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no merry fife known; and a few soldiers behind, looking the hot months, more out of fashion than necessity; dull enough ; leaving home, and the pure air of their although it certainly is very agreeable to exchange the mountains, to sink under the vices of a military life; still languid air of the plains for the pure breezes among pressing onwards to a moral and an earthly grave; the the mountains. We had resumed all the gaieties of new recruits, after being drilled, getting orders generally the place as soon as Lent was over; but as the scason to proceed to Algiers, where the climate soon delivers advanced, the style of amusement was very pleasantly the regiment from the charge of the weakly. Why this varied. Pic-nic parties to the many interesting scenes thinning of the ranks should be more desirable than the around us, riding excursions to a greater distance, or more humane method of embodying a lesser number, I dejeûners in some of the nearer country-houses, kept us could never hear explained. Some of these young solo almost continually out of doors during the fine weather. diers were decently clothed, and carried on their backs When these entertainments were impromptu, we sent a knapsack containing their few valuables; others, of our provisions out before us, in a basket of pretty large inferior appearance, had only a small parcel of the proportions, on a female porter's head; and I remember merest necessaries tied up in a coloured handkerchief, once when an over-liberal supply of wine had been proswinging from the hand. They are generally encou- vided, there was no small difficulty in getting back the raged to sing as they march away. On this occasion remainder through the octroi free of duty. The more they were silent, stepping wearily on up the steep street formal parties in the French country-houses were on a from the bridge, cheered only by the roll of the drum. grander scale. The ladies dressed after a rural fashion, It takes place now but once a year this sad procession. the rooms were prepared with some care for company, In the Emperor's day it was much more frequent, and and the luncheon or early dinner was a great affair. the numbers were greater, and the ages less, and death Salmon dressed with oil, every sort of entremet

, game, before them certainly. How much misery then must poultry; beef-steaks soaked in oiled butter, and plumhave been caused far and wide! Algiers terrifies no pludding for the English ; fruit, confectionary, a variety one. Strange to say, both men and officers like the of wines, black coffee, and brandy; tea, and a quantity idea of service in Africa. Nor do their families grieve of aniseed water, kirschwasser, and other warming when they are ordered upon this duty. The comman- liqueurs afterwards. The amusement was to walk up dant of the garrison got his promotion this spring, and and down a gravel path, bordered with China roses, was ordered with his regiment to Algiers. His delight till it was time to set out the card-tables, unless there was perfect; his countenance was radiant when receiv- were young Britons enough in the company to get up ing the congratulations of his friends, who all flocked a Polka. to wish him joy of his good fortune. The two bands I must not forget a visit we paid to the old castle, or of the two regiments stationed themselves beneath his rather many visits, for there was an irresistible attracwindows, and played alternately for a couple of hours, tion about its' time-coloured walls,' independent of the surrounded by a crowd in high spirits; the company beauty of part of the building and its picturesque situathus honoured showing themselves in joyful mood upon tion. It dates from three eras ; a very old tower and the balcony. After this the two colonels mounted their dangerous-looking bit of steep-roofed house is supposed chargers, and headed the troops, who all marched out to have been built either by the Moors, or for protection in beautiful order; drums, little women, little boys, and against them. The principal part of the remainder all, for a four-hours' tramp over the country.

