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toilsome marches in the rain, through roads where one the Devonshire militia or of the camp at Hounslow.
who travelled on foot sank at every step up to the Some of them had repelled the fiery onset of the French
ankles in clay, had not improved the appearance either on the field of Seneff; and others had crossed swords
of the men or of their accoutrements. But the people with the infidels in the cause of Christendom on that
of Devonshire, altogether unused to the splendour of great day when the siege of Vienna was raised.'
well-ordered camps, were overwhelmed with delight Some sketches of familiar and domestic matters be-
and awe. Descriptions of the martial pageant were longing to that age are executed with great spirit. Our
circulated all over the kingdom. They contained much author describes the aspect of the country, only one-half
that was well fitted to gratify the vulgar appetite for cultivated, and scarcely any enclosed, the towns then
the marvellous. For the Dutch army, composed of comparatively so small, the nascent manufactures, and
men who had been born in various climates, and had the various classes of society, in a manner which will be
served under various standards, presented an aspect at much relished. The account of the country gentleman
once grotesque, gorgeous, and terrible to islanders who is a rich piece of Dutch painting, and scarcely less so is
had, in general, a very indistinct notion of forcign coun- that of the rural (as distinguished from the urbane)
tries. First rode Macclesfield at the head of two hundred clergy. The latter will excite fully as much surprise,
gentlemen, mostly of English blood, glittering in helmets however, as any other feeling. The clergy,' says our
and cuirasses, and mounted on Flemish war - horses. author, were regarded as, on the whole, a plebeian
Each was attended by a negro, brought from the sugar class. And indeed for one who made the figure of a
plantations on the coast of Guiana. The citizens of gentleman, ten were mere menial servants. A large
Exeter, who had never seen so many specimens of the proportion of those divines who had no benefices, or
African race, gazed with wonder on those black faces, whose benefices were too small to afford a comfortable
set off by embroidered turbans and white feathers. revenue, lived in the houses of laymen. In the man-
Then with drawn broadswords came a squadron of sions of men of liberal sentiments and cultivated under-
Swedish horsemen in black armour and fur cloaks. standings, the chaplain was doubtless treated with ur-
They were regarded with a strange interest; for it was banity and kindness. His conversation, his literary
rumoured that they were natives of a land where the assistance, his spiritual advice, were considered as an
ocean was frozen, and where the night lasted through ample return for his food, his lodging, and his stipend.
half the year, and that they had themselves slain the But this was not the general feeling of the country
huge bears whose skins they wore. Next, surrounded gentlemen. The coarse and ignorant squire, who thought
by a goodly company of gentlemen and pages, was borne that it belonged to his dignity to have grace said every
aloft the prince's banner. On its broad folds the crowd day at his table by an ecclesiastic in full canonicals,
which covered the roofs and filled the windows read found means to reconcile dignity with economy. A
with delight that memorable inscription, “ The Protes- young Levite--such was the phrase then in use-might
tant religion and the liberties of England.” But the be had for his board, a small garret, and ten pounds a
acclamations redoubled when, attended by forty running year, and might not only perform his own professional
footmen, the prince himself appeared, armed on back functions, might not only be the most patient of butts
and breast, wearing a white plume, and mounted on a and of listeners, might not only be always ready in fine
white charger. With how martial an air he curbed his weather for bowls, and in rainy weather for shovelboard,
horse; how thoughtful and commanding was the expres- but might also save the expense of a gardener, or of a
