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He is generally a bishop, and has the power of giv- , people ought to correspond exactly to the number ing the first dish from the king's table to whatever of elemental sounds which have a place in their poor person he selects.
speech. But in no language is this accurate coin
cidence found. Alphabets are sometimes defective, ALOES. An extensive tribe of plants, some of sometimes redundant; defective, from the want of which are not more than a few inches, whilst oth- distinct characters to mark all the varieties of eleers are thirty feet and upwards, in height. All the mental sounds; redundant, as well from the admisleaves are fleshy, thick, and more or less spinous at sion of more than one character to express the the edges, or extremity. These plants are mostly same sound, as from the introduction of characters, inhabitants of hot climates. Some of the larger to denote not only the elemental, but also some of kinds of aloes are of great importance to the inhabi- the compound sounds occurring in the language. tants of countries in which they grow. Beset as Hence though the number of elemental sounds in the leaves are with strong spires, they form an im- use among different people, admits of po great dipenetrable fence. The negroes of the western coast versity ; yet in the alphabets of different nations, of Africa make ropes and weave nets of the fibrous the number of letters varies considerably. parts of these leaves. The Hottentots hollow out The English alphabet contains twenty-six letters; the stem of one of the kinds into quivers for their the French twenty-three; the Italian twenty; the
In Jamaica, there is a species of aloes, Spanish twenty-seven; the Dutch twenty-six ; the which supplies the inhabitants with bow-strings, Sclavonic twenty-seven; the present Russian fortyfishing-lines, and materials from which they are one; the Latin twenty; the Greek twenty-four; the able to weave stockings, and hammocs. An aloe Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac, and Chaldean, each which grows in the kingdom of Mexico, is applied twenty-two; the Arabic twenty-eight; the Persic by the inhabitants to almost every purpose of life. and Egyptian, or Coptic, each thirty-two; the TurkIt serves to make hedges for enclosures; its trunk ish thirty-three; the Georgian thirty-six; the Arsupplies beams for the roofs of houses, and its leaves menian ihirty-eight; the Sanscrit fifty; the Ethioare used instead of tiles. From this plant they pic, or Abyssinian two hundred and two;, and the make their thread, needles, and various articles of Indian or Brachmanic two hundred and forty. clothing and cordage; whilst from its juices they The Chinese have written characters; but these manufacture wine, sugar and vinegar. Some parts cannot be called alphabetic, being signs not of of it they eat, and others they apply in medicine. sounds, but of ideas, and independent of any particu
The juice of the aloes was formerly used in East- lar language; they are generally allowed to exceed ern countries, in embalming, to preserve dead bod eighty thousand. The Japanese, although they ies from putrefaction; and, as the resinous part of read the Chinese characters in their own language, this juice is not soluble in water, it is sometimes have at the same time a species of alphabet peculiar adopted, in hot climates, as a preservative to ships' to themselves, consisting of about fifty characters. bottoms against the attacks of marine worms. One Few subjects have given rise to more discussion ounce of it mixed with turpentine, tallow, and white than the origin of alphabetic characters. If they lead, is sufficient for covering about two superficial are of human invention, they must be considered feet of plank; and about twelve pounds is sufficient as one of the most admirable efforts of the ingenuity for a vessel of fifty tons burden. In proof of the of man. So wonderful is the facility which they efficacy of this method, two planks of equal thick- afford for recording human thought; so ingenious, ness, and cut from the same tree, were placed under and at the same time so simple is the analysis which water, one of them in a natural state, and the other they furnish for the sounds of articulate speech, and smeared with this composition. They were suffer- for all the possible variety of words; that we might ed to remain in the water eight months, and when, expect the author of this happy invention to have at the end of that time, they were taken out, the been immortalized by the grateful homage of sucformer was perforated in every part, and in a state ceeding ages, and his name delivered down to posof absolute decay, whilst the latter was as perfect terity with the ample honors it so justly merited. as at first.