only goes back to Gaston de Foix, whose arms are After parting with the conscripts, we met a much still attached to the corners of the cornices, and the more diverting group on the edge of an adjoining ends of the groined ceilings of the royal apartment. common: a herd of swine, such as might have been led Louis-Philippe added a little at one end, and repaired, by Gurth, the born thrall of Cedric, grubbing away and improved, and considerably altered the whole at under the leafless chestnut-trees, in charge of a boy- bis own expense. It contains many more rooms, and herd, whose business it was to attend them, to watch they are much more magnificent, both as to size and them in the plains, to lead them up the valleys, to take decorations, than the defaced appearance of part of the them to the woods, to bring them home at night, and outside would lead any one to suppose. A newlykeep his temper with them ever. One of these daintily- arranged dining-room, contrived out of many small nurtured animals, handed over at a fit age to the tender- chambers, and hung with old tapestry discovered in old hearted lady in the lane, was either coaxed into the chests, is quite kingly in its proportions and its furexcellent pork for which this locality is famous, or else niture. A drawing-room of large size would have been still further elevated into the much-prized hams, which cheerful but for its emptiness. The many windows are certainly excellent, even as it is the country fashion reach the ground, and open on a new stone balcony, to dress them; but are first-rate when cooked in our admirably adapted to the style of building; and they way. The Bearnais mode is to stew them slowly, with look upon the beautiful river, the plain, the mountains, vegetables and wine or beer as we do, but for eight or on which the sun almost ever shines. There were ten hours. They are then boned, and pressed into the pictures, and vases, and marble tables, and handsome shape of a Twelfth-day cake, and cut up when cold in chandeliers, all for one only seat--the king's ; so we slices, on little stalls in the streets. They eat short, passed on to the family drawing-room, where I could like potted meat, and lose much of their flavour. Our with pleasure have seated myself, drawn in my chair hot ham, with fowl accompaniment, was much admired among the royal family, and arranged my wools beside by the favoured few invited to partake of it; and I am the queen; it all looked so very comfortable, like my quite persuaded that, were the meat and poultry really own sitting-room at home. Louis-Philippe had sent good, much less disguise would be used in the dressing here from the Louvre all the furniture that could be of them: lean stringy beef and tasteless chickens re- certified to have once belonged to the castle of Pau; quire some condiment.

and some of nearly equal antiquity, which well suits Another very pretty procession was the return to the sort of old-age air belonging to the suite of statethe mountain valleys of all the flocks and herds which rooms. A great deal of marble from the neighbouring had been pasturing on the Landes during the winter. quarries is worked up into ornamental furniture, and We met them every evening, about the end of April two vases of Swedish marble-a present from its and the beginning of May, slowly moving over the French sovereign-we thought beautiful. The modern plain; a lagging few in every drove lingering among antique is perfectly preserved throughout all the alterathe sweet grass by the wayside; a tired lamb often tions. The curiosities pointed out are mostly connected nestled in the shepherd's bosom. At this season, too, with the adored of all Bearnais hearts-their Henri IV. the streets became noisy with the stir made by the His mother's bed, and chest, and prie-dieu-they do not porters wheeling luggage from almost every door to the say much about his father-his own cradle; a large roulage, where it was weighed and despatched; for the turtle-shell; his statue, that of a little man, sturdily society was all dispersing. Pau is quite deserted during made, and handsome; his spear; all sorts of things, in

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fact, which may or which may not have belonged part with, our apartment to give up, and a carriage to to him. The four celebrated pictures of Gobeline's hire for our journey. tapestry represent some of his pastimes : they quite We began with the apartment. The two leases and deceived even my practised eye, framed as they are, the two inventories were produced with due formality, and hung up on the walls of a small closet; I took and conned over with punctilious deliberation, for we them for old paintings faded. There was a pretty little found our civil landlord most remarkably particular in old chapel, and a painted glass window in it, much going over his items. The furniture had suffered no valued; the table on which Bonaparte signed his abdi- damage, but all the glass and china, and a good deal of cation, next to a worm-eaten coffer mounted in silver, the kitchen buttery, had to be renewed, the servants inwhich carried the wardrobe of St Louis on his African variably breaking everything breakable, and nothing crusade; with many more such relics of the past; and ever so trifling escaping the sharp eyes of monsieur. more ancient than all, rolled the river through that plain it was all very right; we could not complain ; but I of beauty, as if smiling in its ever-renewing youth at had a little pleasure in accurately replacing all missing these vestiges of decay.

