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before-mentioned, the inhabitants are pure Celts; in severance; generally speaking, they are more orderly Gascony (so called from the Uascones), Iberian blood and more industrious, more reserved and graver in probably predominates. In person the Celts are spare demeanour than their neighbours. In person they are and hardy. There have been many disputes as to their of good size and robust, light or brown haired, and blue original complexion : Cæsar speaks of them as red-haired: or brown eyed. As they occupy almost exclusively they are now, however, much darker than their Teutonic their various countries, they require a briefer notice brethren ; their eyes are generally black or gray; they than has been bestowed on the more complicated races. are active in mind and body, impetuous, imaginative, Another widely - diffused race, the Slavonians, is hospitable, from their old clan-customs more obedient spread over eastern Europe. The nations of their to persons than principles, and more devoted to kindred stock are the Russians and Poles, the Bohemians, Mothan country. Their greatest evil is an unhappy prone- ravians, Carinthians, Carniolans, and Wendes, in Gerness to intestine strife, which has been beyond doubt many; the Slovaks, in Hungary; the Croats, Slavothe most potent cause of their decline in those countries nians, Servians, Dalmatians, Montenegrins, Bosniaks, they once exclusively possessed.
and Bulgarians. With generally excellent qualities of Our earliest notices of the Iberians are as the inha- head and heart, the Slavonians are in a much less bitants of the Spanish Peninsula, whence they pushed advanced state of civilisation than the majority of themselves into Southern Gaul, Sardinia, and Corsica. the nations of western Europe. Feudalism prevails As a distinct people they have nearly disappeared. amongst them still. In the present day, the project of Modern investigation tends to prove that the Basques a Panslavonia, or great United Slavonic Empire, has of Spain and France are their representatives. In all been broached; but we fear such a powerful union of those countries where they once dwelt-Spain, Portu- half-civilised states would be anything but favourable gal, Gascony, Sardinia, &c.—they still form an impor- for the progress of European liberty and refinement. tant ingredient in the very diversified population; a Without reckoning the more mixed races- the diversity in appearance, temperament, language, and French, Spaniards, &c.—the number of the comparacostume, which, visible all over southern Europe, is no- tively pure races already enumerated has been estimated where perhaps so strongly-marked as in Spain-diver- as follows :sity owing to the variety in surface and climate, and
9,000.00) deficiency in internal communication keeping alive the Iberians, characteristics of the many races who from age to age Teutons (in Europe and America), have colonised or conquered there--Celt and Iberian,
70,000,000 Greek and Roman, Teuton and Moor. The tall Catalan, The other great families inhabiting Europe are the in long red cap, and long sash-girt trousers, with his Asiatic race of the Magyars of Hungary, and the Fins rough manner and restless enterprise, is different from who dwell in the north of Europe: though these two the sullen, listless Murcian: the affable but treacherous nations have a similar origin and cognate languages, Valencian, with animated features, and loose mantle, there is no resemblance between them in manners or chequered like the Scottish tartan, is the reverse of the person. The Magyars are a handsome social people ; grave, stately, high-minded Castilian : while the An- the Fins, though honest and hospitable, are gloomy and dalusian—boastful, graceful, and gay, the dandy of repulsive in manner, and of sinister uncouth appearance, Spain—is the very antipode of the simple, honest Gal. which was probably the cause of their old reputation lego, in his coarse garb and hobnailed shoes. Teutonic for necromancy, which they retain even still with some blood is more evident in Galicia, Asturias, and Cata- of our own sailors. To the Finnish race belong the lonia than elsewhere in the Peninsula ; Moorish blood Laplanders, Livonians, Esthes, &c. The Vlaches of in the south; and Iberian, or Celt-Iberian, in the other Wallachia and Moldavia (the former Dacia), and the provinces. The Basques, the representatives of the fierce natives of Albania (the old Illyria), are supposed Iberians, are a bold, sturdy population. Their charac- to be the aborigines of those countries. The once gloter comprises many valuable qualities-honesty, fru- rious nation of the Greeks is still a fine people, though gality, cheerfulness, industry, and a high spirit of in- now in a semi-civilised condition, very different from dependence. Of the origin of the older Italian nations their former high estate. They are not confined to -the Etruscans, Umbrians, &c.