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repay, he is obliged to have recourse to three branches; the class of huse
to new loans, and at last has no other bandmen, whom we may denominate í resource but to abandon a part, or e- cultivators ; the class of artificers and řen the whole of his property to his others, who work for hire upon
the creditor, who receives it as an equiva- productions of the earth; and the class lent; or to align it to another, in ex- of proprietors, the only one which, change for other valuables with which not being confined by a want of fupa.. he discharges his obligation to his port to a particular species of labour, creditor.
may be employed in the general ferC. 13. Consequences of this inequali- vice of society, as for war, and the ad. ty: The cultivator distinguished from ministration of justice, either by a perthe proprietor:
fonal service, or by the payment of a Thus is the property in the foil part of their revenue, with which the made subject to purchase and sale. ftate may hire ophers to fill these em. The portion of the dissipating or un- ployments. The appellation which furtunate increases the share of the suits the best with this division, for more happy or wiser proprietor ; and this reason, is that of the disposable in this infinite variety of poffeflions, class. it is not possible but a great number $. 16. Referblance between the two of proprietors must pofless more than laborious, or not disposable claffes. they can cultivate. Besides, it is very :
The two classes of cultivators and natural for a rich man to wish for a arrificers, resemble each other in many tranquil enjoyment of his property, and respects, and particularly that those instead of employing his whole time who compose them do not poffefs any in toilfome labour, he rather prefers revenue, and both equally fubfiit on giving a part of his superfuity to peo- the wages which are paid them on the ple to work for him.
productions of the earth. Both have ill 14. Division of the produce bei also this circumstance in common, thae tiween the cultivator aud the proprietor, they only gain the price of their laNet produce, or revenue.
bour and their disbursements, and that By this new arrangement, the pro- this price is nearly the same in the two duce of the land divides, into two claffes. The proprietor agreeing with parts. The one comprehends the sub- those who cultivate his ground to pay fistence and the profits of the husband them as fmall a part as possible of its man, which are the reward for bis la-, produce, in the same manner as he bour, and the condition on which he birgains with the shoemaker to purei agrees to cultivate the field of the chase his shoes as cheap as he can. In proprietor. The other which remains, a word, neither the coltivator nor the: is that independent and dispoľable artificer receive more than a bare re. part, which ihe earth produces as a compense for their labour. free gift to him who cultivates it, over 4. 17. Effential difference between and above what he has disbursed, and the two luboricus claffes. wages for his trouble ; and it is out But there is this diíference between: of this thare of the proprietor's, or the two species of labour'; that the: what is called the revenue, that he is work of the cultivator produces not enabled to live without labour, and only his own wages, but also that rewhich he can carry where he will. venue which serves to pay all the dif
$. 15. A new division of society into ferent classes of artificers, and other three classes, Cultivators, Artificers, stipendiaries their falaries ; that is to and proprietors, or the produttive flic say, their parts of the productions of pendiary and disposable classes. the earth, in exchange for their la
We now behold fociety diyided in- bour, and which does not produce any.
se venue. The proprietor enjoys no. the ftipend for his labour, fill přez thiog but by the labour of the cultiva- serves that natural and physical prio,
He receives from him his fub- 'rity which renders him the first mover fiftence, and where with to pay for the of the whole machine of society, and labour of the other itipendiaries. He which causes both the subsistence and has need of the cultivator by the ne- wealth of the proprietor, and the fa.. cellity arising from the physical order Jaries paid for every other species of of things, by which neceility' the earth labeur; to depend on his industry.is not fruitful without labour ; but the The artificer, on the contrary, receives cultivator has no need of the proprie. his wagės either of the proprietor or tor but by virtue of hunian Conven- of the cultivator, and only gives thens tions, and of those civil laws which in exchange for his work, an equivahave guaranteed to the first cultivators lent for his lipend, and nothing more. and their heirs, the property in the Thus, although the cultivator and lands they had occupied, even after artificer, neither of them gain more they had ceased to cultivate them, than a recompense for their toil, yet But these laws can only secure to the the labour of the cultivator produces
that part of the production besides that recompense, a revenue to of his land which it produces beyond the proprietor, while the artificer does the retribution due to the cultivators. not produce any revenue either for The cultivator, confined as he is, to kimseif or others.