articles, and myself repairing all ill-used locks, and bolts, No account of Pau would convey a correct idea of and hinges, that we might leave as few dégradations the comfort of a residence in it without some serious as possible to lighten the purse of our successors; for allusion to the climate, the variations of which from certainly, had we made as careful a survey as we underheat to cold, from wet to dry, are so sudden, so ex- went, we would have had better order established before treme, and yet so little dangerous. The near neigh- entering on possession of premises by no means faultbourhood of the Pyrenees probably causes these un- less. The search after an equipage was a long one; we ceasing changes, which were so remarkable, particularly had to make a tour among all the voituriers in Pau beduring the spring months, that I made regular entries fore we could quite suit ourselves with a sufficiently of them up to May, as a meteorological curiosity. good pair of horses, and safe carriage, and comparaImmediately after Christmas came a fog so thick, that tively honest driver. We were in stables, and in kitwe were reminded of London. It lasted some days, chens and bedrooms attached to stables, all comfortduring which time cattle strayed, people mistook their ably furnished, and occupied by industrious families. way, a man and horse were near being drowned, and we chose a sharp-looking little man, who lived within the diligences were overturned. Then came some very the ruins of the old cathedral, and having made our wet weather, which rendered the roads impassable for bargain, we wrote it down. The love of money-making foot travellers. We had to confine our walks to the is so strong with all these people, that they are sadly castle terrace and the parc, where the gravel was unscrupulous about the ways and means of getting it: always sufficiently dry to allow of our getting hurried the constant watchfulness necessary to guard against airings between the showers. At this time fevers much being extravagantly imposed upon is one of the greatest prevailed, and influenza, and they continued till a cold drawbacks to a residence in their country. It was well week set in, with fresh snow on the Pyrenees, so deep we had a written testimony of our contract, for at the in all the valleys, that the wolves wandered in search moment of starting, M. Pierre announced that, on minute of food as low down as a spot four miles only from the calculation, he found the price agreed on was too low. river. The fog had been very cold, the rain was mild; In the beginning of our travels we should have been it ended in a hurricane-a rare occurrence, as wind is angry; we had now become used to the customs of the not common in this sheltered town: when it does blow, land, and merely ordered the trunks to be carried back it is in earnest, scattering tiles, carrying off Venetians, into the house. M. Pierre scratched his head, abated levelling trees, and so on. Torrents of rain accompa- about half of his new demand ; madame shook hers, nied this tempest-rain which turned the steep streets and smiled: it was quite a pantomime. *A trifling adinto rivulets : the quantity that fell in a few minutes dition?' suggested M. Pierre. "The old bargain, or was surprising. We had a fine week or two after this, none,' said madame. * As madame pleases,' said M. quite settled weather, and warm again till towards the Pierre; and the trunks were very good-humouredly end of February, when we had a faint repetition of the corded on to the carriage. He knew his trade this little January outbreak, followed by a longer lull. Then voiturier ; for though he cheated us in the matter of a there came a chill: the bise blew — a sharp dreadful third horse, which had been hired for the hilly stage, wind from the north-east, almost as blighting as our and which he swore had gone on to be in readiness and own easterly scourge: it blew fiercest in the mornings, is going on yet, I suppose, for we never came up with which yet we found the only time for taking exercise, it-he was so civil, so attentive, so useful, that we never as the afternoons generally turned to rain. The spring parted company while we remained among the mounwas backward : no such early delicacies of the season' tains, and felt ourselves bound to add a grateful gift at to be had here as are to be obtained at home: a few the close of the bargain. flowers towards the end of March, but no young veget- On parting with the maids, we were made acquainted ables, no precocious lamb or poultry. Provisions be with the peculiar ceremonies in use on occasion of the came dearer, Lent even failing to influence the market dismissal of servants. They brought me the keys of in this respect. Summer broke on us by surprise their boxes, and very prettily informed me their effects upon the 2d of April ; fires became insupportable ; were ready for inspection. It seems this is regularly walks under the burning sun oppressive : we had to done by all masters; and that, after the scrutiny, the return to our hot-weather hours—go out early in the boxes are locked and corded, and despatched with their mornings and late in the evenings, and occupy ourselves owners at once; a useless trouble, we should suppose : quietly in the house during the middle of the day; the a dishonest servant could dispose of stolen property mountains all the while well covered with snow; the much more securely than by placing it in a trunk. We trees still leafless. In a fortnight after, we were glad were really sorry to take leave of our two attendants : to sit by the fire again ; but only for a few days while they had done their utmost to serve us agreeably, and it rained. Another waterspout then poured down, we had grown quite attached to their well-bred manwhich made more noise than the former one. Then ners. Provided people are reasonable enough not to came the May of the poets-open windows, green trees expect the inhabitants of other countries to possess and fields, bright flowers, and carpets discarded; with the customs of their own, masters and servants can one chilly week, just to verify an old proverb, which live very happily together in France. Housekeeping promises an abundant harvest any year that old women is an easy business there, always supposing no Dutch and horses have shivered during May. It was so hot neatness be expected. One thing which much contriduring the greater part of May, that I feared my son butes to the lightening of the burden of these little domight lose some of the strength he had gained, so we mestic arrangements, is the simplicity with which ac resolved to wind up all our Pau affairs, and set out with counts are kept: the francs and centimes