—we know nothing for Greece, but spread largely over European Turkey, the certain. The Celts had undoubtedly large possessions coasts of Asia Minor, the Archipelago, and Levant. in Italy, and the Iberians probably some colonies. The And now that, in the present day, the project has Greeks had also large settlements. Indeed Sicily and been started by Germans and Slavonians of collecting South Italy, called from this circumstance Magna the various nations of the same race under the same Græcia, were to a great extent colonised by them. On government, it may not be improper to consider a little the downfall of Rome, the Teutonic tribe of the Longo- its merits. Its objects are to confirm and strengthen bards settled in, and gave their name to, Lombardy. nationality, and preserve a greater purity of race. The In the middle ages, the Normans and Spaniards con- preservation of nationality is both desirable and praisequered in the south, and the Saracens also in Sicily. worthy, and should be with every nation a primary From all these circumstances, and the subdivision of care. In other respects we fear this plan will be less the country into independent states, the population is advantageous. An amalgamation of races has (in of almost as varied a character as in Spain. The western Europe at least) been invariably found benesteady, plodding Lombard shows his Teutonic origin; ficial. The present progressive character of the British the Greek is the predominating element in the mercu- people has by many been attributed to the circumstance rial Plupotitan.
of their being so much mixed; and this will appear to Germany and Scandinavia were the original countries have considerable show of reason, when we reflect that of the Teutons, and in those countries they still con- the Teutons and Celts are races so contrasted, that the tinue unadulterated. The various proportions of their deficiencies in one are almost invariably the promiadmixture with the population in southern Europe has nent characteristics of the other—Teutonic perseverance been already noticed. The unmixed nations of this and patience, and Celtic impetuosity and quickness of race are the Germans, Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Ice- perception ; Celtic social graces, and Tenton practical landers, Dutch, and by far the greater proportion of ability. Teutonic intellect is generally considered prothe Swiss, English, Lowland Scotch, and British colo- founder and slower than the Celtic. The first people nists in the north of Ireland. The Belgians are chiefly of the feudal days, in force of character and military Teutons, too, with a mingling of French blood. The prowess, was unquestionably the Normans. In the Teutons are the most widely-spread of all the European various countries of their conquests they exhibited : races. The qualities most prominent in their character, more enduring mental energy than the Celts, more and which have contributed mainly to their present mental activity than the Teutons, proceeding from their diffusion and progress, are enterprise, patience, and per- being a compound of the two races. In the present day,
the Provençals of France and the Catalans of Spain are leaf bears that it was printed by Wynkin de Worde in the least unmixed nations of their respective countries, 1521. It is now in the Bodleian Library. * and both mentally and physically are certainly inferior In Queen's College, Oxford, it is customary for a to no other Spaniards or Frenchmen.
boar's head to form part of the fare on Christmas day. It is decorated with a wreath of bays and rosemary, and
a lemon is placed in the mouth. This dish is carried CHRISTMAS IN THE OLDEN TIME. into the hall on the shoulders of two men, preceded by
the scholars and taberders, one of the latter, who is conA loud and laughing welcome to the merry Christmas bells ! All hail! with happy gladness, to the well-known chant that sidered to have the finest voice, singing the following swells:
carol, and all the members of the college assembled at We list the pealing anthem chord, we hear the midnight strain, dinner joining in the chorus : And love the tidings that proclaim Old Christmas once again. But there must be a melody of purer, deeper sound,
The boar's head in hand bear I, A rich key-note whose echo runs through all the music round;
Bedecked with bays and rosemary ; Let kindly voices ring beneath low roof or palace dome,
And I pray you, my masters, be merry,
Quot estis in convivio.
