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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CHIAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR
TIIE PEOPLE,' CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.
No. 241. New SERIES.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 12, 1848.
Price 1 d.
extrême gauche, to raise a salutary terror, and by that ENEMIES.
means prevent changes being made with inconvenient Mey are continually heard talking of their enemies. It rapidity. On the other hand, is any institution chalseems to be universally understood that everybody has lenged as no longer consonant with the opinions or enemies. We hear of such and such a person being ill. favourable to the interest of mankind, we always see spoken of; but then he has many enemies. We hear that the attacks of those who long for its reformation or
of some one having been extremely unfortunate-he removal do it little harm, in comparison with the con| had made himself many enemies. I believe there is duct of its own most zealous supporters. Often we see
a great fallacy in all this, and that scarcely any one these act with a folly that makes us say, that if the has enemies worthy of the name, much less that any enemy had their choice of means for ruining the instione is ever seriously injured by them. People are in tution, they could select none so likely to be effectual. general too much engrossed, each by his own affairs, to It seems to be sufficient to summon the fortress, and make any very active war against each other. Jealous, the garrison immediately act so desperately ill amongst
envious, rancorous they often are, but to wage positive themselves, as almost to insure a speedy surrender, | hostilities, they are for the most part too indifferent. without stroke of sword.
Though it were otherwise, society is not now consti- Thirty years ago, a captive prince of singular fortune tuted in such a way as to admit of one man being to lived on the island of St Helena, in the Atlantic Ocean. any serious extent hurtful to another. When I hear, He had risen to the summit of human greatness, and
therefore, of any man attributing his non-success in to all appearance had founded a new dynasty more | business, the invariably severe treatment of his books illustrious than that of Charlemagne. He had enemies | in the reviews, or the rejection of his pictures at the external to himself, but their petty efforts against him
exhibition, to enemies, I feel that a cause inadequate to only served to increase his greatness. Napoleon, howthe effect has been cited, and, while listening politely, ever, had one enemy truly formidable—he had himself. do not believe, though I daresay he does.
Through the machinations of this deadly foe was accomThe fact is, this proneness to attribute our mischances plished a ruin which all Europe bad vainly conspired to enemies is merely one of the refuges of our self-love. to bring about. Admitting possible exceptions, it may be said emphati- The labouring people of this country have a notion cally that we are none of us anybody's enemy but our that the rest of the community are their enemies. own. We are all, however, our own enemies. The Any one who mingles with the rest of the community same is true of corporations and institutions. Hence it must see that these are full of good-feeling towards is the merchant who effects his own ruin ; it is the the labourers, are constantly speculating about the author who writes himself down. Dynasties, minis means of benefiting them, and in reality spend largely tries, parties, die not but by suicide. And it is the in their behalf. They are not the enemies of the friends of great causes and venerable systems who are working - classes; but it is not difficult to see who most apt to be the obstructors of the one and the are. It is the working-classes themselves, who, arrudestroyers of the other.
gating the privilege of dispensing with forethought and We see this principle hold good in a signal manner in self-denial, and throwing on others the blame of all the proceedings of party politicians. The French pro- mischances, subject themselves to such bitter wo in claim a republic. Before it bas had a three months' consequence, that if one-tenth of it were really visited trial, behold a sort of military dictator presiding over it. on any one set of people by another, the world would ring Whose blame is this? None but that of the men who with it for ever. What should we think, for instance, vere most republican. For anything that appears, the of a government which should force its industrious
moderate people would have sat quiet under the purely millions to spend each a large portion of his gains on | democratic rule of the National Assembly, and the very indulgences alike injurious to health and morals? Yet
appearance of a soldier might have been dispensed with. this, we know, is done by the working-classes themselves. Bat the ardent lovers of democracy contrive to frighten What should we think of a master who permitted no the mass of the community, who consequently are fain new entrant into his work without a sum of money being ! to abandon liberty for the sake of personal safety. In paid to make a feast with, however dificult it might be
the same manner, in England, let a town muster a few to raise such a sum? Yet exclusions of this kind are hundred people desirous of state reforms, their senti- common among the men themselves. A few years ago, ments and voice are made of no avail, because of there in a work in the west of Scotland, each new apprentice chancing to be perhaps four or five people in the same paid his fellows about seven pounds for 'leave to toil!' place who are so much more zealous in the cause, that and when six or seven such sums had been amassed, there they would not scruple to use violence in advancing was a debauch which lasted a fortnight, involving the it. It almost would appear to be the final cause of an I whole district in vice and wretchedness. There is a
story of a master sailcloth - maker recommending a the animals, was a proof of our being in a primitive diswidow's son into his own work, with an intreaty that trict: in the other provinces, a regiment of soldiers would the boy might be spared the usual payment.