But the author and the era of this admirable disIn the East Indies, the juice of these plants is covery are both lost in the darkness of remote anused as a varnish to preserve wood from the at- tiquity. Even the nation to which the invention is tacks of destructive insects; and skins, and even due, cannot now be ascertained. The Egyptians, living animals are sometimes smeared with it for the Assyrians, the Phænicians, the Persians, the Inthe same purpose. There is a tract of mountains dians, have all laid claim to the honor of this disabout fifty miles north of the cape of Good Hope, covery; and each have named its inventor among which is wholly covered with aloes. Among the the remote, and probably fabulous personages that Mahometans, and particularly in Egypt, the aloe is figure in the earlier ages of their history. In cona kind of symbolic plant; it is dedicated to the of- sequence of this uncertainty respecting the author of fices of religion, and pilgrims, on their return from alphabetic writing, and the high value and extreme Mecca, suspend it over their doors, to show that they difficulty of the invention itself, many have been have performed that holy journey.
inclined to attribute this art to an immediate revela
tion from the Deity ; contending that it was commuALPHABET. The usual or customary series nicated with other invaluable gifts from above, in of the several letters of a language. The word is remote ages, to the descendants of Abraham, and derived from alpha and beta, the first and second probably to the patriarch Moses, who was the auletters of the Greek alphabet. Letters being, prop- thor of the most ancient compositions in alphabetic erly speaking, written marks for denoting the ele- writing that we at present possess. mental sounds of which spoken language is composed, the number of letters in the alphabet of any ALTAR. A place upon which sacrifices were anciently offered to some deity. The heathen , dinia, Spain, Bohemia, and other places, and the at first made their altars only of turf. In subse- counties of York and Lancaster, in England. On quent times, they were made of stone, of marble, of account of its binding qualities, it is used in several wood, and even of horn, as that of Apollo, in Delos. mechanic arts, and in medicine. In dyeing, it fixes Altars differed in figure as well as in materials. and brightens colors; it constitutes the basis of craySome were round, others square, and others oval. ons; it gives hardness and consistence to tallow, in All of them were turned towards the east, and stood the manufacture of candles; and wood, soaked lower than the statues of the gods, and were gene- in a solution of alum, being incapable of taking fire, rally adorned with sculpture, inscriptions, and the and answering the purpose, also, of excluding the leaves and flowers of the particular tree consecra- air, is used for powder magazines. fed to the deity. Thus, the altars of Jupiter were decked with oak, those of Apollo with laurel, those ALUMINE. In the nomenclature of modern of Venus with myrtle, and those of Minerva with chemistry, is the true argillaceous part of common olive.
clay. It is never found pure, in a native state. The height of altars also differed according to when pure, it is white, smooth, and of an unctuous the different gods to whom they sacrificed. Those feel, adherent to the tongue, and diffusible in water of the celestial gods were raised to a great height With the sulphuric it forms alum. above the ground; those appointed for the terrestrial were almost upon a level with the surface of the AMALGAM. In chemistry, mercury united earth; and, on the contrary, they dug a hole in the with a metal. The amalgam of mercury with lead, ground for the altars of the infernal gods. Before is a soft, fi'iable substance, of a silver color. By temples were in use, altars were erected sometimes washing and grinding this amalgam with warm in groves, sometimes in the highways, and some- water in a glass mortar, the impurities of the metal tirnes on the tops of mountains; and it was a custom will mix with the water; and by changing the to engrave upon them the name, proper ensign, or water, and repeating the lotion again and again, the character of the deity to whom they were consecra- metal will be farther and farther purified.--Boeried. Thus, St. Paul observed an altar at Athens, haave mentiops it as one of the greatest secrets in with an inscription To the unknown God.
chemistry, to bring off the liquor as clear as when In the Christian church, altar is a table set apart first poured on the analgam; which, he says, might for the celebration of the Eucharist. The first al- atford a method of making the nobler metals, or protar mentioned is that built by Noah after the flood. curing them from the baser metals. This philoThe two principal altars of the Jews were the altar sophical way of purifying metals, may easily be of burnt offerings and the altar of incense.
applied to all metals, except iron and copper. The
amalgams of gold, silver, tin, lead, zinc, bismuth, ALTITUDE. The height of an object, or its and copper, with quicksilver, are all white; and elevation above that plane to which the base is re- when the quantity of metal is large in proportion to ferred; thus in mathematics the altitude of a figure that of the mercury, they thicken into a kind of is the perpendicular or nearest distance of its ver- paste. All metals, except iron and copper, spontatex from the base. The altitude of an object is the veously unite and amalgamate with mercury; but elevation of an object above the plane of the hori- gold with greatest facility ; silver the next; then lead zon, or perpendicular let fall to that plane, as a per- and tin; copper, and regulus of antimony, with difpendicular let fall from a tower.