Caput Apri defiro,
Reddens laudes Domino. AMIDST the disturbances of these agitated times, which
The boar's head, as I understand, have more or less affected every link in the chain of
Is the rarest dish in all this land, society, Christmas--merry Christmas-offers a delight
Which thus bedecked with a gay garland,
Let us sorrire cantico. ful relief. With this high festival are associated joy,
Coput Ajri defero, peace, and happiness. Those who have perhaps been
Reddens laudes Domino. separated during the rest of the year, meet then around
Our steward hath provided this the household altar, and thus a species of home religion
In honour of the King of Bliss, is established which has a more beneficial effect than
Which on this day to be served is
In reginensi atrio. most people imagine. This social gathering creates and
Caput Apri difero, keeps alive bright sympathies in the heart
Reddens laudis Domino. * As 'mid the waste, an isle of fount and palm
There is an older version of this carol given by Ritson For ever green's
in his book of Ancient Psalms. . This ceremony has From time immemorial Christmas has been the most reference to an antiquated story of a boar having in prominent festival in the calendar of 'man's devotion," days of yore been killed by a taberder of Queen's Col
lege with a Greek Testament. and in all Christian countries it has been hailed as a
In the Isle of Man, an absurd and cruel custom forseason of holy joy and gladness. In the primitive merly existed. After divine service on Christmas church no holiday was so marked by ceremonies. eve, which was performed at night, the people hunted
On the three first Thursdays of December, young and killed a wren, which they carried in much state people went round to the different houses, singing in to the church, and buried with many superstitious honour of the approaching anniversary, and wishing rites. In Spain, the festivities of Christmas eve in the inhabitants 'A merry Christmas and happy New the olden times were not of a very decorous chaYear,' upon which they were presented with fruit and racter. All the shops, stalls, booths, and warehouses money. Our modern · Waits' are in imitation of this were illuminated and crowded with visitors-it was custom ; they are not always most musical,' and but a time of general merriment. Every one who could indifferent substitutions for the joyous carols of early afford it provided a supper, which invariably contimes. In many country places there yet exists a sisted of rice-milk, a turkey, a large tart, sweetmeats, custom for the village choir to visit the houses of the and the best wines, according to the ability of the principal residents, and perform a selection of music entertainer. The company spent much of the night relative to the season, when their vocal and instru- in dancing and private theatricals. Before their sepamental powers are in full force; and although the ration, a manger was represented, containing the Virsounds may not be quite in unison with a delicate ear, gin and the infant Jesus, surrounded by Joseph, the yet they are expressive of good-feeling and kindliness of shepherds, an ox and an ass. These were arranged heart, and thus there is no small pleasure in listening on a little stage brilliantly illuminated. Some of these to these rural musicians.
mangers were very costly, and frequently brought into The Eve or Vigil of Christmas was formerly distin. Spain from Bohemia a short time before Christmas. guished by various sports and observances, which com. During the celebration of midnight mass, the greatest menced about eight o'clock in the evening, when hot license prevailed. The congregation pelted the priests cakes and ale were distributed, and carols were chanted. with apples and chestnuts, the sequadilla was played, The singing was continued during the greater part of and at the conclusion of the service the fandango was the night, whilst the Yule log and Christmas candles permitted. Vallanciros, or Christmas staves, set to shed their cheerful glow in the lordly mansion and the most popular airs, were sung; but they bore no lowly cot. Although most of these antique customs semblance of devotion, and were performed in all the have departed, burning the Yule log is still continued in theatres during the first four weeks after Christmas. some parts of England, more particularly in the north. These unseemly and irreverent proceedings have, howCarol singing is of very ancient origin, and yet pre- ever, been discontinued for very many years. The vails on the Continent. In our island, the fashion is Council of Braga, A. D. 563, strictly enjoined the comnearly discarded: where it is retained, it has lost much memoration of the Nativity, and directed anathemas of its original character, and it is now confined to the to be pronounced on all those who did not duly honour humbler classes. Leland remarks, “In the medell of this day of rejoicing. It was imagined by some, that the hall sat the deane and thoos of the king's chapell, as the Holy Child was born in a manger, the day whiche incontynently after the king's furst course singe should be kept in fasting and humility ; but one of a carall. Instead of the psalms for Christmas day being the Fathers observes, 'The contempt of the place was read, it was customary, particularly during the evening took off by the glory of the attendance and ministraservice, for these festal hymns to be chanted, when the tions of angels.' voices of the whole congregation were united, the clerk In the days of our forefathers, Christmas-day was concluding by wishing in an audible voice, - A merry that on which not only relations assembled, but the Christmas and happy New Year' to all the parishioners. The earliest known collection of carols sup- * New Curiosities of Literature, and Book of the Months. By posed to have been published is one of which the last George Soane.