He have been required to protect the precious burden; and I thought he had been successful ; but the youth was
turned to retrace my steps, thinking over the changes to from the first subjected to so much persecution, that, the refuge of criminals from the pursuit of the law.
take place in this part of the country, becoming as it is being wholly unable to raise the money by any common After riding a few hours, I perceived that the sun was means, he found it necessary to go to a distance each
near its setting, and felt surprised at not having reached evening in disguise, and there stand for an hour or two the Presidio. In a short time, however, the terrible fact begging from the passers-by. In this strange way he could no longer be doubted : deceived by the interroin. at length obtained the means of purchasing a license able succession and sameness of green slopes, I had comto live by his industry.* The whole system of fines pletely wandered from the right path. 1 mounted the
highest eminence near me, but as far as the eye could for the admission of new hands into trades presents a
reach, there was nothing but immense savannas without striking view of a class acting as its own enemy. tree, house, or shelter; the river, which would hare
Some men are said to have a turn for making enemies, served me as a guide, was hidden by the undulating while to others is awarded the praise of having none. ground; and two shots which I fired produced neither But though there is such a thing as enemy-making, it echo nor reply. I was thus condemned to pass the night amounts to little, such enemies being seldom able to do in these plains, over which, during the darkness, roaned any harm. The more narrowly we examine our posi- objects that might well inspire terror. The anticipation tion, and the things which affect us in the world, the sight of a little gray cloud depicted on the fading purple
was anything but cheering: all at once, howerer, I caught more we shall be convinced that our only formidable of the horizon. It seemed to touch the earth, and expand enemies are ourselves. The tongue that truly detracts as it rose : it was surely the smoke from & fire on the from our credit and glory is our own tongue : the hand prairie. I rode hastily towards it, deliberating as to what that most mercilessly despoils us of our property is would be the result. Was it an encampment of hunters, our own hand. All the real murders in this world - Indian braves, or muleteers ? As the day fell, the cloud that is, apart from the mere commonplace killings of disappeared ; but after a few minutes of painful uncer
tainty, the glare of the fire became visible through the men and women-are self-murders. Conceit tells us a different tale, and we are too ready to lay on the flatter- increasing darkness, and enabled me to continue my ing unction. But all great successes, all the grander The circle of light widened as I advanced, and at last triumphs, will be in proportion to our seeing the truth I descried the dark outline of two men seated near a as it really stands; namely, that the hardest obstacles, wood-fire. Two enornious dogs, that rushed towards me the most real dangers, lie in the perverse impulses of with furious bayings, prevented my making a longer
examination. Fortunately they were called off by a rude our own nature.
voice; yet notwithstanding this pacific demonstration,
the aspect of my future entertainers was far from ebTHE BUFFALO-HUNTERS.
couraging. The most agreeable physiognomy derives a
certain air of menace from the reflection of a wood-fire, After wandering for several months in the deserts of and the savage countenances of the two strangers were by Sonora, I felt reluctant to return to the restraints of city no means softened by the sinister light. Their white life without first visiting the Presidio of Tubac. While canvas garments were literally stiffened by a thick crust preparing for this journey, with its perils and fatigues, I of blood : however, as I approached the light, one of felt a sort of regret that my frequent peregrinations had them bade me welcome, requesting me at the same time destroyed all the charm of novelty in travelling in this to dismount, as the dogs had been trained to regard as
enemies only those on horseback. region; there was nothing new to be learned. But I was
I apologised for my intrusion, and inquired my way mistaken : there were certain phases of border life, of the to the Presidio, which could not be far off, and to my struggle between civilisation and barbarism, with which I astonishment heard that it was at least six" leagues dis
; was yet to become acquainted.
tant. Noticing my surprise, the speaker guessed that I I journeyed to the Presidio in company with two had lost my way, and invited me to pass the night near hunters, who were going on an expedition into the the fire, promising me a slice of broiled buffalo for prairies : we were two days on the road, and I afterwards supper. attended them to the San-Pedro, a river a short distance morning, and I gladly accepted the modest hospitality, !
