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ing down branches of trees is really of the grandest spectacles of the kind admirable, but it is hardly possible to that can be conceived, in Dominica's form an idea of the manner of doing woods “ that nightly shine with init without a description. This work fe&t performs by encircling the branch The larger fort are often caught with its bills, the points of which it for the novelty of the light they give ; fattens well into the wood, and turn- if two or three of them are put into ing round it briskly by the strength of a glass, placed in a dark room, you its wings, which make a loud buzzing may fee diftin&tly any object there : noise, it in a short time faws the or by holding a book close to the glafs branch alunder. They are by ma. in which they are, you may fee plainly ny called elephant fies, from the to read the smallest pript. great resemblance of their heads to There is another quality remarkathat animal; they ase perfectly harm- ble in the fire fies, which is, that seless, and are caught only to be kept as veral of them being killed and mashed curiosities.

together will produce the same effect, The 'blacksmith fly, is so called and be as visible in letters marked out from its making a noise resembling in on the walls of a dark room, as if sound the striking on iron. In the done with artificial phosphorus ; and centre of its back is a projecting hor. this for a considerable time after the ny point, and a crevice of the same flies are dead. nature on the hind part of the head, The loggerhead Ay is a species of near the shoulders, which being struck the moth, from which it differs only together by a jerk of the head and bo- in the uncommon largeness of its head, dy, make a țingling noise, that may be and a fingular quality of transparency heard at à conliderable distance; and in its body; which latter is very fo elastic is the membrane which joins remarkable, for placing this fly near #o the bead and body together, that, if the light of a candle, you may plainly the infe&t is laid on its back, it will distinguish every part of its vitals, and spring ro a tolerable height upwards, distinctly count every movement of and fall direAly on its legs. It differs them. : very little from the beetle in shape or The Spaniard fly and free-mason fize, excepting in its elastic powers, fly are both of the walp kind, but they and making fo fingular a noife. differ from each other in size, shape,

The fire fiy is a wonderful infect, and also in the substance and curious for it has a luminous quality ip its manner of making their nests. · The head (above the eyes) under each firit is of the Shape of a small bee, and wing, and in its tail; which, when builds its neft, of a waxy matter, in the infect is flying, has the appear- the form of a small flat button full of ance of so many lights of candles holes, which it suspends by a biky moving in the air: or the lights of a ligament to the cielings of houses, or coach or post-chaife, in a dark night, to the boughs of trees, where it has travelling towards you at a britk the benefit of the wind to., vibrate to

and fro. Some of these flies are as big as the The free-mason fiy is exactly of the top-joint of a man's thumb, others fhape, fize, and colour of a wafi,

much smaller; and the latter and builds iis neft of mud, in the have that luminous quality only in thape of orange barrels. It is curious. their tails. They have a charming to see thote little creatures at work, effect on the eye at night in the grores they hew so much art and induftry, of the woods, where they are seen fome of them fetching the mud in Bying in all directions, like so many 'their mouths, while others are form. theuland sparkles of fire; formirg ons ing their sma!! cones, or filling theia




up when finished with numbers of va- lar infect. Its head is like that of rious coloured small spiders, which a grasshopper, it has two horns, conthey also bring in their mouths for fiderably longer than its own body, food to their young when hatched. which is aliout three inches, and of That which is further remarkable of one continued thickness, like a large these flies is, that it appears they qua. caterpillar. It has fix legs, which lify the spiders, by some means, for are raised and doubled above its body, remaining a long tine in as perfect a like the springing legs of a grasshopper, ftate as the first day they were inimur- but they have not the same puwer, ed in their cells; I have seen spiders, serving it only to walk with, which it fo immured for several weeks, as does


fast. It has no wings, is whole and perfect in size, shape, and of a deep green colour, and is perfectcolour, as when alive.

ly harmless. There is another species of these The vegetable fly is a remarkable fies, called galley wasps, which is infect. It is of the appearance and double the size, and of a bright light- size of a small cockchafer, and buries blue colour. These have very long itself in the ground, where it dies, stings, which are plainly to be seen and from its body springs up a small when they are flying, with which they plant, which resembles a coffee tree wound very feverely, causing the blood plant, only its leaves are much sinalto spout out, as from the prick of a ler. The plant which springs from Jancet.

this infect is often overlooked, from The sting of these flies is very the supposition people have of its bepainful, and perfons have been thrown ing no other than a coffee, plant; but into fevers by being ftung severely by on examining it properly, the diffethem; but they are seldom offensive, rence is easily dillinguished, from the unless disturbed.

head, body, and feet of the infect apThe wood horse, called by the pearing at the root, as perfectly as negroes the fairy-horse, is a very singu. when alive.

Character of the Cardinal de Bernis; hy M. Duclos, Historiographer of France.