ficulty ; iron and cobalt, scarce at all; but with all Altitudes are either accessible or inaccessible. other metals and semi-metals, mercury may easily An accessive altitude of an object is that whose be amalgamated. base we can have access to, so as to measure the distance between it and that station from which the AMARANTH. A kind of flower which premeasure is to be taken.
serves its bloom after it is plucked and dried. On Inaccessible altitude is when the base of the this account, poets make it an emblem of immorobject cannot be approached. Inaccessible alti- tality. tudes may be ineasured either by geometry, trigonornetry, optical reflection, or by the barometer. AMBASSADOR. A representative sent by one The altitudes of mountains may be determined best nation to another. Ambassadors are ordinary or by the barometer, for as the weight of the atmos- extraordinary. An ordinary ambassador is one who phere diminishes as we rise, the fall of the barome- resides at the court or seat of government of a forter determines the elevation of any place. The al- eign power, as an officer of state, to maintain a mutitude of the pyramids in Egypt was measured in tual good understanding, to be watchful of the inthe time of Thales, by means of their shadow and terests of his own nation, and to negotiate the affairs a pole set upright beside them, making the altitudes that occur. This is a modern institution: two of the pole and the pyramid to be proportional to the hundred and fifty years ago, all ambassadors were length of their shadows. The instruments now extraordinary, or such as were sent upon particular commonly used in measuring altitudes are the geo- and pressing occasions. These latter are now genmetrical square, the quadrant, and theodolite. erally called envoys extraordinary. Ambassadors
of kings are not to attend marriages or burials, nor ALUM. A fossil, salt, and mineral, of an acid public or solemn assemblies, unless their masters taste, which leaves in the mouth a sweetness, ac- have an interest in them. They are not to wear companied by an astringency so considerable, as to mourning, even for their own relations, because they cause a sensation of shuddering. There are two represent the persons of their princes, and must sorts of alum, the natural and the artificial. resemble them in everything. Their persons are natural state, it is said to be met with in Egypt, Sar- sacred both in peace and war: so that, according to
the law of nations, if hostilities break out between This curious production of nature is inflammable, two nations, the respective ambassadors are permit- and, when heated, yields a strong and bituminous ted to depart without molestation; and if, during the odour. Its most extraordinary properties are those continuance of such hostilities, they are received of attracting, after it has been exposed to a slight into an enemy's country for the purpose of negotia- friction, straws, and other surrounding objects; and tion, they are to pass freely, and be treated with of producing sparks of fire, visible in the dark. Mapunctilious civility.
ny thousand years before the science of electricity
had entered the mind of man, these surprising qualiAMBER. This appears to be a bitumen, of fos- ties were known to exist in amber, and hence the sil origin. It is found in the earth, and on the sea- Greeks called it electrum. The Romans, supposing it shore. It abounds more particularly in Prussia, to be a vegetable juice, named it succinum. By which, on this account, once obtained the name of the Arabs, it is denominated ambra, whence the Country of Amber. Several hypotheses have been French write it ambre, and the English, amber. set up, respecting the nature of amber. By some it is supposed to be a resinous gum, oozing from AMBERGRIS. A concrete, bituminous subpines, and falling on the earth, or into the sea; by stance, of a soft and tenacious consistence, marked others, a fossil formed in the earth, and washed with black and yellow spots, and of an agreeable ashore by the sea; and, by Dr. Girtanner, an animal and strong smell, when heated or rubbed. It is product, nearly resembling wax. He relates, that found in very irregular masses, floating on the sea the old pine forests are inhabited by a large species near the Molucca Islands, Madagascar, Sumatra, of ant, which forms hills of about six feet in diame- on the coast of Coromandel, Brazil, America. Chiter, and that it is generally in these ancient forests, or na, and Japan. Several American fishermen asin places where they have been, that fossil amber sured Dr. Schwediawer, that they often found this is found. This substance is not hard, like that taken substance, either among the excrements of the up on the shores of Prussia: it has the consistence Physeter macrocephalus, a species of whale, or in its of honey, or of half melted wax; but it is of a yel- stomach, or in a vessel near the stomach. The low color, like common amber: it gives the same medical qualities of ambergris are stomachic, corproduce by chemical analysis ; and it hardens, like dial, and antispasmodic. the other, when it is suffered to remain for sometime in a solution of common salt. Insects are found in AMEN. A Hebrew word, originally signifying amber; among these, ants are always the