sion of his ample forehead and falcon eye, may still be groom. Sometimes the reverend man nailed up the apri-
seen on the canvas of Kneller. Once his grave features cots, and sometimes he curried the coach horses. He
relaxed into a smile. It was when an ancient woman- cast up the farrier's bills: he walked ten miles with a
perhaps one of those zealous Puritans who, through message or a parcel. If he was permitted to dine with
twenty-eight years of persecution, had waited with firm the family, he was expected to content himself with the
faith for the consolation of Israel; perhaps the mother plainest fare. He might fill himself with the corned
of some rebel who had perished in the carnage of Sedge-beef and the carrots; but as soon as the tarts and
moor, or in the more fearful carnage of the bloody cheesecakes made their appearance, he quitted his seat,
circuit-broke from the crowd, rushed through the and stood aloof till he was summoned to return thanks
drawn swords and curvetting horses, touched the hand for the repast, from a great part of which he had been
of the deliverer, and cried out that now she was happy. excluded.
Near to the prince was one who divided with him the Perhaps after some years of service he was presented
gaze of the multitude. That, men said, was the great to a living sufficient to support him; but he often found
Count Schomberg, the first soldier in Europe since it necessary to purchase his preferment by a species of
Turenne and Condé were gone; the man whose genius simony, which furnished an inexhaustible subject of
and valour had saved the Portuguese monarchy on the pleasantry to three or four generations of scoffers.
field of Montes Claros; the man who had earned a still With his cure he was expected to take a wife. The
higher glory by resigning the truncheon of a marshal wife had ordinarily been in the patron's service, and it
of France for the sake of his religion. It was not for- was well if she had not been suspected of standing too
gotten that the two heroes who, indissolubly united by high in the patron's favour. Indeed the nature of the
their common Protestantism, were entering Exeter to- matrimonial connections which the clergymen of that
gether, had, twelve years before, been opposed to each age were in the habit of forming, is the most certain in-
other under the walls of Maestricht, and that the energy dication of the place which the order held in the social
of the young prince had not then been found a match system. An Oxonian, writing a few months after the
for the cool science of the veteran who now rode in death of Charles II., complained bitterly not only that
friendship by his side. Then came a long column of the country attorney and the country apothecary looked
the whiskered infantry of Switzerland, distinguished in down with disdain on the country clergyman, but that
all the continental wars of two centuries by pre-eminent one of the lessons most earnestly inculcated on every
valour and discipline, but never till that week seen on girl of honourable family, was to give no encouragement
English ground. And then marched a succession of to a lover in orders; and that if any young lady forgot
bands designated, as was the fashion of that age, after this precept, she was almost as much disgraced as by
their leaders, Bentinck, Solmes, and Ginkel, Talmash, an illicit amour. Clarendon, who assuredly bore no
and Mackay. With peculiar pleasure Englishmen might ill-will to the church, mentions it as a sign of the con.
look on one gallant brigade which still bore the name fusion of ranks which the Great Rebellion had pro-
of the honoured and lamented Ossory. The effect of duced, that some damsels of noble families had be-
the spectacle was heightened by the recollection of the stowed themselves on divines. A waiting-woman was
renowned events in which many of the warriors now generally considered as the most suitable helpmate for
pouring through the West Gate had borne & share; a parson. Queen Elizabeth, as head of the church, had
for they had seen service very different from that of given what seemed to be a formal sanction to this pre-