all divided out delay for the mountains. We had our servants to or multiplied by ten with the most delightful rapidity;


428 8 9

and the equalisation of weights and measures; the Consequently the rental of such a farm would be, magic ten ruling yards, and feet, and pounds, and pints without a railway, L.400 per annum, and with a railway, 80 perfectly, that there is no sort of chance of confusion. 10s. per acre more, or L.500 per annum. I felt I should never again be reconciled to our own per- the saving effected by substituting railway conveyance for

• The following calculations are also added to illustrate plexing varieties of money and market tables.

road conveyance in the exports and imports of one square Our few preparations made, our adieux over, we en

mile of land. It will be seen that, according to this estitered M. Pierre's calêche, and turning away from Pau, mate, this saving is equivalent to L.14 per acre. not without regret, we took the road up along the Gâve

One Square Mile. to Betterâm.

Expense of transmitting the probable Exports and Imports from

one square mile, or 640 acres, deducting 40 acres for fences, &c.: BEARING OF RAILWAYS ON AGRICULTURE. By railway,

L.121 6 3

By common road, UNTIL very lately, railways were generally opposed by landowners and agriculturists, less, perhaps, on account of

Saving effected by railway,

L.307 2 6 the probable damage to lands and an encroachment on private domains for all that was well paid for—than from

Thirty years' purchase of the above saving, L.9213 15 0 a notion that railways would be injurious to road trusts, "Such calculations as these are sometimes exaggerated, and somehow upset the present order of things. Expe- and must always be modified according to local circumrience has, however, shown that no class in the community stances, but they are not without use in indicating the is so likely to be benefited by railways as the proprietors manner in which the saving may be estimated. of lands. The benefit, it is true, will first be felt by tenant 'It is satisfactory also to find that those who have had farmers; but it cannot be doubted that what improves the the opportunity of observation, as, for instance, Mr Peto, value of a farm, will ultimately advance the rent. So much M.P., appear to think well of agricultural traffic as profitis this the case, that lands situated near railways are rising able to the railway; an opinion which is confirmed by in their market value, while those which are left out of the the investigation of Mr Desart, into whose hands the Belsphere of railway influence are necessarily declining, or at gian government placed the statistics of their railways, and least not advancing in value. The effect of railways is to who found, from examination, that the trattic of the small put lands distant from a great centre of population nearly towns and villages along a line is proportionately greater on an equality with those situated nearer towns. This has than the traffic between two large cities at its termini. been ably

demonstrated in a paper on the Progress of the *These facts appear to be calculated to impart confidence Railway System, by Mr Wyndham Harding, and lately as to railways in agricultural districts, always supposing read before the Statistical Section of the British Associa- they are made cheaply.' tion at Swansea. From this paper we make the following selections respecting the bearing of railways on agriculture:

ANFREDI, THE MERCHANT OF ROCHELLE. * First, As to the saving in driving live stock. The loss In the thirteenth century, a merchant of La Rochelle, in weight of stock in driving has been calculated, as on the Anfredi by name, had acquired by laborious and honest average, for driving beasts 100 miles, 5 lbs. per quarter, or industry considerable wealth. The continued prosperity of 20 lbs. per beast, equal to about 2 per cent. of the weight. his affairs had enabled him to engage in large speculations, For sheep, at 2 lbs. per quarter, or 8 lbs. per head, 10 per and on the most distant seas were to be seen his vessels, cent. of weight. For pigs, at 2.4 lbs. per quarter, or 10 laden with valuable cargoes. The merchants of Rochelle lbs. per head, 5 per cent. of weight.

were at this period almost exclusive masters of the trade This loss will of course vary according to different cir- of the Mediterranean. The principal amongst these was cumstances. I have had no opportunity of determining if Anfredi, who was so constantly favoured by fortune, that, the above is a fair average result, but the estimate of Mr like too many, success inspired him with a blind confidence, Smith (of Deanston), as regards beasts is higher. Very a rash braving of all chances of reverse. The merchant of nearly all this is saved by railway conveyance. What rail- La Rochelle was soon to receive a terrible lesson from that ways can do in this respect may be inferred from the fact, Providence whom he was forgetting or tempting. He had that cattle were lately sent from Carlisle to Norwich, 250 risked nearly the whole of his capital in cargoes of mermiles, as the crow flies, in a day and night, without taking chandise to different parts of the Levant, and was now exthem out of the truck.”

pecting the return of his vessels with that capital doubled. Railways are useful in the facilities of sending meat, ag But a year elapsed since the ships had quitted the port of is already done on a large scale; in the conveyance of ma- La Rochelle, and no news of them had reached Anfredi. nure, lime, coal, and all the various appliances of modern Insensibly his confident security gave place to the tortures agriculture ; in the transport of the produce of a farm; in of anxiety. Suspense was soon terminated by news which giving the farmer the command of more markets, and the deprived him of all hope. His ships were lost with their opportunity of taking advantage of a turn in the market: whole cargoes ; and of all his immense wealth, there rethe uses of railway communication are acknowledged by mained to him but heavy engagements which he had conall agriculturists who have experienced their effects. tracted, and in meeting which his honour was involved.

* As illustrating some of the points, the following extract In such a situation, many, sinking under adverse fortune, from the evidence of Mr Smith of Deanston before the might have abandoned themselves to despair, or yielded to Railway Acts Enactment Committee in 1846 is curious:- the temptation to want of integrity. But Anfredi, of quite Statement of the probable Exports and Imports from a farm of

another stamp, thought only of the resources he could com200 acres on a Six-Courso Shift:

mand to save--not the wrecks of his fortune, but a good a Tons, cwt. lbs.

thousand times more precious to him—the honour of his IMPORTS.-Lime, Guano, Oilcakes, Coals, &c. 197

name. In the strength of a noble fortitude, he assembled EXPORTS.-Wheat, Turnips, &c. &c.

his creditors, and made a formal surrender in their favour of all that yet remained to him. This step completed his

commercial ruin; but he was thus enabled to meet all his Comparative Estimate of Expenses by Railway and by Common Road. engagements, and to preserve a calm conscience and an unExpense of transmitting the probable Exports and Imports for

sullied reputation. And can that be called ruin in which a & year from a farm of 200 acres, 15 miles by Railway:- man is able to enjoy such treasures as peace of mind, spot347 tons, at id. per ton per mile,

L.21 13 9

less character, and a fortitude prepared to bear all that is Say one person traveling by rail for 300

preparing for him? days, at id. per mile, 15 miles per day, . 18 15 0

How unjust are men in general in their judgments of

L.40 89 others! The conduct of Anfredi was not appreciated as it Expense of transmitting the above by com

deserved; no friendly hand was extended to enable him to mon road, with the exception of 29} tons of

resume, even on a small scale, his career as a merchant. cattle, 3171 tons, at 6d. per ton per mile,

He had the grief of seeing himself basely forsaken even by Expense of cattle travelling by common road, Say one person travelling per day for 200

the friends who had been frequent guests at his hospitable days, at 29. per day, .