most gen- verily, truly, has been transferred from the religious eral; circumstances that undoubtedly support Dr. language of the Jews to that of Christians. He Girtanner's opinion. According to this gentleman, who pronounced the blessings at the close of the amber is nothing but a vegetable, rendered concrete service in the Jewish synagogues, was answered by by the acid of ants, as wax is in oil, hardened by the Jewish audience with the word amen. Also, in the acid of bees. Pliny describes amber as oozing the religious assemblies of the first Christians, the from certain trees of the fir kind, grown in the prayer made by the eldest of the worshippers, or islands of the Northern Ocean. The liquor, he by a teacher, was concluded by the people with this says, previously congealed by the cold, falls into the word. Public prayers are still often concluded with sea, and is carried by the waves to Prussia, the nearest continent. From the various accounts that are given, it is certain, that amber is found in great AMETHYST. Purple Quartz, or Violet Crysquantities beneath the earth, and picked up on the tal. Plutarch says the amethyst takes its naine from sea-shores, in many parts of the world. In England, its color, which according to him, resembles wine it has been found in clay-pits, and on the coast. mixed with water. The oriental kind, which is the
Amber is of several colors; it is commonly yel- scarcest and most valuable, is of a dove color, and low, varying from the lemon to the orange: in other extremely hard. The German is of a violet color. instances, it is whitish, or somewhat inclining to There are beautiful ones found in the Pyrenees, and brown. The yellow gold-colored amber is so in the mountains of Auvergne. The amethyst is transparent, and so susceptible of the highest polo similar in its constituents to sapphire, except that ish, that it has been ranked among precious stones, it contains also manganese. The occidental Ameand is applied to various purposes of elegance. It thyst consists merely of rock crystal colored with is made into all sorts of trinkets. A French writer iron. This stone is not very hard, and may be cut of the present age observes, that amber was once with a leaden wheel, smeared with emery moistened fashionable in France, and fell into obscurity when in water. It is polished on a pewter wheel with costly metals and jewels grew sufficiently common tripoli. It is tasily engraven on, either in basso or to be subservient to luxury: but the medicinal vir- alto relievo. fues of amber, he subjoins, have not suffered the same fate. These, says he, will render it, in all ages, more AMIANTHUS. An incombustible mineral flax, precious than the brightest gems. It is prepared in which may be drawn into threads and wove into ihe several forms of a tincture, an oil, and a salt
, and cloth. It is mostly found among rocks. recomiended as a cordial and nervous medicine. It is a principal ingredient in the composition of all AMMON. The title under which Jupiter was varnishes. As a cabinet curiosity, it is valuable on worshipped in Libyia, where a temple was erected account of the insects, pieces of moss, &c. that are to him, from which oracles were delivered for frequently found in it. The enclosure of these ob- many ages. jects evidently proves that amber is originally in a soft state; at which time, insects, leaves, and other AMMONIA. The volatile alkali is called amcaruul matters, are liable to adhere.
i monja. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydro
gen; and, is distiuguished from the other alkalies equally well in air or water; such as the phocæ, or by its pungent swell
, and great degree of volatility. seal tribe, frogs, lizards, crocodiles, eels, water ser. It seems to owe its origin to animal and vegetable de- pents, and snakes. They are remarkable for their composition. It is used as a stimulant, usually in the tenacity of life; some will continue to move, even form of smelling-bottles, and also by bakers, to raise when the head is cut off. their bread lighter and quicker than by yeast alone.
AMPHITHEATRE. Among the remains of AMMONIAC SAL. The salt so called, is a antiquity, a building in which all the spectators, by combination of marine acid with volatile alkali. It being ranged in a circular form, had equally open was so terined by the ancients, because they receiv- view of the show. These shows were generally of ed it from that part of Lybia in which the temple a barbarous nature, like the modern bull-fights in of Jupiter Ammon was situated; or from Ammonia, Spain, cock-fighting in England, and leopardone of the Cyreuiac territories. Native sal ammo- baiting at Calcutta, or Bengal. niac is found in the vicinity of burning mountains, but is never employed medicinally, as it is always AMPLITUDE. An arch of the horizon, intermixed with arsenic. That which we use in this cepted between the east or west points and the cencountry, is prepared from the volatile alkali of bones, tre of the sun or stars at their rising and setting. It soot, pit-coal, aud other substances to wbich the vit is called ortive, or eastern amplitude, wben the star riolic acid is added. The taste of sal ammoniac is is rising; and occiduous, or western, when the star penetrating, acrid, and urinous.