This last offer decided me, for I had fasted since the from Tubac, forming the boundary of the vast plains whose value was increased by the time and circum. which stretched away on the other side, in endless undu- stances. After satisfying my most pressing wants, I had lations, to the remotest horizon, only limited by the far- leisure to look about me, and becaine aware of the predistant Missouri. When the hunters disappeared from sence of a third individual, apparently asleep, on the my view in the tall grass, I stood for a time gazing on grass where the light of the fire did not reach him; his the landscape. A small lake lay just in front, swarming horse, attached by a thong to a post, was grazing at his with slimy and hideous reptiles, the sight of which side. He, however, obeyed the summons to supper with attracted numbers of cranes, that flew from side to side that he was a fugitive from justice, charged with an
alacrity; and as we fell into conversation, it came out over the muddy waters : long trains and groups of assassination of which he was innocent, and converted, by buffaloes were crossing the silent prairie beyond ; others, the relentless pursuit of the law, from a peaceful citizen lying down on the slopes, seemed to be overlooking their into a salteador or highwayman. When I spoke of the boundless territories. As if the scene could not be com- conducta that had passed in the morning he became plete without the presence of man, a party of Indian doubly attentive, and remarked that his name would one hunters were at the mornent descending the San-Pedro day be known from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans on rafts made of bundles of reeds supported by empty and then it would be the law's turn to tremble. While calabashes, while in the distance a long line of mules, rupted our discourse ; the furious animals rushed across
we were speaking, the sudden barking of the dogs interladen with silver ingots, was seen slowly advancing under the prairie, and in a few minutes we heard exclamations the conduct of their guides. The sight of this conducta, of distress. with only a sufficient number of men to load and unload Holy Mary!' said the voice; 'am I to be deroured
by dogs, and but just escaped from the claws of a * See Dunlop's Drinking Usages, pp. 16, 127, 188.
*Dismount! dismount! or you are a dead man l'cried seems to avoid us? Since you have such a fast horse, one of the hunters, at the same time calling in vain to gallop boldly down to the timid fellows, and fire a shot the dogs, which, without paying attention to the new- or two at them, point-blank, if possible: you will wound comer, leaped farther into the darkness. During this one at least, and the whole herd will set off after you : time the stranger came up, pale and trembling, and but you will easily keep a-head of them; the most active murmuring paternosters: the horse seemed even more only will continue to follow you, and with them it will terrified than his rider. Concluding some danger to be be our turn.' imminent, we all rose, and seized our arms: this seemed Are you speaking seriously?' I asked. The hunter to reanimate the last comer, for, pointing with one hand, looked at me with astonishment. "And if my horse he stammered out in a choked voice, 'Look yonder! were to fall ?' good saints, deliver us!'
But he wont.' One glance in the direction indicated sufficed to ex- ' But after all, if he did ?' plain the cause of alarm: a little beyond the circle of *Then it is certain that you would have but little light a fearful form was swaying itself from left to right chance of escape. However, if you fall so gloriously, I with a low growl, aggravated by a formidable grating of promise to slaughter a host of cibolos in your honour. teeth. Kept at bay in the obscurity by the dogs, its I thanked the hunter for his intended favour, but dimensions appeared colossal. It was a grisly bear, the declined, on the ground of having seen enough of adventerror of the prairies.