20 00

board, by familiar associates, whom he had frequently aided L.142 16 3 by his wealth or forwarded by his influence. This was the

most bitter ingredient in Anfredi's cup of misfortune ; but Saving effected by railway per annum,

L.102 7 6 far from suffering himself to be depressed by it, he endured





14 104

119 1 3

3 15 0



it with manly firmness, and adopted a course of proceeding ing many flattering hopes of future advantage from this which makes him indeed a model worthy of imitation. He mark of renewed cordiality, he entered the room, accomnow left La Rochelle with all his family. Though he had panied by the Bishop of La Rochelle, two naval officers of no cause to blush for his poverty, yet he was glad to spare distinction, and a notary, who brought with him a deed the feelings of his countrymen as well as his own. He re- regularly drawn up: paired to Marseilles, and there, in the dress of a common *Gentlemen,' said Anfredi, 'in order that I may not be sailor, mingled with the porters on the quay, prepared to imposed upon by false friendships or interested selfishness, earn, like them, his bread and that of his children by the I have come to the resolution of dividing my fortune sweat of his brow.

amongst men whom wealth has not rendered proud. I In embracing this novel employment, the former mer

have determined to found an hospital for the poor; the chant had the good sense to prevent his mind froin dwell sailors shall have the first place in it. It shall bear my ing upon past prosperity. As he had never abused his name, and I shall live in the memory of those to whom it authority, it now cost him less to submit to that of others. will be, I trust, a comfortable asylum.' In no way did he seek to distinguish himself from his new The deed was signed on the instant. The hospital recomrades; rude and unpolished as they almost all were, ceived the name of Anfredi's Hospital, which name it still he mixed with them as their equal, not only in their la- bears. During the days of his adversity he had lost his bours-rolling with them heavy casks, or bearing on his wife and daughter, who had pined away under the sad re. shoulders large bales of goods—but in the interchange of

verse of fortune, and now he was resolved to have no other social conversation. He told them his misfortunes, and heirs but the poor men in the midst of whom he had lived found in them a pity, and a sympathy, and a respect, which so long. It was to this interesting family of his adoption, his more civilised townsmen had denied to him.

in whom he had found kindness, and generous feeling, and Three years had Anfredi passed thus, not without toils, compassionate sympathy, that he devoted, as the offering and cares, and privations, but-is there any to whom this of pious gratitude, the riches which had been so unexpecwill sound strange?--not without happiness, when one tedly restored to him. day signals from the Tower of St Jean announced that vessels were coming into port. Anfredi, wearied with the labour of the day, was resting himself on the quay.

SONNET. *Huzza! huzza!' cried one of the sailors, 'here is a job for us. Mr Anfredi, from what place would you say these

«Vain are his labours who is never idle ! vessels were coming ?'

So hath a wise man said, and truly too; “They are too far off yet to distinguish,' answered the

For when we brush aside the morning dew, native of La Rochelle. However, it matters little to us;

Or mount the cliff, with steps no task doth bridle, for whatever they are, these vessels only bring to us a day's

And follow greenwood paths and lanes all new, work; and if they belonged even to the king of France, our

Without one other object to pursue wages would not be a penny higher.'

Than intercourse with nature, and desire That is quite true,' said the sailor ; 'our rations are

Of leisure and repose-the worn attire always the same size: we have not more to eat one day

Of Thought within us renovates; and true than another.'

Embryos of action breed within the mind, It is the order of things, and we must conform to it,"

From which, in future days, the pen, the lyre, said Anfredi; 'nay, we must endeavour to be satisfied

The pencil or the chisel-all-shall find with it,'

That labours lose no whit of worth or measure, *That is easily said,' cried a third interlocutor ;-but

But rather gain, by moods of prudent leisure ! Not quite so easily done,' continued Anfredi, 'I grant you ; but this it is that makes the merit of submission and

SONNET TO BEN LOMOND. content. But stay!'he suddenly exclaimed, as the vessels COPIED FROM THE SCRAP-BOOK AT ROWERDINNAN INN. approached. 'Can it be? Do I dream? Is it delusion?