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HE Come de Bernis is a man nis was courted by all companies ;

of quality of the old race. He there he lived fashionably; but his air was destined to the church from his of dissipation displeafed old Cardiinfancy, and was first Canon and '

nal de Fleury, the friend of his faCount of Brioude.

ther, and who had promised to take After having, passed fonie of his ju- care of the fortune of the fon. · He vehile years at St Sulpice, with as sent for him, and told him frankly that little fortune as most of the younger he had nothing to expect while he (the fcns of 'pible families who aspire at Cardinal) lived. The young Abbé and who artain the mitre, he entered making a low how, replied, “ky Lord, into the chapter of Lyons, whither I will wait,” and retired. The old he went only to undergo the ceremo. minister smiled at the answer, and ny of admiffion, and immediately re even related it to many people, but turned to Paris.

continued inflexible, not deeming a Respectable by birth, with an ami- pleasantry a fufficient title to a beniable figure, an open countenance, a fice. deal of wit and chearfulness, a sound As to the Albé de Bernis, he conjudgment and Itcady character, Ber- tinued to live as he used to do, with


it was

out having any thing to reproach him- Both church and state at this day feel self with when he considered his fel- the effects of his weakness. low candidates, except being a little Louis XV. deigned to recommend more gay and having less hypocrisy. to him the Abbé de Bernis. Boyer, His answer to the Cardinal de Fleury who could not disobey a recommenwas smart, but to make it true, dation which he knew had the effet necessary that he should not deceive of an order, found means to elude it. himself by waiting. After the Car- He proposed to the Abbé de Bernis dinal de Fleury was dead, the fortune to take orders, and promised soon to of the Abbé de Bernis was not ad. nominate him to a bishoprick. The vancing. He gave himself no trouble Abbé replied, ihat not feeling in him. about it, trusting that among the great,' self the dispositions necessary for such numbers of whom were his relations, a function, he would content himself and many who courted him, there with an abbey. Boyer refused this, would be some one who would serve and gave the king to underitand that him with effect: but it seemed to be the property of the church, could only nobody's business. Every one con- be bestowed on those who did actual tented himself with saying, that cer- duty; but he praised very much the tainly no man of quality ever support- fincerity of the Abbé who was no hyed the poverty of his condition with pocrite. It would seem that Boyer more dignity than Bernis, for he show. had never met with any but men of ed no fymptoms of chagrin, and be fuch a character, since he was so much haved even with gaiety; as if fortune surprised at the conduct of Bernis. were a thing not worth his care. The king being able to obtain nothing,

Chance having connected him with gave the Abbé a pension of fifteen Madame de Pompadour, the conceived hundred livres. This fum 'not being for him the highest honour and etteem. fufficient for his necessary expences, he The first use he made of such power- endeavoured to procure some small ful influence was in favour of others. benefices; and I am certain if he had He was of the French Academy, and been able to extend his fortune to the the title of Academician was the on- sum of fix thousand livres, he would ly thing 'which; without actually gi. have been content. But meeting with ving him place or precedence, ferved continual obitacles, of which I was him instead of both. He was of use often the witness, he resolved to make to such of his fellow academicians as a large fortune because he could not he had it in his power to oblige; gi- attain a small one, and in this he was ving places to come and drawing successful. Few fortunes indeed have others from indigence. His friends been made so rapidly. He was named were obliged to hint to him the necessi- ' ambassador to Venice where he became ty of atrending at last to himself. A loved and respected. Soon after he proof of the moderation of his desires was made counsellor of State in was the bounds he fet to his ambition. his absence. The Marquis de PuiBoyer, the old Bishop of Mirepoix, lieux (Brular,) then minister of foreign had at that time the disposal of ail be- affairs did not oppose him; he did nefices, and never was nian more ma not hare men of noble families, for he fter in his department than that scare- was of one himself. St Contest ( (Barbe, crow of a minister; a man without rie) having succeeded the marquis, was birth, of zeal without knowledge, and not so favourable to Bernis from another drawn from the cloister to be deco- `reason, and especially from that se. rated with the mitre, by the interest cre: hate which fools bear to men of of a few old devotecs of the Court. genius. St Contest died before the


return of the Abbé, and it was well for hope of being a grandec in the one, public affairs and for private society and of obtaining a Cardinal's hat in that he did so. His father was a man the other, inspires the ambassadors of merit, and that was all that could with more complaisance than is neces. be faid in favour of the son.

sary in these two stares. A negociaThe Abbé de Bernis at his return tion in the heart of the kingdom profrom Venice attained the highest cre

cured the hat for Bernis sooner than dit in all affairs.

the embaffy to Poland would have Aming the employments that'were done. The contests between the pardestined for him, the embassy to Po- liament and the court had never been land was one; but the king, advised more violent than they were when the by some minister, or out of his own Abbé de Bernis entered the council on head, would not consent to it, from an the 2d of January 1757 ; contests idea :hat that embassy would procure a which began in the regency of the Cardinal's har to the Abbé sooner Duke of Orleans, and which contithan his. mjesty intended. The nued long to harass the government of embassies Spain and Poland France. Clement XII. (Rezzonico) are considered as of much great- raisyd him to the dignity of Cardi. er importaoce than the other. The nal.


