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cable; indeed I know there are; but the more respectable any other purpose than to pawn or to sell, are to be met of the number would, I have reason to think, subscribe with in every street, and proclaim the industry of a to the truth of this delineation of the general body—if class of operatives whose labours are anything but a body they can be called—who live in perfect isolation, benefit to the general community. and never come together.
It is not my intention to lay all these enormities upon Every one who walks the streets of London, if he the shoulders of the garret master; indeed many of the ever exercise his observation at all, must have re- manufacturers of the vile wares above-mentioned are marked, amongst the infinite variety of wares disposed men of considerable capital, those especially who fabrifor sale inside and outside of the endless array of shops cate and deal in the more expensive articles. But yet that line the public thoroughfares, a prodigious number justice to the subject of this sketch compels me to of articles which are not, properly speaking, the pro- declare that the guilty parties are mainly members of duction of any particular or known species of handi- his class ; although individuals are not wanting among craft; or if sone of them be such ostensibly, it becomes them, the history of whose lives would present the apparent upon inspection, and upon a comparison of praiseworthy struggle of industry and integrity against prices, that they are not the manufactures of well-prac. adverse circumstances. the reader will accompany tised hands, but are hastily and fraudulently got up, to me to the narrow theatre of his operations, he may delude the eyes of the unwary by the semblance of behold the garret master in the midst of his avocations, workmanship. Picture-frames, looking more like gilt and then form as lenient a judgment as the somewhat gingerbread than carved gold, which they should re- singular spectacle will admit. semble; small cabinets of cedar-wood, and miniature On a summer evening in the year 184-, having chests of drawers, which seem to stand midway between been requested by a country correspondent to make a toy and a domestic implement; easy (to break) chairs, inquiries respecting the execution of a commission which a man of fifteen stone would crush to pieces; intrusted to one of this tribe, I set out in the direction mirrors of all sizes, each one affording a new version of indicated in his letter, and arrived at the door of the your astonished face; slippers and clogs of every pos- house in which the garret master dwelt about half an sible material; boys' caps at half-a-crown a dozen, of hour before sunset. The place was a back street run. every variety of shape and colour, manufactured from ning nearly parallel with Holborn, in the neighbourhood the tailors' clippings; whetstones of every geological of one of the inns of court, and one that, judging from formation-trap (for customers) predominatiog; crib- the height and structure of the houses, had once laid bage-boards, draught-boards, dominoes, and chess-men, claim to a character for respectability, not to say genat any price you like ; work-boxes, writing-desks, and tility: but all such pretensions had evidently long been music-stands, glued together from the refuse of a cabinet- given up; and the lofty dwellings, fashioned originally maker's workshop; carpenters' tools incapable of an for the abodes of easy and comfortable independence, edge, among which figures a centre-bit, with twenty now stood in begrimed and dingy neglect, the uncared. pieces, for five shillings--a bait for amateur mechanics, for tenements of the artisan and the labourer. The which has astonishing success; towel-horses, that will door of the house I entered stood fastened open ; and fall to pieces if not tenderly handled; and flights of the loose boards of the bare passage, wanting scraper, steps, leading to a broken head, or something worse-all mat, and oil-cloth, bent and clattered under my feet. demand attention by their plausible appearance and The walls, from the door to the summit of the topmost astonishingly low price. But these are not all. The stair, were of a dark-brown colour, arising from the acheedless bargain-hunter may fool away a good round cumulated soiling of half a century, and polished by the sum as easily as the veriest trifle. Gaudy pianofortes, friction of passers up and down, except where some few magnificent-looking instruments, labelled • Broadwood' tatters of the original papering yet hung, about them, or Collard,' may be had at an immense sacrifice' (this or where the plaster had been knocked away, through is true in the buyer's case), which ought to be war- the careless porterage of heavy articles. The banisters ranted pot to stand in tune for twenty-four hours, and as far as the first floor were in tolerable repair, though to become veritable tin-kettles in a twelvemonth. Hor- some of the rails showed by their want of paint that rible fiddles, by the thousand, constructed only to sell they were substitutes for others which had left the rank. and to set the teeth on edge, lie in wait for the musical Higher up, they were half deficient; and near the top tyro; seraphines that growl like angry demons, until storey had been removed altogether, probably for fuel, they become asthmatic, when they wheeze away their by some starving inmate, and replaced by a fence of bateful lives in a month or two, are to be found in every rough slab deal. Of this I was rather sensible by touch broker's shop, together with every other musical in- than by sight; for the skylight that should have illumistrument you could name; all uniting to prove that if nated the staircase was covered over, with the exception the best articles are to be procured in London, 50 are of one small cranny, plainly to exclude the weather, the worst, and that too in abundance.
