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With the exception of Sunday schools, there is but not a much more hopeful undertaking; for the sea ran one school in the village, and that is not well attended; in mountains on the beach, and the only landing-place the opportunity of acting on the minds of the young, of in the island was at no time very safe. The only chance training them to sounder principles, is thus grievously of safety seemed to be in making for another island, or neglected. Where does the blame lie? Is enough done rather islet, at some distance further out to sea, at the for the people, or do they do too little for themselves? back of which they thought a landing could be effected. Is a large capital inimical to their welfare? The latter The skiff's head was accordingly turned towards this question is replied to by facts. It is not unusual in the point ; and the wind being now almost astern, she district now under consideration for some of the em- ploughed along without taking in much water. Reployers to keep a grocery or public-house, or both, at lieved as they were by the hope of making any land which it is expected their hands will lay out their whatever, the prospect before them, in the event of a money. The penalties of the truck law are sought to continuance of the storm, was by no means cheering. be evaded by paying the wages in coin: should any of The islet is not more than half a mile long, without the employed, however, make their purchases elsewhere, any water, and totally barren. Anything, however, in speedy dismissal is the understood result. It is believed anticipation, was better than the immediate prospect of that, as 'pot-works,' several of these establishments do being swamped; and the whole party were sincerely not pay; but they are kept going by the profit realised thankful when the boat at length touched the shore. on the beer and groceries. The neighbouring manu- The landing was itself a ticklish affair, but was accomfacturers, who conduct their business on just principles, plished in safety, and the skiff was hauled upon the are thus placed at a disadvantage: should it become beach. They had put her several feet beyond highknown that they are working on new patterns, the water mark, and were going to leave her there, when improvement, which may have cost hours of thought one of the crew, old John Mackenzie, who had the chaand labour, is no sooner made public than an inferior racter of being a crotchetty wiseacre of a man, proposed imitation of it is thrown into the market by unprin- to send her up one oar's length farther. cipled traders, who look to other sources for their profits. . I have seen stranger things,' said he, “than that The tendency of such a system to debase the operative the tide should cover many feet of the green grass tocan hardly admit of doubt.

night.' It will thus appear that endeavours after reformation Come, come, John,' said my grandfather, 'none of must be made to include masters as well as men; and your old-wifeish precautions! You have doubtless seen any reformation which should not include the two par- many wondrous sights; but no tide since the Deluge ties would be inconıplete. Mrs Jameson says, writing ever touched the spot you stand on.' on the subject of indifferent wives, • Let there be a Very well, sir,' said John, mildly deferring to the demand for a better article, and the better article will judgment of one who had not half his experience in the be supplied.' If the call for better masters and better matter, but whom he felt bound to look up to as the workmen has not been urged long enough and loud concentration of all knowledge and wisdom : 'I hope enough, I would suggest, in conclusion, that the present you may not have to confess that I gave a sound advice time is a fitting one for its reiteration.

for once.'

The skiff was accordingly left as it had been placed, SINGULAR CAPTIVITY.

with the oars inside ; and our party went in search of

shelter. Of this they knew there was little to be had, My grandfather rented a large farm in one of the for the islet could not boast of even a sheepcot, and western islands. It lay on the sea -coast, and there it lies much exposed to every wind. They were all were several small islands attached to it, where he kept drenched to the skin, the evening was closing, and the sheep and black cattle. The largest of these, about east wind blew keen and bitter as is its wont: hardy as two miles long by one in breadth, though covered with they were, they could not resist violent shiverings. They heather, yielded excellent pasture for several hundred had not, which was somewhat remarkable, even a drop sheep and some score of black cattle. The distance of whisky to revive them. My grandfather set his combetween it and the mainland being only about three panions to pull the heather with which the island was miles, it was generally of easy access; and my grand-thickly covered, and showed the example himself. The father paid frequent visits there to survey the state exercise restored warmth to their limbs ; and after of the stock and pasture.

