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facceed, the question of prudence is which are attained by the want of pubat an end; every body will think that lic virtue in men born without it, or done right which ends happily; and by the prostitution of public virtue in though your expectations, of which I men born with it. Though power, would not advise you to talk too much, and wealth, and magnificence, may at hould not be totally answered, you firit dazzle, and are, I think, most decan hardly fail to get friends who will sirable ; no vise man will, upon sober do for you all that your present situa rellection, envy a situation which he tion allows you to hope : and if after feels he could not enjoy. My friend a few years you should return to (my Mecenas Atavis edite regibus) Scotland,

you will return with a miod Lord Mountstuart flattered me once supplied by various conversations, and very highly without intending it.many opportunities of enquiry, with “ I would do any thing for you (said much knowledge and materials for he) but bring you into Parliament; reflection and initruction."

for I could not be sure but you might Mr Bofwell had not been long at oppose me in something the very next the English bar when he was elected day.”-His Lordship judged well. Recorder of the ancient city of Car- Though I should consider, with much life, and soon after his learned and attention, the opinion of such a friend respectable countryman Dr John Dou- before taking my resolution ;--most glas was appointed Bishop of the Dio. certainly I thould oppose him in any cese. These two promotions gave measure which I was fatisfied ought occasion to the following epigram ; to be opposed. I cannot exist with

pleasure, if I have not an honest inde“ Of old, ere wise Concord united this Ide, pendence of mind and of conduct'; “ Our neighbours of Scotland were foes at for though no man loves good eating " Carlisle ;

and drinking, fimply considered, « But now what a change have we here on better than I do I prefer the broiled “ the border,

blade-bone of mutton and humble “ When Douglas is Bishop, and Boswell port of “ downright Shippen" to all « Recorder."

the luxury of all the itatesmen who play

the political game all thorough." Finding this Recordership, at fo He offered himself as a candidate, great a distance from London, attend at the last General Election, to repreed with many inconveniencies, Mr tent Ayrshire, his own country, of Boswell, after holding it for about which his is one of the oldest famitwo years, resigned it.

lies, and where he has a very extensive It was generally supposed that Mr and a very fine place, of part of which Boswell would have had a seat in Par: there is a view and description in liament; and indeed his not being Grose's “ Antiquities of Scotland.”. amongst the Representatives of the But the power of the Minister for Commons, is one of those ftrange Scotland was exerted for another perthings which occasionally happen in fon, and some of those whose fupport the complex operations of our mixed he might reasonably have expected Government. That he has not been could not withstand its influence; he brought into Parliament (as the phrase therefore declined giving his friends is) by some of our great men, is not the trouble of appearing for him; but 10 be wondered at, when we peruse has declared his resolution to persehis public declaration in his “ Letter yere on the next vacancy. to the People of Scotland” in 1785. Upon all occasions he has avowed “ Though ambitious, I am uncorrupt himself to be a fteady Royalist; nay, ; and I envy not high fituations has had the courage to assume the


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title of Tory, protesting, that since his which never can be entirely healed.
present molt gracious Majesty's gene. I may have many gratifications, but
rous'plan of annihilating the distinc. I fear the comfort of life is over.
tion of political parties has been frus He however did not resign himself
trated, and there are some who keep to unavailing grief, but endeavoured to

the cant appellation of Whigs, the dissipate his melancholy by occupation true friends to the Constitution in and amusement in the Metropolis, in Church and State should meet them which he enjoys perhaps as extensive with the opposite name, as Tories. Mr and varied an acquaintance as any man Bofwell, however, in the pamphlet of his time. We find him at length ex. just quoted, thus liberally writes : " I tremely gay,and occasionally exercising can drink, I can laugi, I can converse, his poetical talents. At the last Lord in perfect good humour, with Whigs, Mayor's Day’s festal board he sung with Republicans, with Disfenters, with great applause a State Ballad of with Independents, with Quakers, his own composition, entitled, The with Moravians, with Jews. They Grocer of London," in praise of Me can do me no harm. My mind is Pitt's conduct in the dispute with made up. My principles are fixed. Spain, a Convention being just then But I would vote with Tories, and announced. He is generaily believed pray with a Dean and Chapter. to be the Author of a Poem of some

In 1789 Mr Boswell experienced a length, entitled, .“ No Abolition of most fevere affliction in the loss of his Slavery; or, The Universal Empire of valuable wife, who died at Auchinleck Love," which came out while the on the 4th of June that year, leaving Slave Trade Bill was depending in him five children ; two sons, Alexan. Parliament. But his attention to the der, now at E:on, and James, at West. business of Westminster-Hall has been minster School; and three daughters, chiefly interrupted by his great literary Veronica, Euphemia, and Elizabeth. work, in which he was engaged This melancholy event afected him for many years, The Life of Dr very much; for it deprived him of the Johnson," which he has at lait publishwoman he loved, and the friend he ed, in two volumes quarto, and which could trust. He had recourse to piety has been received by the world with for relief; but his expression of what extraordinary approbation.