which would else have found entrance through the Nor does the evil stop here. The world is still broken panes. I should be sorry to afford the reader deceived with ornament, and the imitators of things too accurate a notion of the villanous odour that infected real know it well, and make a good market by the the atmosphere of the house ;, it would have perplexed knowledge. Wo to the scientific student who, anxious even Coleridge-who said that in Cologne he counted to economise his funds, buys his necessary instruments two-and-seventy stenches'-to have described it. It of any other than a well-known and established maker! seemed a compound of spirits, beer, and stale tobacco, In no department of manufacture is there a more pro- of rancid oil or varnish, with a flavour of a dog a month fitable field for humbug and plunder than in this. All dead. I should mention that I knocked at one of five descriptions of scientific instruments, surgical, optic, doors on the third floor, when three of them suddenly chemical, engineering, and others, abound in every opened, but not the one to which I had applied my quarter--the pawnbroker being the chief medium or knuckles. Three dirty-faced matrons in dishabille, two middleman through whom they find their way to the of them having infants at the breast, made their simulluckless experimentalist. Telescopes with conveniently taneous appearance, and inquired what I wanted ; one soiled lenses; camera-lucidas, by means of which Argus of them informing me that the doctor' was not within, himself could see nothing; scalpels, lancets, and ampu- but would be found at the tap. Mentally wondering tating knives, never intended to cut'; surgical saws with who the doctor' thus domiciled could be, I stated that I
tender teeth ; air-pumps in want of sucker; pentagraphs, had business with Mr T-, and requested to be shown 1 with rickety joints and false admeasurements ; unsea- his door. It is the fifth door on the floor above,' said
soned glass retorts ; crucibles sure to split on the fire ; the woman who had mentioned the doctor,' withdrawing 1 Opera-glasses with twopenny lenses in tubes of specious as she spoke. Arriving at the door in question, I could
magnificence; and a thousand other things, which are hear a murmur of voices, and the whirling of a wheel manufactured weekly in large quantities, but never for in rapid motion. The door was opened immediately at my summons, and the rays of a lurid sunset streamed as general messenger to the whole, and to the exercise in upon the landing-place. The woman who answered and free air this function procured her. All the rest the door seemed astonished at my unlooked-for ap- were in a sort of etiolated condition-pale and wan pearance, and plainly expected a different party. As from confinement, bad air, and worse food. The dress she drew back to make room for my entrance, a scene of the whole family, with the exception of that of the met my view, too common, I fear, in the industrial little messenger, who was kept in some show of decency resorts of our great cities, but one calling aloud for for the sake of appearances, would not have sold for a amendment and redress in every possible particular. penny above the rag price in Monmouth Street. Neither In a room, the dimensions of which might be about mother, nor daughter grown up to womanhood, seemed sixteen feet by eleven or twelve, were living an entire to have preserved a relic of that graceful sentiment of family, consisting of certainly not fewer than eight personal propriety, which is the last thing that the sex persons. Near a stove, placed about a yard from the generally surrenders to the want which cometh like fireplace, the funnel going into the chimney through a an armed man.' But here want was not the destroyer: hole in the wall above the mantelpiece, sat the garret a fiend of more hideous aspect and deadlier purpose master, Mr TM, in the act of filling his pipe. Be- held undisputed sway in this wretched abode of per. yond a shirt, dirty and ragged, canvas trousers, and a verted industry and precocious intemperance. As I pair of old slippers, cut down from older boots, he had departed down the crazy stairs, I could not help com. nothing on his person, if we except a beard of a month's passionating the hapless mother, whom I thought it growth. A lad of seventeen or eighteen, similarly non- more than probable the hateful vice of intoxication had dressed, whose unwashed flesh peeped through a dozen first oppressed, and then seduced. Her bloated counrents in his garments, was busy at an old rickety lathe tenance left no room for doubt as to the