pulling till they were tired, they heaped the heather It was on a Tuesday morning, early in the summer at the side of a rock, and laid them down in their wet of 179-, that, after an early breakfast, he set out for clothing. A nice hot-bed that was for engendering the island in a small Norwegian skiff-the crew con- rheumatism; and so my poor progenitor experienced in sisting of three men and a lad of sixteen. The morning many a day of subsequent suffering. During the night was fine, and the day seemed to promise well, though the cold was so keen, that, to keep themselves from abthe wind freshened a little as they left the shore. It solutely stiffening, they got up at intervals and resumed was from the east, however; a wind which sometimes, the task of pulling the heather. At length day dawned, on the western coast, at that season of the year, springs and disclosed to them a raging sea : the storm had risen rapidly into a gale; but the opportunity of a fine day to a pitch of terrible fury, and the clouds of spray was too good to be despised in the Hebrides, and the that were swept along the rocks almost concealed skiff with its party soon reached the shore of Berneray. the shore from their view. The spectacle, though They spent a considerable time in traversing the island ; doubtless sublime in the highest degree, was too deand after completing their survey, proceeded to re- pressing for them to regard it with any feelings save embark. The wind had by this time risen consider those of despondency. Their first impulse was to go ably, and was every moment on the increase; but the down to the shore and see how it fared with the skiff. skiff was launched, and my grandfather was confident Their dismay may be imagined on finding her gone! that they would be able, with vigorous pulling, to reach Old Johın had rightly surmised that the tide would be the mainland before the gale should have time to become unprecedentedly high: it rose full twenty feet beyond greatly more violent. His anticipations were, however, the ordinary mark; and the green grass, strewn with a little too sanguine. They had not gone far when foam and sea-weed, bore ample testimony to the old they found that all their efforts propelled the skiff but man's despised sagacity. The feelings of the party were very tardily against the wind, which now blew, accord at that moment of a very unenviable kind. There ing to the phrase, ' as if from the mouth of a battery.' were they left on that wretched islet, deprived of their The sea ran high, and the low skiff, totally unsuited to only chance of escape, without a particle of food, and, such rough work, shipped large quantities of water. what was worse, without a drop of water. The chance To go forward was evidently rash in the highest de- of the storm's abating was very slender, such gales often gree, if not impossible ; and to return to Berneray was holding out for many days; and even should it abate,

H

they had little hope of being observed from the shore- Meantime ashore there was restless anxiety mingling a distance of several miles. A sad situation it was for now with terrible misgivings. No sign had been seen a worthy gentleman with a young family, who had all to indicate that the lost ones had gained the island of his life eschewed seafaring adventure beyond a three- Berneray, as was conjectured: had they been there, mile limit, and four poor decent men, whose marine it seemed hardly possible that they could be unno. experience had never led them into great perils. * ticed, for there were several eminences where they