Abridged Rivieru of New Publications.
1. Cider, a Poem, in two Books. By able addition to the stores of domestic
John Philips. With notes provin. literature. We understand that Mr cial, historical, and claffical, by Dunster, who, by the specimen he Charles Dunfter. 8vo. 45. Buards. gave in translating the Frogs of AriCadell. 1791.
stophanes, led us to with that he propriety of the present ar would favour the public with an entire
tempt, which the editor in his version of his works, is the author of advertisement endeavours to eitablish, this pleasing commentary. is certainly not to be questioned. A century has Dearly.clapfed fince the 2. The American Oracle, comprehendfirst publication of Philips' Cyder. ing an account of recent Discoveries A poem of that era, particularly one of in the Arts and Sciences, with a a didactic kind, on a provincial sub variety of religious, political, physical j:ct, must require explanatory notes. and philofophical suhjects, necessary to
The notes are writren with taste be known in all families, for the proand
accuracy: and we doubt not but motion of their prefent felicity mit that the modern descendants of the future happiness. By the. Honouri Ariconian knights will be well pleaf able Samuel Stearns, L.L.D. 8vo. ed at this farther expanfion of their 85. 6d. Boards. Lackington, 1791. forefathers' renown, and the Silurian It is difficult to convey an ade. bard's poetical reputation. Their u- quite idea of this work : philofophy tility in elucidating a provincial sub- is combined with medicine, morals ject, will, we truft, not only prove with history ; religion with politics; grateful to his countrymen, but to and the whole together is a farrago, seaders in general, and make a delir. con aining cof only, quicquid agsas
homines,' but . quicquid egerunt; Our author is, at times, whimsical quicquid agi deboisfent. Why it was and fanciful ; a few errors have occacalled the American Oracle we know fionally crept in ; but, in general, his
As books are scarce in Americ morality is unexceptionable, and his ca, as distant carriage is expensive, philofophy, when he does not attempo Dr Stearns probably wished to preclude to explore untrodden tracts, correct every other author, by combining in and judicious. one volume a little of
science, Of the poetical reasoning of this fome-instruction on every subject, and philosopher take the following specia fome amusement in every situation, mens :
• The Mighty God hath all the fystems made
To the bright regions of immortal day!'
" In seventeen hundred eighty-eight, I fat
• Whilft in my studies I did thus proceed,
Unto the cause of the great northern light;
May not, said I, the vapours here and there
3. Trave's through Barbary, in a Se- taking rudeness for fimplicity; the par
ries of Letters, written from the An- ticularising and dwelling on circumcient Numidia, in the years 1785 ftances which are too mean to be no. and 1786; and containing an Ac- ticed ; and the consequent lengthencount of the Customs and Manners ing of the story till it becomes weak of the Moors and Bedouin Arabs. and uninteresting. Translated from the French of the The author is often pretty, freAbbé Poiret. 12mo. pp. 346. 2s.6d. quently beautiful, but seldom subBoards. Forster.
lime; his description delights, bur né
ver aftunilnes : he animates his reader The Abbé Poiret visited the inhof- to joy, but does not exalt him into table desers. of Barbary, chiefly for rapture : he soothes him to forrow, the purpose of improving the science of but does not depress him into despair : natural history : but, at the same time, his muse exerts herself rather to anahe made manyobservations on the coun. lyse, than to combine : The shews the rries through which he passed, and on molt brilliant fragments, but fails to the manners of the inhabitants ; the produce a finished whole. result of which is communicated to the public, in a work written in French, in two volumes octavo. From this 5. Genuine Poetical Compositions, on the translator, omitting the botanical
various Subjects. By Elizabeth
Bentley. Small 8vo. pp. 70. fewed. parts, has extracted a small volume of
Norwich, Crouse and Stevenson, entertaining narrative.