truth of her turning pill-boxes, some gross of which were scattered tyrant's assertion ; but there remained on it yet the on the board in front of him; as he turned for a moment trace of former truthfulness and kindliness, and the at my entrance, he showed a face haggard and wan, the burning sense of shame attendant upon her present index of bad diet and early intemperance. Seated at condition. On the coming doom of the family-the son, a carpenter's bench, which, together with the lathe, the daughter, the toiling children, the sleeping infantoccupied the whole portion of the room next the window, it was too painful to reflect. was a girl of nineteen or twenty, engaged in carefully The Label Printer.—The next day, my friends comspreading gold leaf upon the word cupping,' previously mission requiring it, I paid a visit to one of the same written with varnish upon a strip of glass. Her cos- class in a different line of business. In one of the tume, surmounted with a tattered man's jacket, would small courts leading out of Drury Lane I found this have disgraced the ' black doll' usually suspended over worthy, whose occupation was that of_printing labels a rag-shop; the same indication of semi-starvation and in gold letters upon coloured paper. Fortunately for (alas that it must be 'said !) of intemperance was the fair sex he was a bachelor, and being on the verge legible in a countenance that ought to have been, and of fifty, was likely to continue so. All the implements indeed was once, interesting. At the end of the bench, of his art, and they were not few, together with his bed in the corner of the room, a boy of twelve or thirteen and his beehive-chair, were around him in a room a years was occupied in French-polishing a few small dozen feet square, and which he gaily styled the 'par. and showy frames adapted for the reception of the lour next to the sky.' His press was a contrivance glass labels. At the other corner, to the left of the such as I had never seen before, economising both space lathe, was a still younger child—I can hardly say of and labour at the penalty-which he seemed to care which sex-busily fitting the covers to the pill-boxes, little about-of abominably bad work: the pressure was and laying them in dozens for package; while an infant produced by the action of a pedal near the floor under of scarce three years was asleep in the shavings under the machine, and consequently the labour of rolling in the bench, where, it was evident from the presence of and rolling out, indispensable in the common printingthe brown and grimy blanket-rags, he would be joined press, was avoided. When I entered, he was actually at night 'by other members of the family. There was printing the word "LODGINS’ upon half-a-dozen strips no bedstead in the room; but what was presumably the of polished azure paper, applying powdered gold, with a bed of the parents—a heap of filthy bundling-lay on the pencil of camel-hair, to the varnish or size used instead floor between the door and the corner of the apartment of ink, as each was impressed! Upon my pointing out While I was making inquiries concerning the commis- the liberty he had taken with the orthography of the sion of my country friend, the mother stepped between word, he seemed not to comprehend my meaning; and me and the father, to whom I had addressed myself, and remarking that he never did nor could understand any intimated by a look of shame, alarm, and intreaty, that of the hographies, seriously inquired what was wrong. she was the more fit party to be questioned. The man, Being at length made aware that another G was wanthowever, told her with an oath to stand aside; to which ing (but not before he had made careful reference to a command she paid no attention, but proceeded to in- dog's-eared dictionary), he assumed a look of strange form me they were on the point of completing my mortification and perplexity. It was not altogether friend's order, and that the goods should be forwarded that he was ashamed of his ignorance; of that the poor to my address, if I would leave it, early on the following fellow had been too long conscious; it was rather that morning. While she was speaking, I heard a light foot he could see no remedy in the present case. This, on the stairs; and the door opening, a little girl of sir,' said he, 'is & noosance, and no mistake; that's my about six, almost decently clad in comparison with the biggest fount, and there is but one alphabet of it beothers, entered the room, clasping a black bottle care- yond the vowels!' After a minute's consideration, howfully in both hands. The mother, apparently