judice, by issuing special orders that no clergyman house I occupied, and as having ridden a black Dona should presume to marry a servant girl without the gola horse; and Burckhardt, whom he styled Sheik consent of her master or mistress. During several gene Ibrahim, who lived on the Canal of the Adouy, and rations, accordingly, the relation between priests and every evening used to smoke his pipe on the balcony handmaidens was a theme for endless jest; nor would overlooking the canal. He was fat and strong, with a it be easy to find, in the comedy of the seventeenth black beard and a round face, added Sheik Ahmed; century, a single instance of a clergyman who wins a and in answer to an inquiry I made relative to the spouse above the rank of a cook. Even so late as the height of his forehead, he informed me that his face time of George II., the keenest of all observers of life was about the size of the moon.' and manners, himself a priest, remarked that, in a great Perhaps,' said I, ' very like a moon, but not gaite so household, the chaplain was the resource of a lady's big.' maid whose character had been blown upon, and who * I mean,' quoth he, 'the size of the figure of the was therefore forced to give up hopes of catching the moon if drawn on a window.' steward.

We then talked of bookselling, and a curious fact • In general, the divine who quitted his chaplainship came out--that while most books in Europe after a for a benefice and a wife, found that lie had only ex- year or two lose their value, and never regain it changed one class of vexations for another. : Not one (except as objects of antiquarian interest after generaliving in fifty enabled the incumbent to bring up a tions or centuries), the Egyptian edition of the Arabian family comfortably. As children multiplied and grew, Nights' Entertainments, which was published at 18s., the household of the priest became more and more has now risen to L.2. A copy of this work was lying beggarly. Holes appeared more and more plainly in on the table whien the servant entered with coffee, so the thatch of his parsonage, and in his single cassock. he asked my Nubian his name, and being answered Often it was only by toiling on his glebe, by feeding Ahmed, he said, “Take care, Ahmed, never to tell tales swine, and by loading dung-carts, that he could obtain out of your master's house ; take notice that this is not daily bread; nor did his utmost exertions always pre- the Koran, but the Thousand -and-One Nights Book; vent the bailiffs from taking his concordance and his assure yourself of the faet.' This was a striking proof inkstand in execution. It was a white day on which of his fear lest it should be suspected that he had sold he was admitted into the kitchen of a great house, and a copy of the Koran to a Frank. regaled by the servants with cold meat and ale. His He told me that his sources of income were his shop children were brought up like the children of the in the Book Bazaar ; a small daily stipend from governneighbouring peasantry. His boys followed the plough, ment as valuator of books; and the rent of a few houses and his girls went out to service. Study he found im- in the Mergoosch, a quarter a little farther from the possible, for the advowson of his living would hardly Nile, and a little nearer Mount Mokattam, tlian the one have sold for a sum sufficient to purchase a good theo- in which I lived. He proposed that I should accompany logical library, and he might be considered as unusually him to his house, which I accordingly did, and found it lucky if he had ten or twelve dog-eared volumes among to be at the back of one of the original gates of Cairo the pots and pans on his shelves. Even a keen and of the time of the Fatimite Caliphs ; but the Bab strong intellect might be expected to rust in so un- Shareey, as it is called, is, from the extension of the favourable a situation.'

city, now in the heart of modern Cairo; and a pic.

turesque Saracenic gate, of the age of Saladin, who A CAIRO BOOKSELLER.

removed the principal gates of Cairo, frowns orer a

thoroughfare crowded by the pacific or pusillanimous A BOORSELLER on the banks of the Seine is not a very modern Arabs. Planging into a barrow passage, or different person from one on the banks of the Thames, close, as we would say in Edinburgh, we came to a otherwise than that he has his country-house at Ruel broad door, with a small wooden grate above it; and or Passy, instead of Bayswater or Bromley. Lueky pointing to it, he told me with great gravity that it mortal! if he be possessed of capital and skill (as the was the house of a droll old bookseller who had the reTonson or Lintot of the times usually is), he can make putation of being eccentric; 'but,' added he, he is far a fortune by the routine of business without cramping from being a bad fellow;' and raising his bamboo cane, his intellect, and indulge in much of the interesting he tapped three times on the knocker, on which a shrill labour of the man of letters without suffering the pains voice called out from above, “Who is there?' to which and penalties of authorship. But when we get to the he answered, “Some one who wishes to speak to Sheik banks of the Nile, we find ourselves in a new, or Ahmed the bookseller, if he be at home.' rather in an old world, where the caligraphist has not Ha hou-there he is !' said the voice. yet been expelled by the printer ; where even a news- * Two strangers from the Fayoum have come to see paper may come out a day sooner or later, to suit the him,' added Sheik Ahmed. convenience of editors and compositors; where a puff *Do not make a fool of me before strangers,' said or an advertisement is unknown; and where the biblio- the voice, which was that of the bookseller's servant pole, good easy man, taking it into his head to go on a Fatimeh; and this girl, when we got up stairs, my trip to the fair of Tuntah, locks up his establishment companion always addressed, 'Oh, girl!''Oh, Fatimeh!' for a week at a time.

