mortal part. If they continue to wound quakes, inundations, or hostile invasious. About him ineffectually, till he becomes furious and des- the year 400, litanies began to be used in procesperate, or if the horses, startled by his terrific roar, sions, the people walking barefoot, and repeating grow frantic with terror, and burst loose, the busi- them with great devotion; and it is pretended, ness becomes rather serious, and may end in mis- that by this means, several countries were deliverchief, especially if all the party are not men of ed from great calamities. The days on which courage, coolness and experience.' Very full ac- these were used were called rogation days: these counts of the lion and his habits are to be found in were appointed by the canons of different counthe travels of Sparmann, Barlow, Levaillant, Bur- cils, till it was decreed by the council of Toledo, chell, &c., in Southern Africa, and also in the Li- that they should be used every month throughout brary of Entertaining Knowledge, and the Tower the year, and thus by degrees they came to be Menagerie, from which the above account has used weekly on Wednesdays and Fridays, the anbeen condensed.
cient stationary days for fusting. LINSTOCK. A short staff of wood, about LITERARY PROPERTY. Literary property, three feet long, having at one end a piece of iron or copy right, is the right which an author may divided into two branches, each of which has a be supposed to have in bis own original literary notch to bold a piece of match, and a screw to compositions ; so that no other persons, without fasten it there; the other end being also shod with his lawve, may publish or make profit of the copies. iron, and pointed to stick into the ground, or in the As this right has become of great importance in deck when it is used at sea. It is used by the modern times, and has occasionally been made the gunners in firing cannon. It is frequently used in subject of very interesting discussion, it may be snall vessels, in an engagement, where there is proper to bring under the view of our readers the commonly one tixed between every two guns, hy substance of the various opinions which have been which the match is always kept dry and ready for entertained, and the different laws which havo tiring.
heen enacted, relative to this matter.
That every individual, engaged in a lawful ocLIQUID. Fluids have been divided into two cupation, has a right to dispose of the produce, and classes ; viz. those which are elastic, and the non- enjoy the fruits of his labor, is a proposition conelastic, or those which do not sensibly diminish in sistent with the most obvious rules of justice. bulk when subjected to pressure. The first class Accordingly, as Blackstone observes, when a man, are airs or gases, the second liquids : hence we by the exertion of his rational powers, has producinay define a liquid to be a fuid not sensibly elas- ed an original work, he has clearly a right to distic, the parts of which yield to the smallest im- pose of that identical work as he pleases, and any pression, and move on each other. When liquid attempt to take it from him, or vary the disposibodies are mixed together, they act in various tion he has made of it, is an invasion of his right ways according to the nature of the substances of property. Now, the identity of a literary comemployed. Some dissolve each other in any pro- position consists cntirely in the sentiments and the portion, as is the case with most gases when mixed; language; the same conceptions, clothed in the some unite in determinate proportions ; some do same words, must necessarily be the same compopot act sensibly upon each other, separating again, sition ; and whatever method be taken of conveythough mixed ever so carefully; and some decoming that composition to the car or the eye of anpose each other.
other, by recital, by writing, or by printing any
number of copies, or at any period of time, it is LIQUORICE. In the Materia Medica, the root always the identical work of the author which is of a plant, called, by botanists, glycyrrbizza. so conveyed; and no other man can have a right
It is an excellent medicine in coughs, and all to convey or transfer it without his consent, either disorders of the breast and lungs. The only sim- tacitly or expressly given. This consent may ple preparation of it in use, is its inspissated juice, perhaps be tacitly given, when an author permits commonly known by the name of Spanish juice his work to be published, without any reserve of right, and without stamping on it any marks of thet given to such persons, among the Chinese, as authorship. But in case of a bargain for a single are able to read and write their language. The impression, or a sale or gift of the copy-right, the literati alone are capable of being made mandarins. reversion is plainly continued in the original pro- The literati form the most distinguished part of the prietor, or the whole property transferred to an- Chinese nation. Since the dynasty of Han, i. e. other.