tures, and offered to lend him my horse. "On horseback, every one!' said one of the hunters in This, it appeared, was all he wanted. He immediately a low tone. We were not long in obeying. The gigantic commenced operations by unsaddling the animal; and quadruped, intimidated by the light of the fire and our folding his blanket cloak in four, attached it to the numbers, remained stationary; and while we stood back of the horse by a long Chinese scarf. He then took undecided whether to attack or retreat, the stranger off his calzoneras (loose trousers) and deer-skin boots, informed us that, being obliged to overtake a conducta and with naked feet, and in his shirt-sleeves, was equiphalting for the night at a league beyond Tubac, he had ped for the course. persevered in spite of the darkness, and had been savagely After suspending a sort of rapier, keen and pointed, to pursued by the bear for the last two hours; and that his the blanket, the hunter leaped into his seat, and tested horse, owing to the weight of a bag of gold attached to the strength of the scarf which was to serve at need as the saddle, was nearly exhausted, when fortunately he stirrups, and bear the whole weight of his body; then, reached our bivouac. Meantime the animal was becom- with the lasso in his left hand, he went through a short ing furious, and vented his impatience by tearing out run on the plain with the speed of an arrow. It must large strips of turf. After a short debate, it was agreed be confessed that in the hands of so able a rider my that five men ought not to stand motionless before a horse appeared altogether a different animal: I begged beast, however fierce he might be; and we were preparing him, however, to be careful of the bisons' horns. to fire, when one of the hunters proposed that as the He then set off at the top of his speed for the distant carcase of the buffalo from which our supper had been herd, whose bellowings were brought down to us by the cut had attracted the bear, it should be dragged away, wind. He made a long circuit, the horse seeming to fly and by this means rid us of the unwelcome intruder. rather than to run, and neighing joyously, and disapThe expedient was adopted, a lasso was passed round the peared behind a distant hill. Meantime his companion dead animal, which soon disappeared in the tall grass. had attached a red handkerchief to the top of a willow When the hunters rejoined us, the stranger whom I have stick, which he planted upright in the ground, on the first described, seizing a lighted brand, charged full tilt slope where we had taken up our position. I inquired upon the bear, which, after a show of resistance, took to if it was a signal for his comrade. flight, first making the tour of our camp. We remained No,' he replied: 'buffaloes are like bulls—red irritates silent a few minutes, listening to the crushing of the them. If Joaquin diverts one or two, the handkerchief grass, and heard a growl of satisfaction, followed by the will certainly draw them hither, and we shall kill them noise of a heavy body dragged slowly away. The bear close home : you must be careful to aim at their muzzle had found the carcase, and carried it off to his retreat to just as they are going to spring upon us !' devour it at his ease. To our great contentment all I did not feel altogether at my case with this infordanger was past.
mation; but as the hunter ceased to speak, we remarked a The two strangers made preparations to depart: the sudden movement in the herd grazing on the lower slopes one who had arrived last insisted so strongly on accom- of the hill behind which Joaquin had disappeared. The panying the other, that at last, but with evident reluc- adventurous rider had just surmounted the height on the tance, and a singular expression of pity in his look, he opposite side, when, with loud cries, he rushed down from consented. As they rode off into the dark and silent the summit with the impetuosity of a falling rock, and prairie, after bidding us farewell, one of the hunters disappeared in the midst of the dense forest of horns ferrarked in a solemn and mysterious tone, " The tiger and shaggy black manes. The troop felt the shock, and and the lamb, not for long do they travel together!' broke up into groups, running in all directions. We then
After this all was quiet, and we passed the remainder saw Joaquin again gallopping safe and sound through of the night sleeping with our feet towards the fire. the openings which he had made. Two buffaloes of Scarcely had the dawn appeared, and our morning meal enormous size appeared to be leaders of one of the terminated, than the hunters proceeded to observe the detached columns, and it was towards these that he disposition of the herds of buffalo grazing on the plains. directed his attack. Hovering, on the flanks of the As if conscious that their safety lay in keeping together, column, he came and went, flew hither and thither, with not a straggler was to be seen out of the ranks, greatly to wonderful audacity: the two leaders, however, could not the vexation of my companions, whose only chance of be separated from their companions. At last there was a capture was in separating one or two from the main a little opening, and, rapid as lightning, Joaquin rushed body. After watching for some time, in hopes of a at it; but whether he had presumed too much upon the favourable change, one of the hunters, after a knowing agility of the horse, or whether it was a ruse on the part inspection of my horse, exclaimed, Caramba! that of his fierce antagonists, I saw with inexpressible anguish broad breast, slender legs, open nostrils, and long flanks, that the living wave, an instant disjoined, came together bespeak a runner above the common.'
again, and the unhappy hunter was caught as in a closing My horse,' I replied with the pride of an owner, 'will chasm. I forgot the horse, to think of the man, and exdefy the deer for agility, the mule for fatigue'
changed a look with my companion. His swarthy checks And the bison for speed,' interrupted the hunter. were pale as death, and with carbine in hand, he was Well, senor, to come to the proof: you can render me a rushing to the rescue of his comrade, when he checked signal service!'
himself with a cry of joy. Rudely squeezed between the Speak.'