just as he had addressed my man, Oh, Ahmed!' Ob, One morning, during a recent visit to Cairo, on re-Nubiap!' turning from a country trip, I alighted at my house in What would not Estade have given for a sight of the Sooh es Zulut, and was informed that a sheik was the mandarah* of Sheik Ahmed! An old divan surawaiting my arrival in the divan above. On going up rounded it, and an old Turkey carpet covered the floor; stairs, I found a man apparently from sixty to sixty- chests and pressés of books were at the lower end of five years of age, with a white turban, white beard, fair the room, and on a high shelf a row of large old China complexion, and blind of one eye; and on opening the plates, which had not been dusted for six months. A letter he presented me, I learned that he was the re-projecting bole of curiously-carved woodwork rendered nowned Sheik Ahmed el Katoby; the glass-eating book the street visible both up and down; and above it was seller of the Egyptian metropolis, who, from his perfect a large window, without glass, admitting a broad flood knowledge of Cairo life, was the most desirable acquaint- of sunlight, chequered by curiously-turned wooden nulance an Orientalist could have.

lions. He talked of the various Franks he had known; he Fatimeh, who had blue cotton striped garments, with was aware that Mr Lane had given an account of him yellow slippers, and a blue veil on her face, placed a in the preface to the ‘ Modern Egyptians,' and he passed a brilliant eulogy on that scholar. He also recollected

* The mandarah, or place of seeing, corresponds virtually with Sir Gardner Wilkinson as having lived in the very our parlour, or place of speaking.

cushion for me; but it being in the draugut of air, why should he give such notice to so contemptible a Sheik Ahmed reproved her, saying that the cat had being as Sheik Ahmed? It must have been some more sense, since it sat out of the drauglit. This offended afreet. Bodily death I am not afraid of; the only real poor Fatimeh; on' which Sheik Ahmed, pulling the death is when a man's purse is empty, and he does not cat towards him, questioned it as to the fact; and the know how to fill it again. There is nothing like a little referee, as he pinched its ear, replying with a loud mew, money in life, although, when the death of the body he remarked that the cat confirmed what he had said. comes, money will not avail. If I said to Azrael (the Shortly after we were seated, and coffee was served, in Angel of Death), “Azrael !" “ Well, what do you came Sheik Mustapha, formerly one of the Ulenia of want?” quoth he. "Sheik Ahmed wishes you to the aghar or university of Cairo, but now a very old spare his life ten days, and he will give you five man, who never went out of the quarter, where his piastres." "No; not one day indeed." "Allah halykhouse was exactly opposite that of Sheik Ahmed. He may God deal kindly with yourself !-oh Azrael, spare had been at Damascus, and abused the Damascenes life one day, and he will give you five purses." · Not roundly for being addicted to waste and extravagance, an hour." “ Thou good, kind Azrael-thou excellent reciting a piece of poetry he had made against the in- and respected Azrael, spare his life, and he will give habitants of Salahieh, a suburb of that city, accusing you fifty purses !” “No, not one minute : so cease them of being Arfad or heterodox Moslems.

your clack, and come along !!!! We then fell to talking of the various libraries of We then went to see the sale of the books printed at Cairo, of which, it appears, that of the aghar or univer- the government press of Boulak. The place of sale is sity is the largest; but neither Sheik Ahmed nor Sheik a new large edifice close to the Mehkemeh, and is in Mustapha could tell me the precise number of volumes the form of a European library, with a gallery above, it contains. The library of Ibrahim Pacha, which is the all quite new, and having a European look. But while largest in general literature in Egypt, numbers 8000 the value of the edition of the Arabian Nights' has volumes; the private library of Mohammed Ali about doubled, the useful works go off slowly even at low and 500; that of the late Halieb Effendi above 5000; while unremunerating prices. For a Life of Napoleon,' in the fragments of the Turkisht libraries brought from quarto, with close print, I paid three shillings; the the Morea after the Greek war have 1500 volumes, and Memoirs of the Empress Catherine,' of the same size, in are deposited in the citadel. All the mosques of Cairo Turkish, cost half-a-crown; but, as usual, after making were in the last century possessed of libraries, but these my purchase, and paying the money, when about to go have gradually oozed away through the dishonesty of away, I was given to understaud that bucksheesh, or the librarians and inspectors. Some years ago, the vails, to the salesinan were customary. Library of Moyed, of 9000 volumes, was burnt; but as Our next visit was to the mosque of Barkonk, which the inspector had for some time been selling the books has no library of general literature, but the finest and privately, and as the pacha had at length demanded a largest Kurans in the world. Each leaf is a whole calfcatalogue of them, it was generally reported that the skin, dressed with the greatest care, and cut square. fire was not accidental.