baronial hall was filled with retainers of every degree, mer country, on the morning of the festal day, the
keeping their Christmas holiday ;' all partook of the roads are thronged with sledges conveying visitors to bounty of their lord, which was bestowed with no their destinations; and the bells, which decorate the sparing hand. Besides the ponderous baron of beef, harness of the hardy little horses, make a merry tinkroasted kid, venison pasties, and innumerable other | ling in the clear frosty air. The day begins with divine good things, the festive board was graced by a peacock, service. The churches are remarkable for all absence which, according to a manuscript in the possession of of architectural ornament, which accords well with the the Royal Society, was roasted, after which the feathers simplicity of the Lutheran form of worship. The con. were replaced by a skilful artiste. This manuscript gregations are large, and evince the greatest devotion says, “Let hym (the peacock) coole awhile, and take in their demeanour. The service being over, relations and sowe hym in hys skyn, and gilde his combe, and and neighbours assemble at different houses according so serve hym for the last cours.' The wassail bowl, to invitation, where refreshments are partaken of before whose merits are the theme of many an old Saxon dinner. This luncheon consists of a variety of viands ballad, was garlanded with holly and divers-coloured and liqueurs; for those ladies who prefer them, sweet ribbons, and duly honoured by the “goodly companie ;' cordials and confectionary are provided. the evergreens which decorated the groined roof of the This preliminary repast is scarcely ended, before * bannered hall'
dinner is announced, and the guests meet at a table Looked down while pledging draughts were poured;'
- All eatable, cookable things, and metheglin and hippocras went freely round. After That e'er tripped upon trotters or soared upon wings.' the feast entered morris dancers, and the Lord of Between the courses national songs are sung, and many Misrule, with his attendants gorgeously attired, ex
toasts are given; the burden of them being prosperity hibited their merrie disports' amidst minstrelsy and and happiness to all. mirthful sounds. Then followed the dance, in which In the evening, five boys attired in white mantles moved in measured steps the stately dame and knightly enter; the tallest holding a coloured lantern shaped like cavalier. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 'brawls' a star, and another bearing an illuminated glass box conwere much in fashion. These were figure dances, in taining two wax dolls, one of which represents the Virgin, which Sir Christopher Hatton greatly excelled: to this and the other the infant Jesus in a cradle. A bit of candle circumstance, and to his graceful figure, much of his is moved by machinery from side to side over the cradle, advancement in life has been attributed. Of this signifying the Star in the East which guided the magi gentleman the poet Gray speaks in the following to the feet of the ‘Young Child. During this exhibition line :
a carol is chanted, explanatory of the mystery. An. 'My grave Lord-keeper led the brawls.'
other band of masked performers then appear, dressed
à la militaire; their uniforms are generally rather tat. Youth and age-rich and poor—all participated in the tered from long service, and are profusely covered with mirth attendant upon the season. It was truly a joyous tinsel. These masquers perform a pantomime, and time, and 'merriment was a matter of public concern- various antic sports, for the amusement of the lookersment.' Huge logs blazed and crackled in the capacious on: they always meet with a welcome at every house, chimney, and threw a bright glow over the old walls, and are hospitably entertained. After numerous diver: wainscotted with black oak, which was almost hidden tisements, the company are summoned to supper ; that by the garniture of scarlet - berried holly and pearly being over, and a short time spent in smoking by the mistletoe. A large piece of the latter was invariably gentlemen, and by the ladies in chatting, fur cloaks
, suspended from the centre of the middle beam, beneath boots, caps, and gloves are in great requisition; and which many a young gallant saluted the blushing. sledges fly swiftly over the snow, glittering in the bright maiden, as she rested for a moment beneath the mis- moonlight, bearing happy guests from the mansion of chievous branch.