Singular Cuftoms of the Inhabitants of the Island of Metelin, the ancient Lef

bos ;-by the Earl of Charleront*.


If a

HE women here seem to have signifies properly a religious woman or

arrogated to themselves the de- pun, and is in effect menial servant to partment and privileges of the men. her fifter, being employed by ber in Contrary to the usage of all other any office she may think fit to impose, countries, the eldest daughter here in frequently serving her as waiting maid, herits, and the fons, like daughters as cook, and often in employmenrs still every where else, are portioned off more degrading, She wears a habic with finall dowers, or, which is still peculiar to her situation which she can worse, turned out, pennyless, to seek never change, a sort of monastic dress, their fortune.

man has two coarse, and of dark brown. One ad, daughters, the eldest, at her marriage, vantage, however, she enjoys over her is entitled to all her mother's pusfef- filter, that whereas the elder, before fions, which are by far the greater marriage, is never allowed to go apart of the family estate, as the mo- broad, or to see any man, her neareft ther, keeping up her prerogative, nee relations only excepted, the Calogria, ver parts with the power over any por- except when employed in domestic tion of what she has brought into the toil, is in this respect at perfect liberfamily, until she is forced into it by iy. But when the fifter is married, the marriage of her daughter, and the the situation of the poor Calogria befather álfo is compelled to ruin him- comes desperate indeed, and is render, felf by adding whatever he may have ed Atill more humiliating by the comScraped together by his industry.-+ parison between her condition and Toe fecond daughter inherits nothing, that of her happy mistress. The marand is conden ned to perpetual celiba-, ried lifter enjoys every sort of liberty ey. She is thiled a Calogria, which the whole family fortune is her's,

and * From the “ Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy."


and le spends - it as she pleases her ly without any thing to support them;
husbaod is her obsequious feryant- and thus reduced, they either endeas
her father and mother are dependant vour to live by their labour, or, which
upon her--he dresses in the most is more usual, go on board some trad-
magnificent manner, covered all over, ing vesle is as failors or as servants, re-
according to the fashion of the island, maining abroad till they have got to-
with pearls and with pieces of gold, geiher fome tompetency, and then
which are commonly fequins ; thus return home to marry and to be hen-
con inually carrying about her the en- pecked. Some few there are who,
viable marks of affluence and superio. taking advantage of the Turkish law,
Ti y, while the wretched Calogria fol. break through this whimsical custong
lows her as a servant, arrayed in lim- who marry their Calogrias, and retain
ple homespun brown, and without the to themselves a competent provifion ;
moft diftant hope of ever changing but these are accounied men of a fin-
ber condition. Such a disparity may gular and even criminal disposition,
seem intolerable, but what will not and are hared and despised as
custom reconcile ? Neither are the furmists to the Turkish manners, and
misfortunes of the family yet at an deferters of their native customs ; fa
end—the father and mother, with that we may suppose they are few in-
what litile is left them, cooirive by deed who have the boldness to de.
their industry to accumulate a second part from the manners of their coun-
lit!le fortune, and this, if they should try; to adopt the customs of their de.
have a third daughter, they are ob. telted masters, and io brave the con-
liged to give to her upon her mar- tempt, the deriliun, and the hatred of
riage, and the fourth, if there should their fellow-citizens.
be one, becomes her Calogria ; and Of all these extraordinary particu-
to on through all the daughiers alter- lars I was informed by the French
ratėly. Whenever the daughter is consul, a man of sense and indisputable
inarriageable she can by custom com veracity, who had refided in this
pel the fathier to procure her a huif island for several years, and who fo-
ba;d, and the mother, fuch is the lemnly affured me that every circum-
power of habit, is foolish enough to stance was true ; but indeed our own
join io reazing him into an immedi- obfervation left us without the least
ate compliance, tho' its consequence room for doubt, and the fingular ap-
must be equally fatal and ruinous tó pëərance and deportment of the ladies
both of them. From hence it hap- fully evinced the truth of our friend's
pens that nothing is niore common relation. In walking thro' the town
than to see the old father and mother it is easy to perceive, from the whim.
reduced to the utmoft indigence, and fical manners of the female passengers,
etea begging about the streets, while that the women, according to the vul-
their unnatural daughters are in af- gar phrase, wear the breeches. They
fluence; and we ourselves have fre- frequently stopped us in the streets;
quently been shewn the eldest daugh- examined our dress, interrogated us
ter paràding it through the town in with a bold and manly air, laughed at
the greatest splendour, while her mo- our foreign garb and appearance, and
ther and fifter followed her as fer- fhéwed so little attention to that de-
vants, and made a melancholy part of cent modesty, which isg or ought to
her atrendant train.

be, the true characteristic of the fex, · The fons, ag foon as they are of an that there is every reason to suppose age to gain a livelihood, are turned out they would, in spite of their haughti. of the family, sometimes with a finall nefs, be the kindeft ladies upon earth, present or portion, but more frequent if they were not watched by the Turki, 3 Q VOL. XIV. No. 84.


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