The character is beautiful, and the illumination, mostly On a subsequent occasion I went to see Sheik in blue and gold, surpasses anything I ever saw before Alimed at his shop in the Book Bazaar, which is a in either Christian, Missal, or Oriental manuscript, small courtyard leading off the main line of bazaars. Sheik Ahmed, having a brisk flow of animal spirits, The court is very dark, from the height of the and a lively relish for adventure, proved both a useful houses, and accommodates only five booksellers in this and an entertaining companion in the course of many large city of above 200,000 souls. Their principal rambles and peregrinations in Cairo: but this is not stock consists of Korans and theological works, which Sheik Ahmed's first appearance on any stage. Mr they are not allowed to sell to Franks, and which Lane, in his preface to the Modern Egyptians,' has are interesting only to those who make a study of given an account of his glass-eating frenzies. He Moslem theology. The scientific manuscript works then entered the order of the Ahmedeeyeh, and as they are written by men who lived in a circle of ex- likewise never ate glass, he determined not to do so ploded ideas, and to the general scholar the most inte again. However, soon after, at a meeting of some resting are those on history and poetry the former brethren of this order, when several Saadeeyeh also were unfortunately very rare and dear. The greatest of the present, he again was seized with frenzy, and jumping Egyptian historians is the celebrated El Macreezy, a up to a chandelier, caughi hold of one of the small native of Baalbec in Syria (hence his name from a glass lamps attached to it, and devoured about half of quarter of that quondam city), who flourished in Cairo it, swallowing also the oil and water which it contained. in the middle of the fifteenth century. He was not He was conducted before his sheik, to be tried for this only one of the greatest lawyers and theologians of his offence; but on his taking an oath never to eat glass age, but has left the only really ample and authentic again, he was neither punished nor expelled the order. histories of the various political systems that have suc. Notwithstanding this oath, he soon again gratified his ceeded each other in Egypt from the Moslem conquest propensity to eat a glass lamp; and a brother darweesh, down to his own period. The most useful of his works who was present, attempted to do the same; but a to a stranger in Cairo is the “Kitab el Kbitat,' or topo- large fragment stuck between the tongue and palate of graphical description of Cairo, with the history of all this rash person, and my friend had great trouble to the great edifices, showing the successive growth of the extract it.' town to its present extent, for in his day Cairo was Thus wrote Mr Lane in 1835; but in 1846 he no more populous than at present. A common copy of longer ate glass, although his voracity in other respects this work is not to be had under eight hundred piastres, was surprising for a man between sixty and seventy or nearly L.8 sterling; and a very fine one, lent me by years of age. His anecdotes were endless; and what Mr Lane, was worth from L.10 to L.12. I am sur- gave a great zest to his society was, that, unlike other prised that this work has not received an earlier atten- Orientals, ho could not rest on his seat while speaking, tion from both the Oriental Translation Fund and the but always got up and aeted his stories, and this so Text Fund.

naturally and unconsciously, as to cause great merriWhen I entered the bazaar, I found Sheik Ahmed Ident. On one occasion a sensation of another kind in boisterous spirits, and he told me that some im- was excited by his histrionic skill. One Friday the pudent afreet had given him a false alarm: that four afternoon prayer was called from the minaret of the nights ago he had dreamed that he should die in three neighbouring mosque, and he threw off his upper tunic, days, but he had that morning awakened alive and and displaying an under-dress of crimson satin, began merry. The booksellers on each side of him now began saying his prayers. An English visitor of mine was to joke him on his dream, on which he said, 'God did present; and after the prayers were done, while connot tell Mohammed beforehand when he was to die; I versing with them alternately, I told Sheik Ahmed that

I meant to spend a day in the debtors’ jail, chatting steam, I was complimented with the title of an afreet. with the prisoners on their fortunes and misfortunes. On this Sheik Ahmed observed that balloons would He endeavoured to dissuade me from this, telling me soon supersede steam, and he straightway received a that I should cover myself with vermin; and suiting similar eulogium on his knowledge and sagacity. Such the action to the word, commenced a mock hunt over are the Arabs of Cairo; like childrenhis person with such seriousness and activity, that the

Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw.' visitor, who did not understand Arabic, was horrified, until I explained that it was his method of suiting the

HIGH SCHOOL OF HOBART TOWN. action to the word.