their hospitable entertainers to their own homes. In the olden times, the festivities of Christmas were The Swedes likewise are remarkable for their sociality; such, that a nobleman's establishment was considered and at this celebration every one unites in promoting incomplete unless it included persons whose only duty the festivities of the season, which much resemble these was to arrange them. The sovereigns of England were of the olden time in England, when mere feasting was wont to celebrate this glorious anniversary with great not deemed suflicient, unless accompanied by an inter. pomp: the royal castle of Windsor has not unfrequently change of kindly feelings. The churches are crowded; been chosen as the scene of princely mirth ; more par- the service commences at six o'clock in the morning; ticularly in the earlier days by William Rufus, Henry at the conclusion, the minister reads from a manu. I., and Jolin, and at a later period by Queen Elizabeth. script entitled Personalia the names of those who have
The 26th of December still retains the old appella- recently died in the parish; he makes some comments tion of • Boxing-Day,' from the practice of giving money on their good or bad deeds, and ends by remarking on to domestics and the servants of different tradesmen. the uncertainty of life, or some other equally impressive The origin of these Christmas-boxes is rather obscure; subject. The dwellings of all classes are thoroughly but it has been accounted for in the following manner, renovated, and the rooms littered with straw, in memory which explanation is perhaps as satisfactory as any that of the birthplace of our Saviour being a stable. Every can be obtained :
:- The Romish priests had masses comfort and luxury, as far as means will permit, are said for almost everything. If a ship went out to the provided; and in the midst of their own rejoicing, the Indies, the priests had a box in her under the protec- peasants never forget the inferior order of the creation. tion of some saint; and for masses to be said for them an almost universal custom exists amongst them of to that saint, &c. the poor people must put something tying an unthrashed sheaf of corn to a pole, which they into the priest's box, which was not opened till the place in their gardens, or some spot contiguous to their ship’s return. The mass at that time was called Christ-awellings, for the benefit of the birds, which always mass; the box called Christmass-boc, or money gathered suffer severely from the inclemency of the weather at against that time, that masses might be said by the this season. These kind-hearted and hospitable people priests to the saints to forgive the people the de-assign as a reason for this act of charity, that on this baucheries of that time; and from this the servants great anniversary all creatures should have the means had the liberty to get box-money, that they too might of rejoicing afforded to them. Supper is on this day be enabled to pay the priest for his masses, knowing the chief repast, after which masked figures enter the well the trick of the proverb, “ No penny, no pater room dressed in a grotesque manner; one carries a little nosters.
bell, the other a large basket, containing a variety of Christmas is observed at present in Norway and presents
, which are conferred upon the family and Sweden much as it used to be in England. In the for- 1 guests. Throughout Sweden, the hearty good-feeling
and cordiality with which this festival is observed ex. Brahmin, who was holding the squalling baby in his tends to all classes, and is the admiration of foreigners. arms, “ has any accident happened?"
In England, many ancient customs are falling into “ Yes, maharaz (or my lord): as I was in yonder disuse--scarcely more than a shadow remains; yet, as grove plucking some wild flowers to strew upon the shrine far as is consistent with innocent mirth and harmless of Mahadeo, I heard a plaintive cry of an infant, and lo enjoyment, let us rescue them from extinction, and and behold there was a thieving, prowling jackal drag. encourage their observance, and may the spirit of festi- ging this child by the nape of the neck, and making all vity ever accompany the feast!