for more than two thousand years, they have conOn the other hand, it has been urged, that, al- stanuly held the chief rank in the empire; and it though an author possesses an exclusive right to is always from among them that masters are chosen his manuscript, and all which it contains, before it for the education of youth; ministers for the adis printed or published; yet that, from the instant ministration of public affairs; and magistrates, for of publication, this right ceases, as being of a na-judging the people: in a word, the literati are, in ture too subtile and unsubstantial to be protected some measure, the soul of the Chinese nation, by the common law, without being guarded by since it is from them that it receives its moral erpositive statute and special provision.
istence, and its civil and political beiog. The litIt may be observed, however, that the question erati must therefore be very numerous in a state, with regard to literary property is of very modern where they enjoy every distinction attached to predate, and could only arise at a very advanced stage eminence, and where every thing favors their inin the progress of the arts and civilisation. Before crease. Since learning is the only means that the art of printing was invented, indeed, and while conduct to honors, it is necessary that those who copies of books could only be obtained by the te- aspire to them should cultivate letters; and they dious method of transcribing, it is evident that must make it appear, that they have cultivated authors could derive but little pecuniary advantage them with success, before they can obtain any civil from the sale of their performances. But although employment. To guard against imposition, govthere is no doubt that the earliest and best works ernment has fixed for every city of the first, secof antiquity were written and communicated to ond, and third class, the number of literati who the world from no prospect of gain, yet we may can be legally promoted every year to the first degather from several passages in Latin authors, that gree of literature, and which answers to bachelor sales of literary copies, for the purposes of recital of arts in our universities. Of these there are or multiplication, were not unknown to the Ro- reckoned to be in China twenty-four thousand mans, but appear to be as ancient as the times of seven hundred and one individuals, who are annuTerence, Martial, and Statius. In the civil law, ally introduced to the first degree of literati; and however, we find no mention made of any prop- the number of those admitted before may be superty in the works of the understanding ; nor does posed to be at least twenty times as great. Acit appear that their lawyers ever entertained an cording to this estimate there are always in China idea that authors, after publication, could probibit four hundred and ninety-four thousand and twenty others from transcribing their compositions. literati, who have taken degrees, and who are,
On the discovery of the art of printing, the first consequently, not included among the taxables. inventors were very desirous to monopolize it; and, therefore, did their utmost to conceal the LITHARGE. A preparation of lead, usually process. But, in spite of their endeavors, it soon in forın of soft flakes, of a yellow reddish color. spread; printers multiplied, and interfered with If calcined lead be urged with a hasty fire, it melts one another, us must always be the case, in a into the appearance of oil, and, on cooling, congreater or less degree, with persons who are con- cretes into litharge. The greatest part of litharge cerned in the same trade. In order to prevent this we ineet with, in shops, is produced in the purifiinconvenience, some of the early printers applied cation of silver from lead, and the refining of gold to the Pope, the republic of Venice, aud the duke and silver, by means of this metal. According to of Florence, to get the sole privilege of printing the degree of fire, and other circumstances, it the books of which they were the first publishers; proves of a pale or deep color. The first has been and this they obtained for a term of years, seldom commonly called litharge of silver; the other, liexceeding fourteen, and often not so long, as ap- tharge of gold. pears froin the first editions of the classics, to which
LITHOGRAPHIC. An epithet for what perpatents are commonly prefixed. Hence it would appear, that literary property was originally a priv- tains to engraving on stone, as lithographic imilege granted, not to authors, to encourage them to pressions, those which are taken on paper from write, but to printers, to induce them to print edi- engravings on stone. tions of works which were then in manuscript. LITURGY. A name given to those set forms But the transition, from the encouragement of of prayer, which have been generally used in the printers to that of authors, was natural and obvi- Christian church. The liturgy of the Church of ous; and accordingly, soon after, privileges appear Eogland was composed in the year 1547; since in favor of the author, which are by him comnion which time, it has undergone several alterations, ly assigned to the bookseller, whose name is mark- the last of which was in the year 1661. ed on the title page. Upon this footing, therefore, the matter stood throughout Europe: The abstract LITMUS. In Chemistry, a substance from right does not appear to have been legally recog- which is formed a tincture that serves as a test of nised; but privileges were granted from favor, and the presence of an acid or an alkali. All acids with a view to public expediency.
and salts change the natural violet of the litmus
into red, and all alkalies restore it to its patural LITERATI, LETRADOS. Lettered, an epi-color, the violet.