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and the clutter of islands contiguous the Persian empire, and who continuto it, that of the Maldives. From, ed subject to his jurisdiction. India him too we learn, that the island of appears to have been more thoroughly Taprobare, which he supposes to lie explored at this period, than it was in at an equal dillance from the Persian the age of Ptolimy, and a greater Gulf on the west, and the country of number of ftrangers seem to have been the Sinä on the east, had become, in settled there. It is remarkal le, how. consequence of this commodious litua- ever, that, according to the account of tion, a great itapte of trade ; that into Cosmas, none of these strangers were it were imported the filk of the Sinę, accutomed to visit the eastera regions and the precious fpecies of the Eaft- of Alia, but rested fatisfied with reern countries, which were 'conveyed ceiving their fils, their spices, and 0,thence to all parts of India, to Perlia, her valuable productions, as they were and to the Arabian Gulf. To this imported into Ceylon, and conveyed illand he gives the name of Sielediba, thence to the various maris of India. the same with that of Selendib, or Ses The frequency of open hoftilities be- rendib, by which it is fill known all tween the emperors of Conftantinople over the East.

and the monarchs of Persia, together To Cosmas we are also indebted with the increasing rivalihip of their for the first information of a new rival subjects in the trade with India, gave to the Romans in trade having ap- rise to an event which produced a conpeared in the Indian seas. The Per- liderable change in the nature of that Gans, after having overturned the em commerce. As the use of lilk, both pite of the Parthians, and re-establish. in dress and furpiiure, became graed the line of their ancient monarchs, dualıy. more general in the court cf • seem to have furmounced entirely the the Greek emperors, who imitated and

ave. løn of their ancestors to maritime , surpafied the fuvereigns of Asia in exertion, and made early and vigorous fplendour and magnificence; and as efforts in order to acquire a share in China, in which, according to the conthe luctative commerce-with India. curring teslimony of Oriental writers, All its considerable ports were fre- the culture of filk was originally quented by traders from Perfia, who, known, till continued to be the only in return for fume productions of their country which produced that valuable own country in request among the lo- commodity; the Perfiacs, improving dians, received the precious commodi- the advantages which their situation ties which they conveyed up the Perfian gave them over the merchants from Gulf, and by means of the great ri. the Arabian Gulf, supplanted them in vers, Euphrates and Tigris, distributo all the marts of India to which fill ed them through every province of was brought by sea from the eart.--their empire. As the voyage from Having it likewise in their power to Perfia to India was much shorter than molest or to cut off the caravans, that from Egypt, and attended with which, in order to procure a supply less expence and danger, the inter- for the Greek empire,, travelled by course between the two countries in- land to China, through the northern Creased rapid!y. A circumstance is provinces of the kingdoni, they entirementioned by Cosmas which is a strik- ly engrossed ihat branch of commerce. ing proof of this. In moit of the ci- Constantinople was obliged to depend ties of any note in India he found on a rival power for an article, which Christian churches established, in luxury viewed and desired as cflential which the functions of religion were to clegance. The Persians, with the performed by prielis ordained by the usual rapacity of monopolists, raised archbishop of Seleucia, the capital of the price of silk to such an exorbitant


height, that Justinian, eager not only turing it, myfteries hitherto unknown to obtain a full and certain supply of a or very imperfectly underitood in Eucommodity which was become of in- rope ; and encouraged by his liberal difpenGble use, but solicitous to deliver promises, they undertook to bring to the commerce of bis subjects from the the capital a fufficient number of those exactions of his enemies, endeavour- wonderful insects, to whose labours ed, by means of his ally, the Chrillian man is so much indebied. This they monarch of Abyssinia, to wreit fome accomplished by conveying the eggs of portion of the liik trade from the Per. the filk-worm in a hollow cane. They fians. la this attempt he failed; but were hatched by the heat of a dungwhen he least expected it, he, by an hill, fed with the leaves of a wild mulunforeseen event, attained, in lume berry tree, and they multiplied and measure, the object which he had in worked in the same manner as in those view. Two Pernian monks having climates where they first became ob. been employed as missionaries in some jects of human attention and care. of the Christian churches, which were Valt punibers of these infects were established (as we are informed by foon reared in different parts of Greece, Cosmas) in different parts of India, particularly in the Peloponesus. Sihad penetrated into the country of the cily afterwards yndertook to breed Gilk. Seres, or China, There they observ würms, with equal success, and was ;ed the Jabours of the filk-worm, and mitated, from time to time, in several became acquainted with all the arts of towns of Italy. In all these places man in working up its productions in- extensive manufactures were establithto such a variety of elegant fabrics.-- ed, and carried on, with filk of doThe prospect of gain, or perhaps an in meitic produétion. The demand for dignant zeil, excited by seeing this filk froin the cast diminished of courie, lucrative branch of commerce engros- the subje&ts of the Greck emperors fed by unbelieving nations, prompted were no longer obliged to have recourse them to repair to Constantinople. to the Persians for a fapply of it, and There they explained to the emperor a considerable change took place in the the origin of lilk, as well as the vari nature of the commercial intercourse ous modes of preparing and manufac- between Europe and India.