the haste he could to a hedge of Mysore thorn. See, Beautifully and truly is it said "work is worship,” here are all the marks of the rascal's teeth; and see also and in like measure and like manner enjoyment is how he has made this tender cheek bleed. I of course thanksgiving ;' therefore these celebrations should not made a great clamor, and brought around me a number be observed merely from custom, but from respect to of the neighbours, and we succeeded in rescuing the the advent they are intended to commemorate, and child; but who its unfortunate mother is we do not as from the gratitude which the holy season should yet know." awaken; and as our household walls glisten with cheer- • The old man had scarcely stopped, when we saw a ful holly
nice young woman coming up also. She approached, as Oh let there be some hallowed bloom to garland with the rest
we had done, from curiosity, and was carrying a ghurrah, All, all must bring toward the wreath some flowerets in the or water-vessel, upon her hip. She almost covered her breast;
face, and respectfully asked the old Brahmin to let her For though green boughs may thickly grace low roof or palace also see the poor infant. But scarcely had she fixed her Warm hearts alone will truly serve to deck a Christmas home!'
eyes upon it, when her ghurrah fell out of her arm, and
broke into a hundred pieces; she rushed to the baby, Saddened spirits there may and will be as each revolv- pressed it to her boson, beat her forehead, and began to ing Christmas-day bears witness to the loss of some cry out, “Why, oh why did I leave you? Oh my darling, long-loved companion, and when memory calls up the forms of the dead or absent; untold cares too may
my darling!” rule the hour which seems to belong to the mirthful the child is in good hands. Seat yourself, my good
“ Be composed,” said my unclo: “as you are the mother, present;' but generally it is a harpy season, and rightly woman, upon the footboard of the buggy. I will drive $0. We conclude with a wish that the Christmas peal you to my house, and we will do the needful for your may never fail to arouse the best sympathies of our child's injuries.” hearts, inducing those who are blessed with the good So, after the mother and child were comfortably things of this life to seek to render it also a season of seated, away we drove; and as soon as uncle arrived at rejoicing for the poor and needy.
home, he sent for some warm water, and the child was
carefully washed and dried, and uncle spread some Column for Young People.'
plaster, and handed it to the woman.
“ What am I to do with this, maharaz?-the baby can
not eat this !” We could hardly help laughing at her Ou, papa,' said a little boy one evening, in India, ignorance, although we were sorry for the baby; so uncle entering in haste into the drawing-room, ' will you take applied the plasters with his own hands; but the mother, me upon your knee, for I love to sit there, and then I although she seemed pleased and thankful, asked whether will relate to you my adventure of this afternoon?' saffron and chunam or lime would not be better, as the
. Certainly, dear Johnny,' said Mr Smith, stroking the Bengalees found that good for all sores and aches. white curly head of his little darling: 'Come : now you Uncle smiled, and added, "Perhaps you may find my have your place upon “Old Dobbin," as you call my two plasters better for once, my good woman ; so continue legs, pray proceed with your wonderful adventure.' them: and here is a rupee for you to buy a cradle and a
Oh, papa, it was not wonderful, Did I call it so ?. If piece of blanket; and do not again forget to close the you give it that name, I shall think that you are making door after you when you are obliged to leave your baby, fun of me.'
and go to the tank for water.” The poor mother seemed "No, no, my pet,' said Mr Smith encouragingly. Let crying; she touched my uncle's feet with her forehead, us have your narrative: you know that I like to hear and kissing and hugging her child, we watched her for å all your little tales and stories; that I like to be your time as she slowly walked towards her hut amongst the confidant; so prattle on, and you will find a patient and niem trees.' delighted listener in your papa.'