unwilling ever, and scratching of his grizzled pate, he brightened that a stranger should be aware of the nature of the up, and went on with the affair as it was, with the conburden brought by the child, was about concealing it solatory declaration that they were no great scholars in a cupboard; but the father, who, I now for the first thereabout; that there were others no wiser than him. time perceived, was on the high road to intoxication, self; and that the things were for people in the court, Bwore at her angrily for pretending to be ashamed of who would never find it out; to which he added, that what he proclaimed she liked as well as anybody, and 'if anybody had a right to spell a word as he chose, it loudly demanded the gin bottle. With a sigh and a was a printer short of types. Somewhat tickled with look of shame she complied with his desire, when he the fellow's good-temper and accommodating philosoimmediately applied himself to the contents with an phy, I sat down to wait for my friend's packet of labels, air of dogged satisfaction. The child who had brought which he said only required taking out of the finishingin the gin was the only one of the family that had the press to be ready for delivery. I learned from his conslightest appearance of health in the countenance; and versation that he had served his time to a little book she, it was easy to see, owed it to her fortunate position Beller and printer at a small town on the Welsh coast ;
but he had spent most of the seven years in running people seldom complained of having too much for their
of wood, causes the end of his bow' to vibrate quickly Dominal salary, doing what he could, for just what the tinued for some time, effectually opens the clotted masses, proprietor, who was as poor almost as himself
, could and lays open all the fibres : these flying upwards by the afford to give him. Here he stayed, on and off, as he action of the string, are, by the manual and wonderful said, for more than a dozen years, during which he con- dexterity of the workman, caught in their descent in a trived to add something to his knowledge of the busi. peculiar manner, and laid in a soft layer of equable thickness, and to save a few pounds, with which, on the ness. This operation, apparently so simple and easy to demise of his employer, he purchased a part of the be effected, is in reality, very difficult, and only to be materials he had so long handled, and commenced learned by constant practice. printer in his own right. It appeared that the whole
The curved shell of metal buttons is prepared by means of his gains during all the
years of his mastership had of a stamping-press; but instead of a punch, a curved ponot averaged much above 1.40 a year, out of which he the little bits of copper acquire such dexterity, that they
lished surface is used. The workwomen employed to stamp had to pay 39. 6d. a week for the rent of his room. He frequently stamp twelve gross in an hour, or nearly thirty showed me his stock of implements, consisting princi- in a minute. This dexterity is truly wonderful, when it is pally of solid brass blocks, engraved in relief for the considered that each bit of copper is put into the die sepapurpose of gold labels attachable to the thousand-and-rately, to be stamped with a press moved by the hand, and one wares of druggists, chemists, haberdashers, fancy finally removed from the die. The quickness with which stationers, and numberless other traders. The blocks the hands and fingers must be moved to do 1728 in the were for the most part the property of his employers ; hour must be very great. and he found it his interest to keep a small stock of
In type-founding, when the melted metal has been poured each on hand, to meet the demands of the proprietors. into the mould, the workman, by a peculiar turn
of his He attributed the blotchy impression which charac-hand, or rather jerk, causes the metal to be shaken into all
the minute interstices of the mould. terised all his work mainly to his rickety press, and sighed for a better, which he had yet no prospect of ing the pearl has two holes in its exterior; the liquid, made
In manufacturing imitative pearls, the glass bead formobtaining ; but he observed that though his work would from a pearl-like powder, is inserted into the hollow of the look very bad in ink, it was a very different thing in bead by a tube, and by a peculiar twist of the hand, the gold ; that made even a blotch ornamental, and of which single drop introduced is caused to spread itself over the
whole surface of the interior, without any superfluity or deficiency being occasioned.
