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the moment they are laid. However, regard to their food; it may be rens this practice is more adapted to our dered more simple, and perhaps the own convenience than to that of the birds will be better for it*. One cira bird, and is contrary to the economy cumstance it is particularly neceffary of nature; it makes the mother part to attend to, and that is, to beware of with a great deal of heat unnecessarily, pairing them too soon in the season : and burdens her ay once with five or in general, it is the custom to permit fix young, which incommode her more their union towards the 20th or 25th than they give her pleasure; while, of March, whereas the 12th or 15th when she sees them come successively of April is a more proper time; for one aftur the other, her pleasures are when they are put together while the. multiplied, and her fprength and cou- weather is still cold, they grow indifrage supported : accordingly, very in- ferent for one another; and, if the hen telligent bird fancyers have assured me, happens to lay eggs, the leaves them that the natural way has always suc-, if the weather does not grow warm ; ceeded better with them than the a- thus we lose a whole hatching by feekbove-mentioned practice.
ing to have it too early. Indeed I must say that, in general, The
birds are different from too subtle practices, and the scrupulous, the old ones, not only in colour but in cares which our writers advise us to other qualities. A young Canarybestow on the rearing of birds, are Bird of the year, observed on the 13th more hurtful than useful. We must, of September 1772, bad the head, the as much as posible, imitate nature in neck, the back, and the quill-feathers every thing. In their native spot Ca- blackish, except the four first feathers nary birds bauot the banks of little ri. of the right wing, which were whitish; vulets, or of moist ravines, we must the sump, the coverts of the wings, the not therefore suffer them to want wa- tail, which was still not quite formed, ter, either to drink or to bathe in. As and the under part of the body, were they are natives of a very mild climate, also of a whitish colour, and there were we must defend them from the rigor not as yet any feathers on the belly of winter ; but as they seem now long from the sternum to the anus. This naturalised with us, they are accustom- young bird had its lower mandible ened' to our cold weather, for we may. tering within the upper, which was keep them in a room without fire, and pretty thick and a little hooked. As even with the window open, guarded the bird advances in age, the disposi-. however with a network to prevent tion and shades of the colour change ; their escape. I have known many the old are distinguished from the young bird-fancyers who have affured me, birds by strength, colour, and song:that, by treating them thus hardily, The old ones have always the strongthey lose fewer than by keeping them eft and moft vivid colours, their feet in warm rooms. It is the same with are rougher, inclining to black if they
are * I have learnt, from the fatal experience of trusting to the directions of others, to confine my treatment to the following : I have given them for food, rape-seed and millet ; 'water every other day in Winter, and once or twice a-day in Summer ; groundfel when it is to be had once a month; chick-weed in moulting time; instead of sugar, bruised oats' and Turkey corn; but particularly great cleanness is necessary.
Traité par M. Batteau, I must here remark a small error : It is generally agreed, that Canary-Birds must by no means have groundsel while they are moulting; for that food is too cooling, and prolongs the scafon of their indiposition. The other directions given by Mr Batteau apa pear to be well founded.
are of the grey race; and the nails to another; for though she should are thicker and longer than those of get better soon, she will not return to. the
young. The female, sometimes so her neft. The first fymptom of fickmuch resembles the male, that it is not ness, especially in the cock, is melaneasy to diftinguish the difference at first choly: whenever he is observed to Light : however, the colours of the lose his natural gaiety, he must be put in male are always the brighteft, his head a separate cage and placed in the fun in a little thicker and longer, the temples the same room with the hen. If his more of an orange colour, and under feathers appear rough, you must look if the bill a flame-coloured yellow, which he has not a pimple above the tail ; descends lower than in the female; when the fuppuration here is fit to be his legs are also longer, and he begins opened, the bird often performs it him, to record almost as soon as he can feed self with his bill ; but if it goes on too himself. It is true that there are hens Honly, it must be opened with a large which likewise begin thys early ; but needle, and the wound anointed with taking all these marks togethes, we faliva, without mixing any salt with it, will be at no loss to distinguish, even which would smart it too much. The before the first moulting, the cock from next day, you may let him loose, and the hen. After that time there is no observe, by his behaviour and eagerness more uncertainty, for the cock declares for the hen, whether he is cured or himself by his song.