Well, Johnny,' said Mr Smith, ' I must say you have Johnny had regained his self-possession by this time, told your adventure well and intelligibly; but you must and thus proceeded:-'You know, papa, that my uncle at not suppose now that jackals live always upon children : Hourah promised me a drive this evening, because I said it is not often that they venture into the habitation of my lesson in grammar to-day to mamma without a single man to seize a living infant. A jackal is a great coward, mistake; so about six o'clock he passed our house and and generally prowls about at night. Solitary jackals took me up. We certainly had a delightful drive of a are constantly seen ; but in the dark nights, as you mile or two; and I enjoyed the cool breeze upon my face; know, they go in packs, and their cry is dismal. Much I even took off my bonnet, and let my curls tly about my as we dislike these animals, they have their uges in creahead hither and thither; for in this hot weather there is no tion. The jackal and the vulture may be reckoned the fear of catching cold. I saw several carriages and buggys chief scavengers of our Indian clime; but for their vorawith fine ladies and gentlemen, and the ladies looked cious and unfastidious appetite, many a dead carcase quite cool and comfortable without bonnets, and their would remain, giving out unwholesome evaporations, and snow-white veils just thrown over their heads, fluttering make this land of fever and cholera more unhealthy in the breeze. Well, after we had seen all this, and passed than it already is. some pretty houses, fine gardens, dark-looking groves, 'It was only the other day that I was breakfasting and tall cocoa-nut trees, we were about ten minutes' | with Mr F- when the head of the police came to drive from home; and in the middle of the street was a report that some pilgrims had arrived from Benares in mob collected; "Johnny,” said uncle, “what can this a boat, and as their homes were in one of the villages be?” and he drew in his horse, and made him proceed a little in the interior, they bivouacked under that slowly to where the people were. As we came closer, we tree where the butcher displays his meat, intending to heard a great chattering, and the crying of an infant. go home the next day. Most of them found their way Uncle gave the reins to Sadoo the groom, who, you know, to the bazaars during the night, and but one poor, old, meets us always on our way home from driving, and for emaciated, careworn, moneyless pilgrim, lay down under a short distance can keep up wonderfully with the horse, that tree, never to rise again, for the jackals attacked and we walked into the midst of the crowd.
the sick, feeble woman in the depth of the night, and “Well, my friend,” said uncle, addressing an old I almost picked her bones clean. If she had been able
to bestir herself a little, she might have scared her
THE “FRIEDHOF, OR COURT OF PEACE.* voracious enemies away; but she seems to have been unable either to call out or defend herself.
“SWEET sister, come, and let us roam away o'er the finc-arched 'It occasionally happens that a jackal gets rabid; and bridge, not many years since, a number of the natives, who, you And gaze on the sparkling water beneath from tho parapet's dizzy know, just lie down in these lot months in the open air, ridge; or in the sheds which serve as verandas to their shops, Where the boats are sailing rapidly by, laden with fruit and were bitten, and got the hydrophobia; and although a
flowers; reward was offered for the mad jackal, he was never Away to the city behind the woods, where we see the tall dark
towers.' caught nor killed. Jackals are fond of fruit, and
“No,' said the girl with the golden hair, if they can get access to a garden, are troublesome, and
Whose blue eyes spake of Heaven and prayer; will come and devour our melons and cucumbers: they
I'd rather far to the Friedhof go-like the peaches, too, for which they watch under the
The court of peace, where the lindens grow.' trees as the ripe ones fall to the ground. The jack-fruit is a particular favourite with them; and as that is a * Come, come, let us hie to the free broad road-the folks are all fruit which grows low on the thick branches and trunks passing that way, of the trees, and occasionally at the very root, some
With chcerful voices and gaily decked-for you know it is festival. times underground even, the jackal has frequently an day. opportunity of stealing a jack, or rather of sharing it The harps are twanging beneath the trees, and there's nothing with its lawful owner. Some of these fruits, you know,
save joy and singing; are a wei for a man, although the greater part do
And we shall hear o'er the valley lone all the bells 60 merrily not wcigh more than four or five pounds.
No,' said the girl with the golden hair, I daresay that the jackal is the animal which is
Whose blue eyes spake of Heaven and prayer; spoken of in Scripture as the wild dog; for instance,
" I'd rather far to the Friedhof gothose who ate up poor Jezabel's body : although the
The court of peace, where the lindens grow. Pariah dog of our land, a poor neglected wretch, almost a personification of hunger, will greedily join in the
• There are whispering leaves down this green lane amid the old
crofts and trees; same banquet with the vulture and jackal.