is setting. AMMUNITION. This word properly signifies AMPUTATION. That operation, in surgery, by guns, powder, and ball, though it is sometimes which a member is separated from the body, accordemployed to denote all kinds of military stores. ing to the rules of the science. Though the medical According to some authors, it is derived from art endeavors to prevent the necessity of amputation, amonitio, a barbarous Latin word, which signifies yet many cases arise in which it is absolutely necsubsistence; and, others suppose it to come from essary, in order to save the life of the patient. It munitio, a fortification,
may be considered as one of the great victories
which science and skill have gained over barbarism. AMNESTY. This, in law, is an act of obliv- There is no decisive evidence that Iiippocrates ever jon; the entire freedom from penalty, granted to those performed this operation. Celsus, who lived under who have been guilty of any neglect or crime, usu- Tiberius, has leti a short descriptiou of the mode ally on condition that they return to their duty with of amputating gangrenous limbs. Paulus Ægineta, in a certain period. An amnesty is often declared about eight centuries afterwarus, suggests little inin case of the rebellion of whole districts or coun- provement. The Arabians seem to have made little tries, because it is not possible to exercise on them the progress in the art of suppressing the bleeding afier severity of the law, and it is often considered suffi- the amputation, which was still the most important cient to punish the leaders. In domestic disturban- desideratum. The greatest improvements were inces and civil wars, oblivion of the past is a necessary troduced by Pari, a French surgeon, in the sixprelude to peace. But amnesties are often only teenth century, since whose time amputation has deceitful assurances, of which modern history affords been performed with much skill among all civilized many instances. The amnesty, or religious peace nations, and the latest times, with a boldness at of 1570, in France, was followed, in 1572, by the which former ages would have shuddered, and with shocking spectacle of a government causing a part great precision and success. The lete wars in Euof its subjects to be murdered. Allusion is here rope have advanced this branch of the surgical art, made to the massacre of St. Bartholomew.
perhaps, more than any former period, by the numThe French revolution is rich in amnesties; the ber and variety of the cases requiring amputation, victorious party promising them to their opponents, which they have presented. Increasing knowledge or securing thenselves in this way from punish- of anatomy has continually increased the boldness ment. At the restoration, a formal amnesty was of the operator. not thought expedient; but, all prosecutions on account of political offences were forbidden. Not- AMULET. A piece of stone, metal, or other withstanding his abdication, Napoleon Bonaparte substance, marked with certain figures or characters, considered those who ha conspired, in 1814, to which people wear about them as a protection against overturn his throne, as state traitors, and, in the fol- diseases and enchantments. The name, as well as lowing year at Lyons, granted them an amnesty, the thing itself, is derived from the East. The word with the exception of thirteen persons only not in- comes from the Arabic hamail, something bung cluded in it. Prince Talleyrand was one of these round the neck. Among the Turks, and many thirteen excluded from the amnesty. And at the people of central Asia, every individual thinks an second restoration, in 1816, all who had taken an amulet necessary to secure him from harm. With immediate part in the usurpation of Bonaparte were the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans they pardoned, with the exception of Marshal Ney, Sav- were frequently found. The Jews had many alette, Bertrand, and sixteen others. At the same superstitious notions about amulets; and, by them
time, the king was authorised to banish from France, were introduced into Modern Europe. The early the various members of the Bonaparte family; all Christians also were accustomed to wear amulets.
who had taken office in the usurpation; and all Christian amulets had on them some symbol of the who had voted for the death of Louis XVI. Redeemer; the figure of the cross; particular pas
sages of scripture; the relics of martyrs; or images AMPHIBIA. A class of animals which live of the saints.