not. If not, you must take him again, Every quick exertion of the voice and with a small quill blow a little is in animals a strong indication of white wine under his wings, put him paffion; and as love, of all internal e. in the sun, aod next day when you let motions, is that which agitates them kim loose judge as before of the ftate, ofteneft, and transports them most of his health ; if melancholy and difpowerfully, they do not fail to express gutt for the female continue after these its ardour. Birds by their song, he remedies, all hope of cure is vain; he bull by its lowing, the horse by neigh- must be put into a feparate cage, and ing, the bear by growling, all announce another male given to the ben fimilar one and the fame desire. The ardour to the one she has lott, or if that can. of this desire is by no means so strong not be, one of the fame variery with Bor so conspicuous in the female as it herself: there is generally most fyinis in the male, and accordingly she ex- pathy between those which refemble preffes it but seldom by her voice ; each other, except in the case of that of the ben Canary-Bird is notbing cream-coloured varieties which prefer more than a gentle note of tender la- the females of any other colour. But tisfaction, a sign of confent, which does care must be taken that the new male not escape her till she has long listened be not a novice, but already acquaintto and suffered herself to be won by ed with the duties of a pareni. When the ardent
of the male, who ex. the female falls fick she must have the eris himself to inspire her with the same treatment with the male. same pallion which he feels, But The most general cause of fickness when her desires are once excited, is too abundant or too sieh food :there is a necessity for gratifying them, when these birds are made to breed in otherwise the often falls sick and dies. a cage or closet, they often eat too
It is feldom that Canary-Birds much, or select the fucculent food de. brought up in a chamber fall fick be, figned for the young ; hence the con. fore batching : fometimes a few cocks fequences are either repletion or inpver-eat themselves and die: if the flammation. By keeping them in a hen grows fick while fhe is fitting, room this inconvenience is in a great ber eggs must be taken away and given measure prevented ; becaufe being a.
mong a great number, they hinder one this first moulting; and in the second another from ea:ing to excefs. A cock the following year, the large feathers, who eats for a long rime is sure to be even those of the wings and tail, tall bcaten by the other males ; and the likewise. The young birds of the laft fame is the case with the hers; these brocd, which have not beep hatched quarrels give them exercise, tempe- till September or later, suffer accordrance. and occupation som neceffity: ingly much more in mvulting than it is chii dy on this account that they thoie which were katched in the spring. are fel.om or ntver fickly in a chum Cold weather is very unfriendly to ber during the breeding line ; it is this state, and they wouli all die were only after hatching that informities and tiey not kept in a timperate, or rather diseases attack hem. The greater wara p'ace.
While this function is part have the pimple we mentioned at going on, that is, fur fix weeks or two bove, and afterwards all of them are months, nature labours to p:oduce new subject to moulting. Some support feathers; and the organic nolecules pretty well this change of state, and which had been previously employed do not fail to sing a short while every in forming the sen inal fluid, are now day; but most of them lose their voice, engaged in this new production ; acand some of them even die, When cordingly, when muulting, bırds neithe bens have attained the age of lix ther breed nor pair ; for the superflux or seven years, many of them die in cf life is wanting, which every being moulting; the cocks support this fpe- mult have before it can convey it to 0cies of disease more easily, and exist thers. three or four years lunger. However, The most fatal and most common as moulting is a natural effe&t rather disease that the young Canary Birds than an accidental disease, these birds especially are subject to, is that called would have no need of remedies, or the surfeit, in which their bowels seem would find such for themselves had to descend to the extremity of the bou they been reared by their parents in a dy. The intestines are seen through ftate of nature and libe rty. But being the fin, in a state of indian mation, under restraint, fed by us and made redness, and difter fion ; the feathers Aiore delicate, moulting, which to on the part fall off ; the birds grow birds at freedom is only an indispofi- emaciated, give over eating, tho they rion, a less perfect state of health, be- fit perpetually beside their meat, and comes to those in captivity a serious die in a few days. The cause of this and often fatal malady, for which in- disease is the too great quantity, or too deed there are but few remedies* It fucculent quality of the food. All remains only to say that moulting is medicines are fruitless; diet alone can the less dangerous, if it happens early, fave a few out of the number of birds thit is, in a good season of the year. thus affected. They must be put
inYoung Canary.Birds moult early in to separate cages, and nothing given the year, about fix weeks after they to them but water and lęguce feed : are hatched : they become melancho- this food is cooling and purgative, it ly, appear rough, and put their head tempers the ardour which copfumes - under the wing. Their down fails in them, and sometimes cauteş evacua
* At moulting time put a bit of fteel, not iron, into their water, changing it three times a week: give them no other medicine, only put a little more hemp-Iced than usual among their meat during this critical period. Note of Fatber Bougot. Observe that steel is preferable to iron, only that you may be sure there is no ruft, which would do more karm than good.