TO THE SNOWDROP. In waxing the corks of blacking-bottles much cleverness is displayed. The wax is melted in an open dish, and
FULL oft the poet has essayed to sing without brush, ladle, or other appliance, the workman
Thy merits, simple flower; nor quite in vain. waxes each cork neatly and expeditiously simply by turn
Yet not to thee may I devote the strain ing the bottle upside down, and dipping the cork into the
Of eulogy; but to that glorious King, melted wax. Practice has enabled the men to do this so
Who bids thy silver bell his praises ring, neatly, that scarcely any wax is allowed to touch the
And doth thy leaves so delicately vein; bottle. Again, to turn the bottle to its proper position,
Making thee meek and modest through thy mien, without spilling any of the wax, is apparently an exceed
The darling of the progeny of spring. ingly simple matter; but it is only by a peculiar move
Ay! many a brighter flower the vernal gale ment of the wrist and hand, impossible to describe, and
Will kiss, but none to which affection clings difficult to imitate, that it is properly effected. One man
As unto thee; who, as the strong sun flings can seal one hundred dozen in an hour!
His brightness on thee, dost so meekly veil In pasting and affixing the labels on the blacking-bottles
Thy face: as at the Light celestials bail, much dexterity is also displayed. As one man can paste
The seraphim theirs cover with their wings. as many labels as two can affix, groups of three are employed in this department. In pasting, the dexterity is shown by the final touch of the brush, which jerks the label off the heap, and which is caught in the left hand of the workman, and laid aside. This is done so rapidly, that Strauss and the Germans mean by a Romanticist (Roman
It may not be altogether superfluous to explain what the threefold operation of pasting, jerking; and laying tiker). The Romanticist is one who, in literature, in the aside is repeated no less than two thousand times in an arts, in religion, or in politics, endeavours to revive the hour. The affixing of the labels is a very neat and dex: dead past ; one who refuses to accept the fiat of history; scarcely taken up in the hand ere it is set
down labelled. In refuses to acknowledge that the past is past, that it has packing the bottles into casks much neatness is displayed. grown old and obsolete ; one who regards the present age The heads of certain kinds of pins are formed by a coil duction of some distant age, of which the present is not
as in a state of chronic malady, curable only by a reproor two of fine wire placed at one end. This is cut off the child, but the abortion. Poets, who see poetry only in from a long coil fixed in a lathe; the workman cuts off one the Middle Ages, who look upon fairy tales and legends as or two turns of the coil, guided entirely by his eye; and treasures of the deepest wisdom; painters, who can see such is the manual dexterity displayed in the operation, nothing pictorial in the world around them; theologians, that a workman will cut off 20,000 or 30,000 heads without who can see no recognition of the Unspeakable except in making a single mistake as to the number of turns in each superstition, who acknowledge no form of worship but the An expert workman can fasten on from 10,000 to 15,000 of ceremonies of the early church ; politicians, who would these heads in a day. pins are stuck for the convenience of sale: children can are all Romanticists. It is quite clear that, however moThe reader will frequently have seen the papers in which bring back “merrie England' into our own sad times by
means of ancient pastimes and white waistcoats—these paper from 30,000 to 40,000 in a day, although each pin dern the name, the Romanticist is not a new phenomenon. involves a separate and distinct operation! The pointing of pins and needles is done solely by hand. from our baffling struggle with the Present, dream of 8
There have ever been-will ever be-men who, escaping The workman holds thirty or forty pin-lengths in his hand, splendid Future, where circumstance is plastic to their spread out like a fan; and wonderful dexterity is shown in theories, or turn themselves lovingly towards the Past, in bringing each part to the stone, and presenting every whose darkness they discern some streaks of light, made point of its circumference to its grinding action. In stamping the grooves in the heads of needles, the to them the only beacon by which to steer. Antiquity
all the more brilliant from the contrast—this light being operative can finish ®8000 needles in an hour, although he had its Utopists and Romanticists, as we have our Humahas to adjust each separate wire at every blow. In punch- nitarians and Puseyites.-Edinburgh Review. ing the eye-holes of needles by hand, children, who are the operators, acquire such dexterity, as to be able to punch one human hair and thread it with another, for the amusement of visitors!