*Jackals can be tamed: but this is but seldom attenipted. It is long and winding, but sweet scents float to allure the good A doctor in my regiment, I recollect, made a pet of one, It leads to the solemn, cloistered pile, and over the beautiful plains having first killed its mother in a chase : she took to the
Soft musical winds for ever sweep past, as if murmuring anthem carth, and three cubs were found by the sportsmen.
strains. This denizen of the wood was fond of sugar, knew his
“So,' said the girl with the golden hair, own name, and would come readily when called; yet
Whose blue eyes spake of Heaven and prayer, he had none of the attachment of a dog, and eventually
I'd rather far to the Friedhof goran off to his wild woods and carrion.
The court of peace, where the lindens grow." The fox is frequently confounded with the jackal in India, but certainly not by the natives, who have distinct This brother and sister were parted wide; but when fleeting years
rolled by, names for them. The Bengal fox never feeds on carrion, but is a clean, smart-looking little animal, about half Ile returned to his native land, to breathe a last and penitent sigh. the size of the jackal. I have seen a fox in the governor
'Mid the chequered scenes of a roving life-in hut or 'neath gor
geous dome general's park at Barrackpoor so tame, that she had These words still haunted the brother's heart, and recalled the nestled under one of the bungalows, which was raised
wanderer home: from the ground, and flued to make it dry, and produce
. For,' said the girl with the golden hair, a circulation of air under it. This creature might be seen
Whose blue eyes spake of Heaven and prayer, sneaking out of her shelter in the dusk of the evening,
• I'd rather far to the Friedhof goand giving out a kind of faint pleasing bark; she would
The court of peace, where the lindens grow.' hunt for hours for grubs, grasshoppers, and crickets, which abound upon the beautiful sward. No one ever thought Home of the prodigal! rost for the weary ! the path of the just of covetiug this fox's brush, Johnny: her life was held Hath pleasures in store for returning sons that wanderers never sacred; and I daresay the careful mother reared many a
can know : brood undisturbed under the protection of the Marquis A day in the court of God's holy house is better than a thousand of Hastings; the noble lord, perhaps, all the time igno- passed rant who was sharing his farour. Now, my child, go 'Mid the vain world's show, and will onward lead to the court of and take your supper, and do not dream that a jackal Heaven at last. is coming to carry off little Mary.'
* Thus,' said the girl with the golden hair,
Whose blue eyes spake of Heaven and prayer,
I'd rather far to the Friedhof go-
The court of peace, where the lindens grow.'
C. A. M. W. mosphere becomes, and consequently, being to a certain extent removed from its surface, water boils at a much lower temperature than below. Many remarkable facts
* Or burial-place,' in German. are dependent on this, for the nutritious principles in many kinds of common animal and vegetable food cannot be extracted at a temperature lower than 212 degrees, therefore
TRUE TOLERANCE. those who live in very elevated regions, such as the plains We ought, in laumanity, no more to despise a man for of Mexico, &c. are deprived of many luxuries which their the misfortunes of the mind, than for those of the body, more fortunate, because less elevated, neighbours are when they are such as he cannot help; were this thoroughly capable of procuring. This is rather remarkable as relates considered, we should no more laugh at a man for having to the monks of St Bernard, who live at the Hospice on the lis brains cracked, than for having his head broke.—l'ope. Alps at an elevation of 8600 feet. They are obliged to live almost entirely on fried, roasted, and baked food, as water there boils at 203 degrees, which is an insufficient heat to It is impossible to make people understand their ignoextract the nutritious properties from the food which they rance ; for it requires knowledge to perceive it; and thereprocure. Hence that isolated community, situated at the fore he that can perceive it hath it not.—Bishop Tuylor. boundary of the beautiful Swiss valleys on the north, and the fertilc plains of Piedmont on the south, seem, as it were, fact, that they cannot make their boiling water so hot as ent off from participating in many comforts, from the simple Published by W.& R. CHANNERS, lligh Street, Edinburgh. Also
sold by D, CHAMBERS, 20 Argyle Street, Glasgow; W. 8 ORE, that of their neighbours below.--Isaiah Deeka
147 Strand, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Elinburgh.
KNOWLEDGE OF IGNORANCE.