tions that fave their lives. In fine, prisoners, subje&t to the evils of capti
observe, that this disease pro-vity. Of all those we have mention. ceeds solely from our method of rear- ed, none seem to be natural except ing these birds, for it is seldom that moulting. There are even some of those fed by the parent birds are ever those birds which, in this wretched attacked with it. We ought therefore stare. of captivity, are never fack, cvto be particularly cautious of over. stom feeming to have made it to them feeding them when we bring them up a second nature. In general, the with the stick: boiled rape seed, a fault of their temperament is excess of little groundsel without sugar or bif- heat, and therefore they constantly cuit, and in general rather too little need water. When wild, they are than too much food, is the most approv. found near rivulets or moift places ; ed method.
ba:hing is necessary for them at all fea. When the Canary-bird utters a faint fons; for if a plateful of snow is put and frequent cry, which seems to iffue into their cage, they will lie down in from the bottom of his stomach, he is it and turn themselves upon it with said to be afthmatic: he is also subject figns of pleasure, even in time of the to a sort of extinction of voice, espe- greatest cold: this fact proves suffis cially after moulting: the afthma is ciently, that it is more noxious than cured by administering plantain seed useful to keep them in very warm and hard biscuit soaked in white wine: places. and the extinction of voice by good But there is another disease to food, such as yolks of eggs mixed with which the Canary-bird, as well as othe crumb of bread; and for drink, thers, such as the Gold-Finch, arę a ptifan of liquorice; that is, water in subject to, especially in confinement ; which liquorice root has been steeped I mean the Epilepsy. The yellow and boiled.
Canary-Birds are most liable to this Canary-Birds are frequently affected falling-sickness, which seizes them in with ulcers in the mouth ; these pro- a moment, even when they are singing ceed likewise from too abundant or the loudelt. It is said they ought not too succulent food, which often pro- to be touched or taken up when they duces inflammation in the throat and fall, but that we ought merely to obpalate, and must be cured by cooling serve if they have voided a drop of diet, such as lettuce-feed with 'water, blood at the bill, in which case they in which some bruised melon-feeds will come to themselves and recover have been påt.
in a little space their fense and life ; These birds are likewise infested that touching them before would make with a sort of lice and the scab, owing the drop fall too soon, and would oc. to the flovenly manner in which they casion their death. I wish the truth are kept. Therefore care fhould be of this account were well ascertained, taken to keep them always very clean, for some facts in it appear to me doubtgiving them water to bathe in; never ful. This much is certain, that when putting them into cages of old wood, they survive the first fit, they often live never covering these but with new as long after it as if they had never cloth where there have been no moths, been attacked by it. I believe, howeand fifting and washing the feeds and ver, that they might all be cured by herbs given them for food. Thefe giving them a slight wound in the feet, little cares must be bestowed on them for in this way Parrots are often cuied if we would have them neat and of the epilepsy. bea!tby; they would be so if they How
evils attend upon flavewere in a state of liberty; but confin. ry! In a state of freedom would thefe ed and ill seen to, they are, like all birds be afthmatic, scabby, or epilep
tic? Would they be liable to inflam, and neither hear nor see the male ; but
“ ticular passages in the song of that
Anecdote of Mons. Dangeau, the French Grammarian.
ludicrous situations, and to a