It is almost needless to mention, that such super- of the human body. Modern anatomists have disstitions are but little known to have influence, at the covered many mistakes the ancients were led into, present day, with persons favored with the increas- by their conceiving a greater similitude between the ing light of science and of Christianity. The phi- structure of men and of some beasts, than there is losopher and the enlightened Christian are now in- in reality. duced to ascribe to a prudent use of natural means that security against danger, which was formerly ANALYSIS. The separation of a compound supposed to come from the use of an amulet. body into its constituent parts ; a resolving; as,
an analysis of water, air or oil, to discover its eleANAGRAM. A transposition of the letters of a This is what is called chemical analysis. word or sentence, in such a manner as to form an- Indeed, to analyze bodies, or resolve them into other. Thus evil is an anagram of live. Tone is an their component parts, is the chief object of chemanagram of note. In former times, such plays of istry. ingenuity were popular, and we frequently find, in . In literature, analysis is used for a kind of syllaold inscriptions, the year and date indicated by bus, or table of the principal heads or articles, of a means of an anagram. Calvin, in the title of his In- continued discourse, disposed in their natural order stitutions, calls himself Alcuinus, hy an anagram of and dependency: . Analyses are more scientifical his name Calvinus. Of the letters which compose the than alphabetical indexes; but they are less used, words, Revolution Francaise, after taking away those as being more intricate. Analysis is likewise used which make the word veto, the following sentence for a brief, but methodical, illustration of the prinhas been formed; Un Corse la finira ; the meaning ciples of a science; in which sense it is nearly of which is, a Corsican shall finish it. The question synonymus with what we otherwise call a synopsis. of Pilate-Quid est veritas ? gives the anagram- In logic, analysis signifies the method of tracing Est vir qui adest. Dr. Burney's anagram of Hora- things backward to their source, and of resolving tio Nelson is one of the happiest-Honor est a Nilo. knowledge into its original principles. This is also
called the method of resolution ; and stands opposANALOGY. In philosophy, analogy is a cer- ed to the synthetic method, or that of composition, tain relation and agreement between two or more The art of logical analysis consists principally in things, which in other respects are entirely different combining our perceptions, classing them together There is likewise an analogy between things that with address, and contriving proper expressions for have some conformity or resemblance to one anoth- conveying our thoughts, and representing their er; for example, between animals and plants; but several divisions, classes, and relations. the analogy is still stronger between two different In mathematics, analysis is properly the method species of certain animals. Analogy enters much of resolving problems by means of algebraical equainto all our reasoning, and serves to explain and il- tions; whence we often find that these two words, lustrate. A great part of our philosophy, indeed, analysis and algebra, are used as synonymous. has no other foundation than analogy. It is natu- | Analysis, under its present improvements, must be ral to mankind to judge of things less known, by allowed the apex or height of all human learning. some similitude, real or imaginary, between thern It is this method which furnishes us with the most and things more familiar or better known. And perfect examples of the art of reasoning; gives the where the things compared have really a great sim- mind an uncommon readiness at deducing and disilitude in their nature, when there is reason to think covering, from a few data, things unknown; and, that they are subject to the same laws, there may by using signs for ideas, presents things to the be a considerable degree of probability in conclu- | imagination, which otherwise seemed out of the sions drawn from analogy. Thus we inay observe sphere. By this, geometrical demonstrations may a very great similitude between this earth which be greatly abridged, and a long series of argumenwe inhabit, and the other planets, Saturn, Jupiter, tations, wherein the mind cannot, without its utMars, Venus, and Mercury. They all revolve round most effort and attention, discover the connexion of the sun, as the earth does, although at different dis- ideas, are hereby converted into sensible signs, and tances, and in different periods. They all borrow the several operations required therein effected by their light from the sun, as the earth does. Seve- the combination of those signs. But, what is more ral of them are known to revolve round their axes extraordinary, by means of this art, a number of like the earth, and, by that means, must have a like truths are frequently expressed by a single line, succession of day and night. Some of them have which, in the common way of explaining and demoons, that serve to give them light in the absence of monstrating things, would fill whole volumes. the sun, as our moon does to us. They are all, in Thus, by mere contemplation of one single line, their motions, subject to the same law of gravita- whole sciences may be sometimes learned in a few tion, as the earth is. From all this similitude, it is minutes time, which otherwise could scarce be atpot unreasonable to think, that those planets may, tained in many years. like our earth, be the habitation of various orders of living creatures. There is some probability in
ANATHEMA. This word is the form of exthis conclusion from analogy. But it ought to be communication from the church. Hence, to proobserved, that, as this kind of reasoning can afford nounce the anathema, or to anathematize, means, in only probable evidence at best; so, unless great cau- the Roman Catholic church, to excommunicate the tion be used, we are apt to be led into error by it. living from the church, and the dead from salvaTo give an instance of this: Anatomists, in ancient tion. How important an instrument of spiritual ages, seldom dissected human bodies; but very of power the anathema was, in the hands of the popes, ten the bodies of those quadrupeds whose internal in the middle ages, how much disorder they gave structure was thought to approach nearest to that rise to, and how little they have been regarded in