Another day I had a curious instance of his unoriental By a letter from an obliging correspondent in Tasmania, impulses. It was agreed that Sheik Ahmed, along dated in May last, we find that much indignation conwith Hanife Effendi, an intelligent young Egyptian tinues to be felt and expressed by the colonists at the educated in Egypt, should accompany me on a visit to continued influx of convicts from the mother country. Sheik Mohammed Shehab, the editor of the Arab But the colonists do not confine themselves to comnewspaper of Cairo, who lived close by. When we got plaints. They do not submit, in grumbling, to the down stairs, I said to Sheik Ahmed, on account of his transfusion of the moral poison into their veins. They age, that we should walk at as slow a pace as he chose; do not fold their hands in helpless despair as they see but instead of being pleased, he replied, “Nonsense! you their country converted into a vast jail. What, then, want to make an old man of me;' and this youth of is the plan they adopt? Do they get up an antipodeal seventy began straightway to walk at such a rate, that rebellion? Do they massacre, as they arrive, the comwe were soon lost in the crowd of the bazaar. We now pulsory emigrants, who are turned loose upon their soil waited for Hanife, and then returned to the door to like so many packs of wolves ? No: the Tasmanians ! look for him; but not seeing him, we thought he had are too wise and too brave for this. They apply a gone round another way; and after waiting a few moral remedy to a moral evil; and while our govern. minutes at the door of Sheik Mohammed Shehab, we ment is doing all it can to contaminate them, they ! paid our visit without him. Next day I met Hanife, are doing all they can to resist the contamination, by who appeared much offended, telling me that I had establishing, on a great and comprehensive scale-a treated him shamefully, in making a mere semblance of SCHOOL. going down stairs to the door, and then suddenly re- * Within one month,' says our correspondent, 'from entering the house with Sheik Ahmed, leaving him the day on which the institution was projected, nearly like a fool in the street. When I explained, however, L.5000 was subscribed, payable by instalments within Sheik Ahmed's sudden fit of pedestrianism, his coun- a year. Of this sum L.2082 has been paid in cash, and tenance cleared, and he said, laughing, that it was just the residue by bills. We have resolved to engage a like him.

head classical master for three years, at a salary of On another occasion I took Sheik Ahmed to an L.400 per annum, and L.50 per annum for a house ; English lady, then occupied in writing a book on Cairo; and we have remitted to England L.100 for his passageand on his asking for a gift of remembrance to give to money, and L.50 for useful books; and further, to his wife, he received a pair of gloves; so when we came secure his salary for three years, we have set apart and out, he said to me, 'What will that lady say in her invested L.1200 on landed security. The colonial gobook of me?' I answered that I had no doubt she would vernment have given us about five acres of land in the describe him as the renowned Sheik Ahmed el Katoby. Queen's Park at Hobart Town as a site for the institu“I think not,' said he: she will say that she saw the tion; and we are about to expend L.3000 in building, sheik of the beggars, old, and blind of one eye, who for which purpose our subscribed capital will be aided would not go away until he received a gift.'

by donations to a building fund. Thus much for our Having a general commission to take me to the exertions, the success of which must in a great measure remarkable places in Cairo, for a small weekly stipend, depend upon the character and ability of our head mashe called upon me every afternoon after business hours; ter. Our community is not sufficiently large to enable and the rest of the day was devoted either to seeing each sect or denomination of Protestants to support its curiosities, or accompanying him in visits to an endless own school, and we therefore aim at establishing one round of acquaintances. One day he stopped at the at which pupils may assemble for educational purposes lofty door of a house which seemed deserted and ne- on neutral ground, their religious instruction being imglected, and said, “This is the celebrated house of the parted by their friends and ministers at home-our only Street El Tamayn, which was frequented by an afreet, rule being, that the Bible shall be read in the instituwho ate all the victuals presented to it. Ay, ay,' said tion. he, in reply to my incredulous smile, ‘I knew that you • We have suffered so much in character and fortune would doubt it; but ask the people of the quarter.' So by the influx, year after year, of thousands of England's approaching a pipemaker, who was boring a hole in a prisoners, continued up to this very day,* against the long cherry-stick, he asked if that was not the house continued petitions and remonstrances of nearly every in which the afreet used to come and eat the victuals. free colonist, and in violation of the pledges of the