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he felt was,

Mr Forsyth's Discovery for curinz Diseafes and Injuries in Treesa


N consequence of an address of the

ty, and of an examination made re

TAKE one bushel of fresh cowfpecting the efficacy of a composition dung ; half a bushel of lime rubbish of discovered by William Forfyth, for old buildings (that from the cielings curing injuries and defects in trees, of rooms is preferable ;) half a bushel his Majesty has been pleased to grant a of wood-ashes; and a lixteenth part of reward to Mr Forsyth, for disclosing


bufhel of pit or river fand. The three the method of making and using that last articles are to be fifted fine before Composition; and the following di- they are mixed, then work them welt rections for that purpose are published together with a spade, and afterwards accordingly.

with a wooden beater, until the stuff is



Pery smooth, like fine plaister used for down near the ground should have the the cielings of rooms. The compofi. furface made quite smooth, rounding tion being thus made, care must be it off in a small degree, as before nientaken to prepare the tree properly for tioned ; and the dry powder directed its application by cutting away all the to be ased afterwards should have an dead, decayed, and injured part till equal quantity of powder of alabaster you come to the fresh found wood, mixed with it, in order the better leaving the surface of the wood very to relift the dripping of trees and heavy smooth, and rourding off the edges of rains. If any of the composition be the bark with a draw-knife, or other left for a future occasion, it fhould be instrument, perfectly smooth, which kept in a tub, or other vessel, and must be particularly attended to. urine of any kind poured on it, so Then lay on the plailter about one to cover the surface; otherwise eighth of an inch thick, all over the the atmosphere will greatly hurt the part where the wood or bark has been efficacy of the application. Where so cut away, finishing of the edges as lime-rubbish of old buildings cannot thin as possible. Then take a quanti- be easily got. take powder chalks, or ty of dry powder of wood-alhes, mixed common lime, after being Naked a with a sixth part of the fame quantity month at least. As the growth of of the ashes of burnt bones; put it in the tree will gradually affect the plaisto a tin-box, with holes in the top, ter, by raising up its edges next the and shake the powder on the surface birk, care should be taken, where of the plaister, till the whole is co- that happens, to rub it over with the vered over with it, letting it remain finger when occasion may require for half an hour, to absorb the mois- (which is best done when moistened ture; then apply more powder, rub. by rain,) that the plaifter may be kept bing it on gently with the hand, and whole, to prevent the hair and wet repeating the application of the pow- from penetrating into the wound. der, till the whole plaister becomes a

WILLIAM FORSYTH. dry smooth surface. All trees cut

Account of the principal Articles imported from India by the Romans.* IN every age, it has been a com- every thing that can render the enjoy-,

merce of luxury, rather than of ne ment of life more exquisite, or add to cellity, which has been carried on be- its splendour, but they had acquired all tween Europe and India. Its elegant 'the fantastic tastes formed by the camanufactures, spices, and precious price and extravagance of wealth. ftones, are neither cbjects of defire to They were of consequence highly denations of simple manners, nor are such lighted with those new objects of granations possessed of wealth fufficient to tification with which India supplied purchase them. But at the time the them in such abundance. Romans became masters of the Indian ductions of that country, natural as trade, they were not only (as I have well as artificial, seem to have been already observed) in that stage of fo- much the same in that age as in the ciety, when men are eager to obtain present. But the taste of the Romans

The pro


From “ Dr Robertson's Historical Disquisition concerning Ancient India,"

in luxury differed in many respects niih foreign merchants with others of from that of modern times, and of higher value, which they brought from course their demands from India dif- India, and the regions beyond it. The fered considerably from ours.

commercial intercourse of the ArabiIn order to convey an idea of their ans with the eastern parts of Asia, was demands as complete as pollible, I not only catly (as has been already Thall in the first place make some ob- observed) but considerable. By means fervations on the three great articles of their trading caravans, they conof general importation from India.-- veyed into their own country all the 1. Spices and aromatics. 2. Precious valuable productions of the East, astones and pearls. 3. Silk. And then mong which spices held a chief place. I shall give some account (as far as I In every ancient account of Indian can venture to do it from authentic commodities, spices and aromatics of information) of the affortment of car- various kinds form a principal article. goes, both outward and homeward. Some authors assert that the greater bound, for the vessels fitted out at Be- part of those purchased in Arabia were renice for different ports of India. not the growch of that country,