London, which extends its intellectual if not its topoIn finally “papering' needles for sale, the females em- graphical identity from Bethnal Green to Turnham Green ployed can count and paper 3000 in an hour!
(ten miles), from Kentish Town to Brixton (seven miles), whose houses are said to number upwards of 200,000, and
to occupy twenty square miles of ground, has a population FACTORY EDUCATION IN LANCASHIRE.
of not less than 2,000,000 of souls. Its leviathan body is The following is an extract from the recent report of composed of nearly 10,000 streets, lanes, alleys, squares, Lconard Horner, Esq. inspector of factories : It has been places, terraces, &c. It consumes upwards of 4,369,000 often said that the attempt to educate the children pro- pounds of animal food weekly, which is washed down by posed by the factory acts has been a failure: it is only so 1,400,000 barrels of beer annually, exclusive of other when good schools are not within reach; where there are liquids. Its rental is at least L.7,000,000 a year, and it good schools, not only do the parents of children and the pays for luxuries it imports at least L.12,000,000 a year owners and managers of factories, with comparatively few duty alone. It has 537 churches, 207 dissenting places of exceptions, willingly send them, but the children make good worship, upwards of 5000 public-houses, and 16 theatres. progress: their three hours' daily attendance, from eight -Newspaper paragraph. to thirteen years of age, is found sufficient to give them a
THE MORAL REGENERATOR. very considerable amount of instruction, and I have visited schools where some of the half-time children have been He will need much patience, much forbearance, much amongst the best scholars. Thus in a late visit to a British Christian love, and the charity that “hopeth all things,' School at Lees, near Oldham, established mainly by the that hopeth when there seems every reason to despair. exertions of Mr William Halliwell and Mr Atherton, owners He must proceed, like the Vicar of Wakefield in his prison, of mills there, and admirably taught by an able and zealous fortified by hope alone. There is always room for hope: master, Mr Atkins, I heard a large class of factory children the profligate ruffian is often nearest relenting when he go through an excellent examination in English history, seems most brutal; he is then, it may be, only endeavourgeography, and on the cotton plant, its properties and ing to harden himself against what he considers a rising applications; the chief monitor and examiner being a weakness; and a little more perseverance, another word in factory half-timer of twelve years of age. I found in the season, may complete the conquest, in spite of the struggles same manufacturing town similar proofs of factory children of his worse nature.--Haygarth's Bush life. making good progress, in another well-taught school established by the Moravians there, and conducted on the plan Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also of the British School by an intelligent master trained at
sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. & ORR, the Borough Road School.'— Manchester Examiner, June 147 Strand, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, 27, 1848.
Dublin-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.
WHAT LONDON IS.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CIAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR
THE PEOPLE,' CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.
No. 240. New SERIES.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 5, 1848.
canine, although certainly the immediate symptoms HUMAN HYDROPHOBIA.
are less virulent. It has been implied that the stain One could almost suppose that hydrophobia, in a cer- of dirt extends from the skin of the individual over tain modified form, was an endemic in human society his life and conversation. But it does more than that: as well as amongst dogs. The lower portions of the it contaminates his family; it daubs his neighbours; community, in particular, seem to consider themselves it forms a nucleus round which impurity gathers, as having a prescriptive right to suffer from it. The and strengthens, and spreads. Insignificant at first diagnosis of the malady in the human patient does not in itself, it becomes a social evil of importance. It point to a catastrophe altogether so abrupt and tragical is one of the units which gives its character to the as in the canine, but it is attended by circumstances aggregate; and, rising out of a thing which at first was quite as sinister. Dirty faces, dirty clothes, dirty houses, only scorned from good taste, shunned from individual dirt all over, are the symptoms which most forcibly repugnance, or laughed at out of sheer folly, we see arrest attention ; and yet bad as these are, we know spreading over the land vice, misery, pestilence, and that there are worse effects underneath the surface, for death. Yet we observe the symptoms of this formidable where physical dirt goes, there also resides moral de disease with a glassy and indifferent eye, while those gradation.