1791. 4. Poems by the Author of the Village Io a letter addressed to the Rev.
Curate, and Adriano. 8vo. pp. 254, Mr Walker, in Norwich, our female 45. fewed. Johnson.
poet gives the following account of
herfelt: The author of these poems has ! I was born at Norwich, in the shewn, by his former productions, parish of All Saints, in November, that he can write well ; nay, he has 1767, and was the only child of my given ample proofs of it in the present parents. My father's name was Daniel -performances: but he has likewise Bentley, by trade a journeyman cordproved that he can write ill.
wainer; who, having received a good We learn, from the preface, that education himself, took upon him to
poet had been advised not to pub- teach me reading and spelling, but lish the pieces before us, least they never gave me the least idea of gram. might detract from the reputation that mar. Being naturally fond of reading, he had already aequired. The ad. I used to employ my leisure hours vice was friendly. We do pot, how. with such books as were in the boule ; ever, wish that the poemas had been which were chiefly a spelling-book, suppressed ; but they certainly should fable-book, dictionary, and books of have been ameo:ted.
arithmetic; and with such litile pamThe faults which are chiefy repre. phlets as I could borrow of my neighhenfible in this volume, are;-- the mis. bours. When I was about ten year's
'of age, my father was afflicted with a
not less respectable for her modest virparalytic stroke, which took from him tues, than for her fuperior ablilities. the use of one side, and disabled him from working at his business ; but still 6. Report of the Lords of the Commitretaining the use of his right hand, tee of Council appointed
for the Conand his disorder not affecting his fideration of all Matters relative to mental faculties, he taught me the art Trade and foreign Plantations; fubof writing, from copies in the spelling mitting to his Majesty's Confiderabook. My father was now obliged tion, the Evidence and Information to go about selling garden-stuff for a they have collected in consequence of living, till (a few months before kis bis Majesty's Order in Council, datdeath) he obtained the place of book ed February 11tb, 1788, concerning keeper to the London Coach, which the present State of the Trade to Athen set out from the King's Head, frica, and particularly the Trade in in the Market-Place. His lameness Slaves, and concerning the Effects continued till his decease, which hap and Consequences of this Trade, as pened by a second stroke of the same well in Africa and the West Indies, disorder, on the 25th of January 1783, as to the general Commerce of this in the 48th year of his age; I being Kingdom. Folio, a large Volume, then about fifteen years old.
illustrated with a Map of Africa, ther died in the parish of St Stephen, Jewing the route of the Caravans, in which place my mother and I have, 21. 25. fewed. Debrett. continued ever since. About two This valuable State-publication is. years after my father's death, I dif. arranged under the following heads : covered in myself an inclination for "1. A view of the evidence that writing verses, which I had no thought the Committee has obtained of the nor desire of being seen ; but my ino- present state of those parts of Africa ther (hewing my first productions to whence Naves have been exported, fome acquaintances, they encouraged taking each country that lies upon me to proceed. Soon after I pur- the coast separately, begioning from chased a small grammar-book, second the river Senegal, and descending hand, from which I attained the art" fouthward to the east of the European of expressing myself correctly in my settlements, on the faid coaft; with native language. My mother's maiden such information as has been obtained
Lawrence; her father, of the interior countries situated bewhen living, kept a cooper's shop in hind each of the said countries on the St Stephen's parish.'
coast refpeétively." From this short narrative, it ap • 2. View of Evidence concerning pears that this poetess of nature en the manner of carrying llaves to the joyed few advantages of education, and Weft Indies, &c. had few incentives to study: but she 3. The treatment of slaves in the must certainly have read more than the West Indies, and all circumstances reenumerates, for she meations no books lating thereto, digested under certain of poetry, and some of these she doubt- .heads. less had seen.
4. The several accounts which The editor assures us that the poems have been called for in order to fhew are the genuine and fole productions the extent of the trade in all its of E. Bentley : that neither correction branches, and the number of white nor addition has been made nor sug. people and flaves in each of the islands gested but hy her; and he concludes in the West Indies, as far as the achis preface with observing, that she is counts could be procured.