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Account of the present State of the Fur Trade of Hudson's Bay 5.

Wenty years ago the Governor and these are procured at an expence,

of York Fort, which was the which a few years back would have Company's principal establishment in been looked upon as next to an annithe Bay, annually fent home at least bilation of their commercial existence, thirty thousand skins, aud maintained It is an incontrovertible fact, that no niore than twenty-five men, at very since the French hare evacuated Canalow wages; at present that place has da, the fur trade from the inland parts upwards of one hundred men at it, ' of Hudson's Bay has been carried on who have increased filaries, and it to a greater extent than ever it was feods hòme' no more than twenty thou- before ; for the Company, who till fand skins, upon an average, from it. then contined thenitelres to the sea-felf and four subordinate feitlements; thore, knew nothing of the numerous

nations 9 From '“ Umfreville's present State of Hudson's Bay."

trations inland; and these again knew a fale elsewhere, this extension of the As little of them: that the Company, trade will appear an object not very not withstandingthey had obliged then: inconsiderable. felves by their charter to explore the By the prosecution of this commerce whole of their territories, confined from Canada, the Hudson's Bay Comthemselves within a small circle. They pany found themselves effe&tually fupconsequently did not exert their in: planted on the fea-fhore, the natives fluence to procure peltries, or to aug- being fupplied island with every conment the consumption of British ma- veniency for war and domeftic uses. nufactures, by any other methods than This induced the Company in the through the channel of a very few In year 1773, to begin their inland voy= ', dians, comparatively fpeaking. These ages, fo that the Canadians from CaIndians however, brought down enough nada and the Europeans from Hutto enrich a few individuals, whose in. Ton's Bay met together, not at ali to tereft it was to pr vent too great an in- the ulterior advantage of the natives, flux of furs. which would not only who by this means became degeneratlower the price at market, but probao ed and debauched, through the excelbly open the eyes of an injured com- five ofe of fpirituous liquors imported mercial people. In the days I am al- by these rivals in commerce. lading t), the port of York Fore was It however must be owned, that the surrounded with nations of Indians ens Hudson's Bay traders bave ingratiared tirely unknown to the traders of the themselves more into the esteem and Company; and they would have re- confidence of the natives than the Ca mained in the same ftare of ignorancé nadians. The advantage of trade is to this day, had they not been awaken- evidently on their fide; their men, ed from their reveries by the unlut- whose honesty is incorruptible, being mountable perseverence of a few Ca. more to be depended upon. In

pros nadian merchants, who found them portion to the goods imported, the out; through obstacles and impedi' Company export a greater quantity of ments artended with more danger and fürs, and these in better prefervation, perfonat hazard than a voyage to Jan and confequently tore valuable. Their pan.

unfeasonable parfimody has hitherto Since that time their affairs have been proved very favourable to their undergone a material change in thefe Canadian opponents ; as the accumu. parts. The Canada merchants annu- lated expences attending so distant an ally send into the interior country, for undertaking would overbalance the the Indian trade, about forty large ca- profits of the latter, if the exertions of noes of about four tous burthen each, the Company were adequate to the vaa considerable part of which goods art lue of the prize contended for, cor' veyed to those Indians who used The Hudson's Bay fetsants being to send their furs down to Hudson's thus more in possession of the citeem Bay by the Indian carriers, which did of the natives, they will always have not amount to half the quantity at pre- the preference of trade as long as this fear procured. So that by this inter- conduct continues.

Another great ference of the Canada traders, it is e. advantage in their favour is, that the vident that many more peleries are principal articles of their trading goods procured and inported into Englands are of a superior quality to those im. and a greater quantity of its manufac- ported from Canada. I would not by tures consumed than heretofore ; and this infinuation infer, that the goods when it is further considered, that sent inland from Canada are not good these goods are of a very inferior qua- enough for the Indian trade ; no,

I li y, which perhaps would hardly find well know that the worst article imVOL. XIV. No. 79


sorted is good enough ; but while they tenor of their behaviour is conducted have to contend with people who fend with so much propriety, as not only to goods of a superior kind, they evident- make themselves esteemed by the naly lie under a disadvantage, and it is tives, and to procure their protection ; my opinion, that it would be for the but they also employ their time in enintereft of the Canada merchants to deavouring to enrich themselves and fupply goods of an equal if not fuperi- their principals, by their diligence and or quality to their adversaries, at every unwearied affiduity. By this prudenz polt where they have these formidable demeanor among the Indians, notwithrirals to oppole them.