PROUD and repulsive, as some conquering knight No, I am not mistaken; I have known them too well: there

Who, loaded with his country's praise and gold, is no doubt. Dear comrades and friends, rejoice with me:

'Neath adulation's wings grows very bold, here are the very vessels so long believed to be lost.'

And thinks himself sole hero of each fight, • Take care that it is not the sun that is in your eyes, Mr Forgetting all the thousands, in the might Anfredi,' said one of the sailors, who could not credit so

And burning hopes of youth, untimely slain, unexpected a return. "It would be too bad to be mis

To fatten with their limbs the battle-plain : taken; it would be a terrible disappointment!'

Like him thou art. For, haughty sire! how trito No, no, I am not mistaken,' replied Anfredi, now giving

Thy over-lauded beauties would appear way to transports of joy: 'these are my own dear ships :

Wanting the auxiliation of steak-pie, the closer they come, the more I am persuaded they are Cold fowl and ham, cogniac and table-beer! my long-lost vessels. I thank thee, oh my God; thy provi

Graced with the glance of woman's witching eye! dence has not then abandoned me.'

Even then thy rugged grandeurs would be nil And soon all the companions of Anfredi gathered round Without thy smiles, sweet Naiad, of the illicit stal: him, with cordial shake of the hand and warm congratulations. Meanwhile the vessels that liad called forth such demonstrations of honest joy entered majestically the port.

EFFECT OF TRIFLES. They were indeed Anfredi's ships, returning laden with

Mohammed, when pursued by his enemies, ere his reliimmense wealth. A few hours later, Anfredi was again gion had gained a footing in the world, took refuge in a become one of the richest merchants of France. His first certain cave. To the mouth of this retreat his pursuers care was to endeavour to ameliorate the condition of his traced him ; but when they were on the very point of fellow-labourers on the quay; he distributed amongst them entering, thoir attention was arrested by a little bird the sum of four thousand pounds, and then took his way to darting from an adjoining thicket. Had it not been for his native town, whither the news of the return of his this circumstance, the most trivial that can well be convessels had preceded him.

ceived, which convinced them that here the fugitive could The inhabitants poured out to meet him, and led him in not be concealed, Mohammed would have been discovered, triumph into the town; those even who had treated him and he and his imposture would have perished together. with so much ingratitude a few years before, were amongst As it was, he effected his escape, gained the protection of the most eager in their civilities and congratulations. The his friends, and by a most artful course of conduct, suchouse of one was at his service, and another overwhelmed ceeded in laying the foundation of a religion which now him with the most pressing invitations to dinner. In short, prevails over a large portion of the world.--Dr Duncan. there could not be a more disgusting exhibition of mean

INSTRUCTION. ness and servility. But Anfredi had many injuries to

Wise men are instructed by reason; men of less underforgive, and was happy in forgiving

them.. He met with a standing by experience; the most ignorant by necessity; generous indulgence all his former friends; he suffered not

and beasts by nature.-Cicero. one upbraiding word or even look to escape him ; but nevertheless he determined at once to set at rest any inte

Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also rested views or speculations his forbearing lenity might sold by D. CHAMBERS, 20 Argyle Street, Glasgow : W. 8. OAS, induce them to form. He therefore invited them all to a 147 Strand, London ; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, banquet; and when the gucsts were assembled, and build- Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.



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No. 260. New SERIES.


PRICE 11d.