• Perfectly true-perfectly true,' said the pipemaker, home government, that our ability to subscribe thus continuing to bore : 'it is six years ago.'

liberally is astonishing ; while our inclination to do so It is much longer,' interposed a tall young man who may be regarded as a proof that, although our adopted stood by, 'for my beard was not then grown. The country has been made the penal settlement of Great zabib, or prefect of police, came and caused food to be Britain, we have still left among our free colonists the put into the room, and without visible hands or body, elements of good.' it was always devoured.'

The plan of the school appears to be sound and pracUp came a man, who saluted Sheik Ahmed with tical, and is expressly adapted for the peculiar position great familiarity, and then another, and another, till I of the colonists, by far the greater part of whom are remarked what a number of people he seemed to necessarily engaged in agriculture, and the various know.

forms of colonial trade and commerce. In addition to “Yes,' replied he aloud, “I know this street well: I classical education ‘for the few,' there are to be classes have married thirty-three wives in my life, and one of in English literature, mathematics, chemistry, and nathem was out of this quarter!'

tural history, for the many; and the fundamental reguThe sheik of the quarter then presented me with a lations on the subject of religion are as follow:--Ist, pinch of snuff, and I perceived that his snuff-box had a That the Holy Scriptures shall be read in the institurepresentation of a railway, with several locomotives on it. He told me it was a steamboat; and on my informing him that it was a chain of coaches propelled by arrived within the last week, and are now in our harbour.

* Two prison ships, laden with male and female convicts, have

tion to the pupils thereof daily; but that to preserve to the bakers' wives, and they have made bolters of the Catholicity of the institution, this rule shall not be them.' enforced in the case of any pupil whose parent or The bolting-cloth was often out of repair; the smallest guardian may object to it; 2d, That the inculcation of hole made it necessary to dress the flour again; and as the peculiar tenets of any religious denomination shall only one kind could be dressed at a time, the process be scrupulously avoided, as foreign to the design of the was very tedious. In this state of matters there was institution. It may be added, that a peculiar part of the much room for improvement; and the improver, from plan is the facility it gives for the instruction of adults an accidental circumstance, at length appeared. This -of persons who were precluded in their youth from was James Milne, a native of Aberdeen, who had for opportunities of education.

some years been settled at Rochdale in Lancashire, The council of the institution have applied to the where, in a humble way, he carried on the trade of a University College of London, soliciting it to recom- wireworker. One side of his shop was occupied with mend a head master; and it is to be hoped the request the articles of his trade manufactured by himself

, and will be attended to in the right spirit, as much will on the other were displayed for sale a few articles of depend upon the individual selected for carrying out linen and woollen drapery. this excellent, and, under the circumstances, truly won- One day James Howard, a miller, and brother-in-law derful undertaking. Although giving it, however, our of Milne, entered the shop to purchase some boltinghearty commendation, and expressing the respect with cloth, and while it was being measured, he said, “James, which it inspires us for the character of the projectors, I wish thou wouldst invent something in wire that we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that the High would last longer than this cloth: thou art a clever School of Hobart Town, however successful it may be fellow at invention : set thy wits to work, and it will as an educational institution, must act only in a slow make thy fortune if it answers.' Accordingly, Milne and partial manner as a remedy. This remark, how did set his wits to work; and the genius which had ever, is not made to damp the ardour of the enlightened hitherto displayed itself in the construction of birdportion of the colonists, but to suggest to them that cages and mouse-traps, soon produced a machine for they must not be satisfied while the evil remains, the dressing flour, which was taken to Bucklaw mills, in effects of which they are endeavouring to combat, and the neighbourhood, to be tried. It answered perfectly; to instigate them to continue to demand and insist upon indeed so complete was it, that little alteration has that redress to which they are entitled. They know by been made on it since. experience that the Colonial Office is not likely to do The invention, which occurred between the years anything of itself buť mischief; and the pressure from 1760 and 1770, improved, we believe, the fortune of without must continue to be applied till it yields to the James Milne, who at all events removed to Manchesrequirements of justice and true policy.