horns of the two buffaloes which had at last advanced You see that troop of cibolos (buffaloes) yonder, which beyond the column in their rear, Joaquin was standing
upon his horse, whose sides were protected by the woollen On investigation, however, Joaquin acquitted the latter covering passed round its body. While the compressed of the murder. From the marks about the place, it was group thus advanced in our direction, the hunter drew apparent that several persons had been engaged in the his rapier, and placing one foot upon the woolly shoulders assault, and that the salteador bad exerted himself to of the bison, plunged the murderous point in at a joint defend his companion. Doubtless the unfortunate traof the neck, and at the instant that the animal made veller had fallen a victim to the rapacity of the same a last effort not to die unavenged, leapt hurriedly to gang which, as I heard an hour later on entering Tubac, the ground. It was time, for at the same moment my had attacked and plundered the conducta. poor horse was lifted on the bull's head and tumbled over. This, however, saved him, as it released him from both his enemies : he rose immediately and gallopped off, CHEVALIER ON THE PLANS OF LOUIS BLANC. followed by the two buffaloes. As for Joaquin, he ran SOME weeks ago we presented a familiar exposition of parallel with the horse, still retaining his hold of the the great scheme of social regeneration as proposed by leathern thong; and gradually approaching nearer and Louis Blanc in his work, • The Organisation of Labour nearer, caught hold of the mane, and sprang from the and now proceed to notice the arguments of his able ground into his seat with a hurra of triumph. • Our turn now!' said the hunter with whom I had and, until recent events, professor of political economy.
antagonist, M. Michel Chevalier, an author of repute, remained, taking his post in sight of the two bisons, which, raging in pursuit of the horse and his rider, Blanc as radically fallacious, although captivating to
M. Chevalier fearlessly denounces the views of Louis advanced towards us with unequal steps, while the troop, the imagination. In his tract, the Question des Tra. deprived of their leaders, fled to the hills. We lay flat vailleurs' (the Working Men's Question')—first pubdown on the inner slope, and waited for the animals, lished in the Revue des Deux Mondes,' he begins by which, somewhat disconcerted, paused for an instant, declaring his attachment to the Republic as an unavoid tearing up the ground with their horns. The hunter able necessity, but states his conviction that many
of agitated the red flag, when, with ferocious joy, they again the measures of the revolutionary chiefs, while apparushed forwards. Joaquin had retired to one side: his part was played. It would be difficult to form an idea rently originating in the best intentions, have been abof the terrific aspect of the furious and wounded bison: surd, dangerous, and suicidal. On the part,' he says
, left, dyeing red the black tangle of his mane; scarlet immediately wages ought to be raised, and the time at every movement streams of blood flowed right and of the Parisian workmen, the organisation of labour
was demanded, with this commentary attached, that foam covered his nostrils, whose formidable snort came every moment nearer. The other buffalo preceded him, of labour shortened; also that marchandage should be glaring with his fierce and heavy eyes on the handkerchief, abolished -- that is to say, that the employment of
interdicted. now shaken alone by the wind; for the hunter and myself sub-contractors or middle-men should waited with carbine in hand. A minute more, and we
They demanded likewise the abolition of piecework, should have had to defend ourselves against two in- and lastly, the expulsion of all English workmen. furiated beasts ; but happily the wounded bison fell At this moment an organisation of labour was in proheavily, and expired. "Fire !' cried the hunter. With gress, under the care of a committee presided over by three balls in his head, the other buffalo stood still, and one of the members of the Provisional Government, falling over, struck the ground close to the top of the author of a brochure that has excited much attention, slope which protected us. Joaquin came up at a short under this very title of “ Organisation of Labour." trot, fresh and smiling as a cavalier who has just been As regards marchandage, a decree of the Provisional exhibiting the qualities of his horse in a riding-school. Government has now interdicted it as being a system of He stopped to examine the bison last fallen.
destruction for the labourer. The duration of labour Well,' he said, 'you hare lodged two balls in his was the object of a special decree, which fixed it at ten head, and that is pretty well for a beginner. As for me, hours a-day for Paris, and eleven for the departments
. in future I will hunt buffaloes only on horseback.'