but 1. Spices and aromatics. From brought from India. That this afa the mode of religious worship in the fertion was well founded appears from heathen world; from the incredible what has been observed in modern number of their 'deities, and of the times. The frankincense of Arabia, temples consecrated to them; the con- though reckoned the peculiar and secration of frankincense and other aro most precious production of the counmatics which were used in every fa. try, is much inferior in quality to that cred function, must have been very imported into it from the east ; and great. But the vanity of men occa it is chiefly with the latter, that the lioned a greater confumption of these Arabians at present supply the extenfragrant substances than their piety. five demards of various provinces of It was the custoin of the Romans to Asia for this commodity. It is upon burn the bodies of their dead, and good authority, then, that I have menthey deemed it a display of magnif- ' tioned the importation of spices as one cence, to cover, not only the body but of the most considerable branches of the funeral pile on which it was laid, ancient commerce with India. with the most costly fpices. At the II. Precious stones, together with funeral of Sylla, two hundred and ten which pearls may be claffed, seem to burthens of spices were strewed upon be the article next in value in ported the pile. Nero is reported to have by the Romans from the eaft. As burnt a quantity of cinnamon and these have no pretension to be of any cassia at the funeral of Poppea, great- real use, their value arises entirely er than the countries from which from their beauty and their rarity, and it was imported produced in one year. even when eltimated most moderately We consume ia heaps these precious is always high. But among nations fubftances with the carcases of the far advanced in luxury, when they are dead (fays Pliny): We offer them to deemed not only ornaments but marks the gods only in grains. It was not of distinction, the vain and the opu. from India, I am aware, but from A. lent vie so eagerly with one another rabia, that aromatics were first im- for the poffeffion of them, that they ported into Europe ; and some of rise in price to an exorbitant and al. them, particularly frankincense, were most incredible height. Diamonds, productions of that country. But the though the art of cutting them was Arabians were accuftoned, together imperfectly known to the ancients, with spices of native growth, to fura held an high place in estimation a


mong them as well as among us. The emirent rank and opulence. This, cumparative value of other precious however, did not render the demand itonis varied according to the diverü- for it leis. cager, especially, after the ty of tattes and the caprice of falhion, example of the diffolute Elgabalus in, The inmense number of them men- troduced the use of it among the other tioned by Pliny, and the laborious fex, and accustomed men to the discare with which he describes and ar grace (as the severity of ancient ideas ranges them, will aitonilh, I should sup- accounted it) of wearing this effemi. pofe, the muit ikilful lapidary or jew- nate garb. Two circumstances conelier of modera times, and ihews the cerning the traffic of silk among the hign requeit in which they were held Rimans merit cbservation. Contrary, by the Romans.

10 what usually takes place in the o. But among all the articles of lusų- perations of trade, the more general ry, the Romans seem to have given the use of that commodity seems not the preference to pearls. Persons of eve have increased the quantiiy imporret, ry rank purch f:d them with eager- in such proportion as to answer the pess; they were worn on every part growing demand for it, and the price of dress; and there is such a diffe- of lilk was not reduced during the rence, boin in lize aud in value, a. course of two hundred and fifty years mung pearls, that while such as were from the time of its being first known large and of fuperior lustre, adorned in Rome. In the reign of Aurelian, the wealthy and the great, imaller ones, it still continued to be valued at its and of inferior quality, gratified the va- weight in gold. This, it is probable, dity of persons in more humble stations was owing to the mode in which that of life. Julius Cæfar prelenied Ser- commodity was procured by the mer. vilia, the mother of Brųţus, with a chants of Alexandria, They had no parl, for which he paid forty-eight direa intercourse with China, the on-. thousand four hunured and fifty-seven ly countıy in which the filk-worm was pounds. The famous pearl ear-rings then reared, and its ļabour rendered of Cleopatra were in value one have an article of commerce. All the filk dred and fixty-one thousand four hun- which they purchased in the different dred and fifty-eight pounds. Precious ponts of India which they frequented, tones, it is true, as well as pearls, were was brought thither in thips of the found not only in India, but in many country; and either from fume defedt different countries, and all were ran of ikill in managing the filk-worm, the facked in order to gratify the pride of produce of its ingenious induttry ar Rome, Iodia, however, furnished the mong the Chinese was scanty, or the chief part, and its productions were al- intermediate dealers found greater adlowed to be most abundant, diverfi- vantage in furnishing the market of Afied, and valuable.

lexandria with a small quantity at an Ili. Another production of India high price, than to lower its value by in great demand at Rome was silk; increasing the quantity. The other and when we recollect the variety of circumftance which I had in view is elegant fabrics into which it


be extraordinary, and affords'ą formed, and how much these have ad- striking proof of the imperfect commuded to the splendour of diefs and fur- nication of the ancients with remote ni ure, we cannot wouder at its being nations, and of the gender koowledge di in tuch ettima:ion by a luxurious which they had of their natural properple. The price it bore was exor- ductions or aris. Diant; but it was deemed a dress too factures of lilk were admired, and of: expensive and too delicate for men, and ten as silk is mentioned by the Greek ties appropriated wholly to women of and Roman authors, they had not for È VOL. XIV. No. 79.



Much as


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