ter, where he amassed sufficient property to enable him

to retire from business. His latter years, it seems, OBSCURE INVENTORS.

embraced some romantic circumstances; but we have

only the means of mentioning that he removed with his Does it ever occur to any one how many great and family to France, where he died. useful inventions in the arts are inherited by the pre- To the foregoing anecdote may be added a notice of sent age, not only without its having paid anything for the manner in which England acquired the art of them, but for the most part without a consciousness of splitting bars of iron, for it refers to the efforts of an who were the inventors? In general, there exists little obscure genius-a man so abject as to be a street violindoubt as to who were the discoverers of the steam-engine, player, yet who is said to have laid the foundation of a and the other mighty things which are daily doing such family of distinction. We take the account from a late wonders; but of the origin of many thousands of small number of the Mining Journal :'-" The most extrainventions, although important in their way, little is ordinary and the best-attested instance of enthusiasm popularly known. Farther perhaps than the transient existing in conjunction with perseverance is related of publicity of a newspaper paragraph, names worthy of the founder of the Foley family. This man, who was a renown receive no distinct recognition. The world gets fiddler, living near Stourbridge, frequently witnessed the a present of something which makes life glide more immense labour and loss of time caused by dividing the smoothly, and soon nobody can tell who was the bene- rods of iron necessary in the process of making nails. factor. When looking at one of the most highly-im- The discovery of the process of “splitting,” in works proved watehes, we are little aware of the number of called “splitting mills," was first made in Sweden, and minds which for centuries have been thinking and con- the consequences of this advance in art were most disastriving in order to bring this little machine to its pre- trous to the manufacturers of iron about Stourbridge. sent condition. And so on with everything else. There Foley the fiddler was shortly missed from his accus. is not a single process in the arts which has not engaged tomed rounds, and was not again seen for many years. mind after mind to carry it to perfection. What time He had mentally resolved to ascertain by what means has been consumed in calculation—what hopes have been the splitting of bars of iron was accomplished, and raised, raised only to be disappointed-worst of all, what without communicating his intention to a single human ingratitude has been experienced for the world, be it being, he proceeded to Hull, and thence, without funds, known, never thanks anybody for anything- unless, worked his passage to the Swedish iron port. Arrived indeed, it be in the way of fighting, which seldom goes in Sweden, he begged and fiddled his way to the iron without the highest commendations and rewards. foundries, where, after a time, he became a universal

On the present occasion, we are happy to be able to favourite with the workmen; and from the apparent rescue the name of a humble but meritorious inventor entire absence of intelligence, or anything like ultimate from oblivion. Until within the last eighty years, the object, he was received into the works, to every part of finer kind of flour was made by what was called bolting it which he had access. He took the advantage thus through a coarse cloth. This cloth was fastened loosely offered, and having stored his memory with observaon a skeleton cylinder, and enclosed in a box with pro- tions, he disappeared from amongst his kind friends as jecting wooden ribs inside, against which the cloth beat he had appeared, no one knew why or whither. On when the cylinder was turned round, and thus knocked his return to England, he communicated his voyage and the fine particles of flour through. The bolting.cloth its results to Mr Knight and another person in the was usually of woollen, but more anciently it appears to neighbourhood with whom he associated, and by whom have consisted of coarse linen called dowlas. The dia- the necessary buildings were erected, and machinery logue in Shakspeare's play of Henry IV. between the provided. When at length everything was prepared, it hostess and Falstaff will here occur to remembrance. was found that the machinery would not act; at all Hostess.- I bought you a dozen shirts to your back. events it did not answer the sole end of its erectionFalstaff.—Dowlas--filthy dowlas. I have given them | it would not split the bar of iron. Foley disappeared

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