Yet in Paris, in some large establishments, the time is, Not with mine, I hope,' I replied quickly; ‘for it is in practice, only nine hours; and in many of these same a miracle that the poor animal has escaped from the establishments piecework is prohibited, although the horns of the others.'
decree of the Provisional Government permitted it
. As The hunter was saying something in answer, when all regards the increase of wages, many masters have comat once he exclaimed, My wishes are granted: here is plied with the demand.' a horse coming for me already saddled and bridled !' * Let us inquire,' says M. Chevalier, 'what an impar
We saw, in fact, a horse thus equipped gallopping tial observer, placed out of the vortex, would reasonably towards the river, as though he was pursued by a troop of think of this movement, and let us speak it with sincerity. bisons, and urged to greater speed by the large wooden In order to appreciate the means by which popular prø. stirrups beating against his flanks. Judging from the gress can go on, it is useful to throw a glance backsweat and foam in which he was bathed, his flight had ward, and to consider how the workmen of our towns continued some time. We recognised it as the animal and in our fields, have arrived at their present condition belonging to the stranger who had announced the bear's which, if it leaves infinitely much to be desired still, is visit to us the previous evening; and Joaquin, with my yet at least a hundred times preferable to that in which permission, gallopping off, soon secured the fugitive with the same classes were in ancient times. At the outhis lasso. An ugly scratch down the poor animal's side, set of civilisation, among most peoples, the man by as though made by the rider's spur in falling, and the whom the father of a family is assisted in his labour is fact that the leathern thongs which held the bag of a slave, who possesses nothing of his own, not even his gold to the saddle were cut, were suspicious indications own person, and who lives in a condition of destitution as to the fate of the owner.
of which the poor themselves have in these days no The two hunters shook their heads; and after con- idea. The immense majority of men are in this state versing for a short time, Joaquin, who wished to examine of things, crushed down by labour, and are allowed no a little into the mystery, offered to ride with me to enjoyment. Labour is disagreeable, because man has Tubac. I willingly closed with the proposal ; and after not yet at his service the inventions which make mowashing the stains from my horse's sides, we set off, dern industry so effective-tools, machines, roads, &c. accompanied by the two dogs. We had ridden for about Labour produces infinitely little for the slave, because an hour, when the two animals began to bark, and it produces little for the master. The slave lives conhurried to the bottom of the little valley which we were sequently in a state of abject misery -- a thing as te: then crossing. A sad spectacle met our eyes : in the gards his body; a brute as regards his mind. How is middle of a pool of blood, his face to the earth, lay the this? Is it that, in antiquity, masters were tyrants
, poor traveller whom we had seen depart the previous who, for pleasure, and through selfishness, trampled on night in company with the salteador.
all the rights of humanity? Possible; though this was only true of some. That, however, which is true on formity will soon cease. Fraud is the answer given by the other hand, is this—that society then wanted capital. the governed to those orders of their governors that This was the real cause of the evil.'
decree the impossible. It is as impracticable to fix, by *Tools,' continues M. Chevalier, ‘machines, apparatus the decree of authority, the price of labour, as it is to of any kind that assists labour, are capital: the forces fix that of bread, or meat, or iron.' The proposition in of nature, once appropriated, caught in engines, and sub- political economy on which M. Chevalier founds these jected to the will of man—the wind on the sails of a mill, assertions is that which assigns the law according to the fall of water on a hydraulic wheel, the steam in the which wages rise or fall. What,' he asks, 'is the law cylinder of a fire-engine, are capital: the large resources according to which wages are regulated in every country for fabrication on the large scale are capital : the skill where labour is free? It is by the abundance of capital, of the workman himself, the result of preceding instruc- as compared with the number of labourers requiring tion, or of apprenticeship, or of great acquired expe- employnient. A manufacturer has only capital enough rience, and which multiplies production, is in like to employ a hundred workmen, at the rate of four francs manner capital. Thus the formation and increase of a day each. Two hundred workmen present them. capital constitute the first condition of popular progress. selves. If he must employ them all, he can give them When capital hardly exists, the most numerous class only two francs a day each: there is no alternative. is in a state of abject distress. Without capital, all The more, therefore, population increases relatively to that men can produce by labour is a coarse subsistence capital, the lower wages will fall. Seeing this truth so for themselves. If luxury exists, and even in ancient clearly, and seeing at the same time the blindness of his societies it did in a striking degree, it is an exception neighbours to it, no wonder that M. Chevalier becomes in behalf of a minority so small, that if the substance excited “Tribunes, philanthropists, preachers,' he exof their feasts and pageants were distributed among the claims, 'rack your brains; you will find no other solution entire multitude, the condition of the latter could not than this-frightful misery when there are many labourers | thereby be visibly altered. It is only when capital has and little capital !' It will be said the state will give
increased that human labour produces enough to render work to the superfluous hands. “Very good; but for these the life of a large number happy.'