ftanding they have annually exposed The great imprudence, and bad way themselves to all the dangers incident of living of the Canadian traders have to the trade, for fiiteen years past, hey been an invincible bar to the emolu- have not futtained the loss of a man; ment of their employers. Many of and the principal advantage of the these people, who have been the great- Company over the Canadian traders, est part of their lives on this inland is more to be attributed to the laudservice among favages, being devoid of able efforts of their servants, than even every facial and benevolent tie, are be- to the superior quality of their goods, come slaves to every vice which can while the Canadian servants are so corrupt and debase the humao mind ; far from being actuated by the same such as quarrelling, drunkennels, des principles, that very few of them can ception, &c. From a confirmed habit be trusted with a small affortment of in bad courses of this nature, they are goods, to be laid out for their masters held in abhorreace and disgust, even profit

, but it is ten to one that he is by the Indians, who finding themselves defrauded of the whole by commerce frequently deceived by specious pro. with Indian women, or some other mises, never intended to be performed, fpecies of peculation. By this and imagine the whole fraternity to be im- various other means, which lower them pregnated with the same failing, and in the eyes of the natives, as before accordingly hold the generaliıy of the observed, they are become obnoxious Canadian tinders in detestation and to the Indians, their faith is not to be contempfrog bai

relied on, nor their honesty coofided Os the contrary, the fervants of the in; so that scarce a year elapses, Hudson's Bay Company, imported without one or more of them falling principally from the Orkney Ines, are vi&tims to their own imprudence, at a a close, prudent, quiet people, Atriatly time when fatal experience should 'faithful to their employers, and sordid. teach them, that a conduct guided by ly avaricious. When these people are caution and discretion ought to be the scattered about the country in fmall invasiable and uniform rule of their parties among the Indians, the general behaviour.

On the impossibility of rendering the French Conftitution similar to the British.

TOTHING has been afferted Burke than the facility with which the 1 * with more confidence by Mr fragments of the long subverted liber


* From Macintosh's I'indicia Gallicia.

ty of France might have been formed gy with an immense mass of property: into a British Constitution. But of rendered ftill more formidable by the this general position he has neither ex- concentration of great portions in the plained the mode, nor defined the li- hands of a few, to constitute it in efmitations. Nothing is more favoura- fect the fame body with the nobility, ble to the popularity of a work than by granting them the monopoly of these lofty generalities which are light great benefices, and to bestow on this enough to pass into vulgar currency, clerico-military aristocracy, in its two and to become the maxims of a po- shapes of prielthood and nobility, two palar creed. Touched by definition, separate and independent voices in they become too simple and precise Legislation. This double body, from for eloquence, too cold and abstract its necessity dependance on the king, for popudarity. But exhibited as they must neceffarily have in both forms beare by Mr Burke, they gratify the come the organ of his voice. The pride and indolence of the people, monarch would thus poffefs three newho are thus taught to speak what gatives, one avowed and disused, two gaios applause without any effort of latent and in perpetual activity on intellect, and imposes filence without the fingle voice which impotent and any labour of confutation ; what may illusive formality had yielded on the be acquired without being studied, the third estate. Such and much more and uttered without being understood. must the parliament of England become Of this nature are thefe vague and before it could in any respect refeinble confident assertions, which, without the division of the French Legiffatute furoishiag any definite idea, afford a according to those ancient-orders ready jargon for vulgar prejudice, flat- which formed the Gothic affemblies of tering to national vanity, and fanétioned Europe. So monstrous did the arby a distinguished game. It is necef- rangement appear, that even under the fáry to enquire with more precifion in reign of Delporism, the second plan what maoner France could have afli- was proposed by M. Calonne-that milated the remains of her ancient the clergy and nobility would form 28 Conftitution to that of the English Le. Upper House to exercise conjointly gillatureThree modes only seem with the king and the commons the conceivable. The preservation of the legislative authority, It admits hoivethree orders diftin&t. The union of ver of the clearek proof that such a the clergy and nobilicy in one upper conftitution would have been diametri. chamber, or fome mode of selecting cally oppofte in its fpirit and princi. from these two Orders a body like the ples to the Englisi government. House of Lords in England. Unless This will at once be evident frona tiie infinuations of Mr Burke point the different description of the body of to one or other of those schemes, I nobles in France and England. In cannot divide their meaning. The first England they are a finall body, united mode (the three orders fitting in sepa- to the mass of the people by innume. rate houses with equal privileges) rable points of contact, receiving from would neither have been congeniad io it perpetual new infusions, and returnfpirit nor similar inform to the con- ing to it, undiftinguished and unpri . titution of England. To convert the vileged, the majority of their child. convocation into an integrant and co-or In France they formed an im. dinant member of our legislature, would 'menfe insulated caft, separated from give it some semblance of this ftruc- society by every barrier that prejudice ture. But it would be a faint one. or policy could raise, receiving few It would be necellary to arm our cler. plebeiaa 'accessions, and precluded, F2



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