of canine hydrophobia inspire us with horror and alarm, We know no country of Europe where there is so and drive us to dog-murder in self-defence ! little disposition on the part of the people, as in ours, to The dread of water is seen in the human subject in give themselves even that exhilarating kind of ablution another form, in which it is attended by a different class which is derived from bathing. At the present season, of effects-different, but not very unremotely allied to the traveller on the continent finds the rivers alive the preceding. Almost everywhere the use of water with swimmers ; and we remember, when sailing down as a beverage appears to be felt as a sort of original the Loire to Nantes, observing the steamer frequently doom, designed as a penalty for the sins of mankind; surrounded, more especially when nearing the great and everywhere are efforts made to disguise it in manufacturing city, with crowds of black heads and some way, so that the patient may believe he is swal
white shoulders. In Russia, where the people have lowing something else. Much ingenuity has been exll not got beyond the middle ages, the lower classes do pended upon this curious process; but in certain con
not yet know the use of a shirt, but wear it above ditions of society, it seems to be of little consequence their trousers in the form of a kilt.
They have not, what taste is superadded, or by what means the superhowever, abandoned the bath. Towards the end of the addition is made. The grand thing is transmogrificaweek, they feel a prickly and uncomfortable sensation tion. Amongst the poorer classes in China, a decocin their skin, and at length rush eagerly into the hot tion of cabbage leaves is felt as a relief: amongst the steam, and boiling out the impurities of the preceding upper, the tincture of the more elegant tea - leaf is six days, begin life again with new vigour. In sum- employed. In the western world, the refuse of fruit mer, they do not wait for days and times, but merely and grain, subjected to fermentation and distilling, is get up an hour earlier, and dash into the nearest pond brought into requisition. The Norman converts his good or river. In our refined country, dirt causes no unea- cider into execrable brandy; the other French maltreat siness. It is allowed to harden upon the skin, choke up their wine in a similar way; in Russia, the sickening the pores, and contaminate the whole being, moral and quass becomes the maddening votki; in Scotland, honest physical. It blunts the senses to such a degree, that twopenny is sublimated into whisky; and so on throughthe husband does not detect it in the wife, nor the out the whole habitable world. That this sort of hydromother in the child. All are alike. All have forfeited phobia is merely a modification of the other, is estabthe dignity of human nature, and sunk into a lower lished by the fact, that they who most abhor water as scale of animal existence.
a cleanser, abhor it most as a drink. A cleanly person While mentioning the custom that prevails in Rus- will frequently condescend to take a draught of pure sia, we are struck with the proof afforded there of the element with his meals; but you never saw a man with connection between moral and physical cleanliness, a dirty face who would not greatly prefer some poisonous The state of the bath-house of the hamlet is an unfail- and ill-tasted compound. At the tables of the upper ing index to the character and position of the inha- classes you find the water-karaff most in demand ; at bitants. If it is neat and trim, the people are good and those of the lower classes the beer-jug. The quality of happy, and their feudal lord kind and considerate; if the beer is of no consequence. We never knew it so poor and ruinous, there is tyranny on the one hand, freely drank in our own neighbourhood as at a time misery on the other, and depravity on both.
(some twenty years ago) when the sole effect of the 1 In respect of its contagiousness, or inclination to worthy brewer's manufacture was declared to be to
spread, the human malady seems not a bit behind the spoil the water. Even amongst the abstainers from these