workshops capital is required : where do you get it? *This fundamental notion, that it is in consequence of People don't get it as Pompey was to get his soldiersthe creation of capital that the masses are elevated from by stamping on the earth. That the state may have the condition of slavery, was anticipated by the great phi-the necessary capital for its workshops, it must take or losopher of antiquity, Aristotle, who expressed it in an borrow it from private industry; but then this latter, original form. "If the shuttle and the chisel,” said he, having less capital, will be obliged to discharge other " could go alone, slavery would no longer be necessary.” | labourers. While, on the one hand, you put labourers Well, since the human species have had capital, the on, on the other you pull an equal number off, who in shuttle and the chisel have gone alone. A great pro- their turn will come asking for work. Where will you gress has begun, and it has been possible for slavery end ? It is Ixion's wheel-always turning.' In a similar
to disappear. According as human societies possess, manner M. Chevalier pursues his investigation through !' in proportion to the population, a large mass of capital, a variety of other considerations, all tending to show
the material, intellectual, and moral privations of the the folly of the measures proposed by those who, desig. majority of men may be diminished, or rather will nating men like M. Chevalier as the disciples of a infallibly become diminished; for the force which political economy without bowels,' might themselves pushes forward the majority, and which tends to make be designated the dupes of a philanthropy without | ibem profit by all discoveries, is invincible. For po- brains. pular progress, therefore, the accumulation of capital is After discussing such special measures, M. Cheralier an absolute condition; not the only condition, certainly, passes to the general subject of the organisation of but one of the conditions. And thus fall, as castles of labour,' as schemed by M. Louis Blanc; the essential cards, all the systems that are founded on a pretended parts of which, as our readers have been informed in a hostility between the interests of labour and those of previous article, were to be- 1st, The suppression of the capital. That there have been, and are, greedy capi- system of competition ; 2d, The absolute equality of talists, that rich men have profited by opportunities conditions for all, irrespective of ability or activity ; 3d, for oppressing the poor, I do not deny ; but it will not The abolition of all profit on capital above the legal inbe denied, on the other hand, that the poor have more terest; and 4th, The election of masters and foremen than once taken their revenge. The fact in question by their inferiors. On these points we cannot follow does not invalidate the conclusion at which we have M. Chevalier, excepting to give a few of his remarks. arrived—that capital is the auxiliary of labour; that Peoples or individuals,' he says, 'let no one flatter him. it is by the preservation and accumulation of capital self with the idea of ever having on this earth a tent that hunger and rags disappear from our cities. The laid out for slumber, and haunted by laughing visions. amelioration of the condition of society translates We are here below to struggle, to undergo probation, itself
, in the eyes of him who analyses the facts, into and progress is the fruit of trials and of struggle. It is this simple formula- to increase capital, to develop necessary not only for the advancement of society, but all kinds of capital; comprising, be it observed, those for its very subsistence, that the social system conform which consist in the skill of men, their activity, and to the fundamental laws of human nature—the system their taste for work; so to arrange, in short, that rela- of M. Louis Blanc misconceives it; that it respect equity tively to the number of the population, capital of all his system violates it. Under the régime of liberty kinis may be as great as possible.' This formula, and of competition it is the contrary. It remains only M. Chevalier says, it is essential that every one should to see whether it is not possible to limit the amount of carry in his head, never at any moment forgetting it. evil with which it is certainly true that in our days
Proceeding now to the application to present contin- liberty and competition are accompanied. And here at gencies of the general theorem that he has been laying last I am on a field where I can expatiate along with down, M. Chevalier examines first the plan, so popular the Socialists, and perhaps with M. Louis Blanc himamong the revolutionists, of forcibly ameliorating the self. I have insisted on the necessity of maintaining condition of the labouring-classes by shortening the competition, even for the sake of the future good of the hours of work, and raising the standard of wages. On working-classes themselves; but because a principle is this point his deliverance is distinct and unhesitating, good and excellent, this is no reason for following it
Every increase of wages,' he says, ' not accompanied indefinitely to its fast results, without looking round by an increase of capital proportional to the popula- one. As the principle of political liberty must be tion, will be ephemeral. Ail laws for regulating wages wedded to the principle of order, if the results are to be and making them constant are absurd. If they operate wholesome, so the most notable inconveniencies of comfor a while, it will be by the effect of terror ; but con- petition may be remedied by the intelligent application