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pleted the round of the town, which he effected in about DILEMMAS OF HUMANITY.

a month. Being now reimbursed four times over, it SELFish people feel a wickcd pleasure in pointing out might have been expected that he would contentediy the bad effects which arise from inconsiderate bene settle to his business, and beg no more. He was by ficence, and in twitting their kind-hearted neighbours this time, however, completely fascinated by the new with the disappointments which so often befall their profession he had adopted ; so he went with his wife well-meant efforts. The most familiar case is that put into the country to prosecute his subscription, out of into a proverbial form, 'I lent my money to my friend,' which he is supposed to have made about two hundred &c. We may deplore the triumph which facts often a year ever since. The gentleman who gave the cergive to those who are so wise for themselves ; but we | tificate, telling us the story, said in conclusion, My cannot deny that there are some perverse tendencies | writing that bit of paper was one of the worst actions I about human nature which do make it difficult to be ever committed, because it has utterly corrupted two beneficent and liberal without injury to those whom we of my fellow-creatures.' design to benefit. It assuredly is a truth that a friend A state provision for the poor is, properly speaking, is in danger of being lost after he has become a bor- only a regulated mode of alms-giving, an effort towards rower; all experience attests it. Still more imperilled cqualising matters between the fortunate and unfortuis the friendship of those who receive gifts. It seems nate. We all know, however, how endangered, if not as if not only were the inequalities of fortune, by which lost, is the moral state of those who accept of this sucso many suffer, a determined part of nature, but as cour. It is everywhere reported that, from the moment every special effort to remedy them, by an imparting an independent labourer tastes of public charity, his from the prosperous to the unfortunate, were fated only self-respect is lost, and he is never after so good a to make matters worse.

man. It is the universally-confessed dilemma of the If there is one amiable feeling in human nature, administrators how to relieve pressing and real want, is that from which alms-giving springs. The act has without holding out an inducement to the independent been in a sort of doubt for some years among political labourer to relax in his industry and frugality, under economists. We sometimes see very wise heads shaken the certainty of sharing at the worst in this public at it. In spite of everything, it is a heavenly act, benefaction. The common saying of some is, that the well worthy of being placed among religious virtues. poors' fund makes the poor ; and the most generous There cannot, however, be a doubt that, as matters must allow that there is too much truth in the remark. stand, while it is an elevating act for the giver, it is a It is also true that the fund undergoes a continual siege deterioration for the receiver. Relieving, as it may be, on the part of worthless impostors, who ought to have from the pressure of immediate pains, and justifiable as no business with it. Novelists persist in describing it may thus be, it also, as we well know, saps still fur- the sufferings of genuine wretchedness at the lands of ther the moral state of the party relieved. The condi- charity officials ; they do not see that incessant deception of mendicants everywhere attests the certainty of tion makes men suspicious, and that nothing but superthis effect, so that it fully appears as if that which is a natural wisdom could distinguish at a glance between virtue in its motive, were really something like a vice solitary cases of virtuous poverty and the multitude of in its consequences. It is a strange dilemma, seeming impostures. A gentleman of perfect humanity, wlio to imply that heaven itself commands the desertion of once took charge of a charitable establishment in a the stricken deer. Such, we may be well assured, can- large city, told us that he had had occasion, while in not be the case ; but yet, as far as we can readily see, that duty, to examine into ten thousand cases brought such a thing as unmixed good from beneficence is not before him, and there was not one free from deception ! in the world.

In Glasgow, at the present time, the annual expenditure Some years ago, a poor, but reputedly honest tin- for the poor is L.118,000, mostly in the form of out-door smith, living in a country town in Berkshire, was relief. Now, as we have heard much of the misery burnt out, and utterly ruined. It was suggested that pent up in that city, this seems comfortable news; but he should go about amongst the townsfolk with a sub- stop till we hear a few facts. A single spirit-dealer scription paper, in order that he might be re-established relates that his receipts for whisky on the pay-day are in his little business. A gentleman conspicuous in the always L.10 above the average. Shoals of the tickets management of public charities gave him a certificate establishing the right to a monthly aliment are pledged for this purpose.

So furnished, the tinsmith com- to pawnbrokers—how the results are bestowed may be menced his rounds, and in one week collected five imagined. It has become common for married couples pounds, being probably about the amount of his losses. to separate under a paction, that the apparently deSurprised, however, at the facility with which money serted wife may receive an allowance, part of which she was thus to be obtained, he persevered till he had com- ' gives to her husband. "The mortifying fact is,' says a

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