Meantime ashore there was no less anxiety and dis- might easily display themselves. The storm held on tress. The skiff had been seen making its way a short relentlessly, precluding all possibility of trying the distance from the shore of Berneray, and there was lost ferry. There had been a very slight fall of the wind sight of. The state of the sea was such that it seemed a little before noon, and a boat had been launched; but out of the question that a craft 80 small could live in the crew were forced to put back for their lives before it, and the sudden disappearance of the skiff confirmed they had gone many yards from the shore. The case their worst fears. There seemed little doubt that she was now at its worst. There did not appear to be the had been swamped, and that every soul in her had gone remotest chance of their having escaped the angry sea; to the bottom. "On the Wednesday, couriers were sent but still hope was not entirely given up till that island in all directions down the coast, as it was supposed she should have been explored. About one o'clock on might have been carried ashore in that quarter. They Friday morning it began to rain heavily, with frequent deemed their conjectures realised, when, before night- peals of thunder. My grandfather described the scene fall, a messenger returned with the sorrowful tidings as very solemn. It seemed as if the voice of the Eterthat the boat had gone ashore that morning at a place nal himself were thus addressed to them in the darkmany miles down the island, where a jutting promon- ness of the night, and amid the howling of the tempest, tory had arrested it on its way to the Atlantic. My to bring to their remembrance that He was around them, poor grandmother's state of mind was most melancholy. and had the elements at His bidding—that they were in She was a woman of keen and tender feelings, and she His hand to deliver them yet, if it were His will. They gave way to unbounded sorrow, while the farm people, all united in commending themselves to His mercy ; who had congregated at the 'Big House' to hear the afterwards they felt resigned to their fate. The rain tidings, manifested their attachment by unrestrained poured for the following six hours literally in buckets. grief. My grandfather was universally beloved, and his full: they were drenched till they became quite helpless loss was felt to be a general calamity. One man, how with the cold and discomfort: they kept close together, ever, more hopeful than the rest, suggested the possi- to maintain, if possible, a little warmth. At length, bility of their having after all gone back to Berneray on about seven, the rain began to abate; the storm had by their sudden disappearance, and of their being all safe this time fallen into a dead calm ; not a breath disturbed there still. The fate of the skiff was accounted for by the black and glassy surface of the sea; the long heavy the height of the tide an the dreadful sea that ran on swell came with a saddening murmur on the shore, and the shore. This conjecture seemed not ill-founded, even the furious activity of the storm seemed more and again the hopes of the mourners were revived. cheerful than the sullen calm that reigned—too late, as But what could be done for the luckless adventurers ? they supposed, to bring them succour. Oh with what The storm still raged with unabated fury: a ship of heavy hearts they cast their longing glances to the the line could not lie to between Berneray and the shore, where they could see the smoke rising gently in mainland. Nothing, at least, could be attempted till the the calm morning from the homes they expected to see morning. That was a night of sad suspense, no less no more! They could distinguish a throng of people to those ashore than to the poor prisoners on the who had gathered to see a boat launched. Hope reislet. They had spent a great part of the day on the vived within them at the sight, but soon gave way to highest ground, trying in vain to attract observation. despondency when they saw the course she took. The It was so flat, and so covered with long heather, that, chance of her coming so far out of the way as their besides being a good way from the shore, a human figure prison islet, was too feeble a stay to rest any hope on. could hardly be descried on it without very close obser- The party from the shore, among whom was my mother's vation. But it never had occurred to any one that they only brother, pulled for Berneray with might and main, could have gone there, so that while every eye was and soon were ashore. They ran up the landing-place, eagerly directed to Berneray, no one thought of casting calling aloud for the lost ones; but no voice answered to a look towards the smaller island. They were now be the sound. They made for the cattle-pen, where it was ginning to feel the want of food and the pains of thirst. probable they had crept for shelter during the rain : they They tried to drink out of some brackish pools on the found no one there. They searched the island all over, rocks above the shore, but found the water intolerably but found not a trace of the missing. At last it was salt and disagreeable. One of them had a small piece suggested that they might have buried themselves in a of bread and cheese in his pocket, which he generously haystack that was there for the use of the cattle, and gave to the young lad, who suffered most from hunger, were too weak to make their presence known. A liost as well as from cold. They had tried in vain by every of eager hands soon tore up the stack, and spread it conceivable means to strike a fire; in short, the whole around : all was vacancy. My uncle, who shared my of Wednesday passed very drearily. At length night grandmother's warm feelings, on seeing all hope thus closed, and they crept to their heathery couch with destroyed, and thinking how he should meet his sister, heavy hearts. The weary night was spent, and Thurs- fainted away like a woman. day morning dawned, but with no lull of the tempest. All this time my grandfather and the rest were in a The feelings of the poor men were now of the most truly state of intolerable suspense. Eagerly they kept their bitter kind. It seemed that they were doomed to starve eyes fixed on Berneray, and watched the boat leaving within almost a cannon-shot of shore, without the pos- it in painful anxiety. To attract, if possible, the notice sibility of making known their situation, and even in of the exploring party, they stood together on the that case without any chance of help. The islet lay highest ground; but even that lay so low, that they opposite a part of the mainland where there were no in

never observed, and they had nothing with habitants, and rarely any one passed, so that they might which they could make a signal. They were by this be there for a month without ever attracting observa- time scarcely able to stand. While thus watching in tion. They now began to suffer severely from thirst breathless suspense, my grandfather perceived an oband hunger; and all felt that they could not hold out ject that looked like a pole floating towards the shore

. much longer. The day passed dismally, with no abate- The ebb tide had borne it from the mainland, and was ment of the storm, and evening closed darkly and carrying it out to sea. If they had only that pole !' gloomily, as if foreboding their inevitable fate.

was the thought that flashed on them aŭ like a sun

beam in the gloom ; and now every eye was bent on * In that part of the country the men did not engage in fishing. the floating spar with trembling interest, their hopes

were

rising and sinking with each roll of the waves that bore although deficient in grand and large views, is, owing to it along. It was impossible to predict with certainty the subject, always suggestive. It excites a thirst for that it would not, after all, pass clear of the point on knowledge even in the most ignorant; while with the which they had clustered. My grandfather was a good better-informed it awakens those lofty and lonely assoswimmer, but in his exhausted state he could not trust ciations that remain buried in their bosoms beneath the himself to the water. While they were thus rivetted vulgar cares of the world. with the most intense interest on the object on which To show the bent of the author's mind, we give the their final deliverance seemed to depend, they had not following recollections called up by a certain spot in noticed till now that their friends were half-way across Mesopotamia :the ferry. The next was a moment of agonizing sus

• 'Twas here the Hebrew, halting on the plain, pense. The oar, as they now saw it to be, was passing Drew up by Haran's gate his camel train : along within a yard of the shore; one rolling wave The sands, long years, have whelmed that city's pride, would carry it for ever beyond their reach! It came,

But still bursts forth the fountain's limpid tide :

Yes, by this well perchance Rebecca stood, and, oh joy! turned the blade to the rock; and with the

Her evening task to draw the crystal fiood; desperate clutch of a drowning man my grandfather Vision of beauty! fancy sees her now, snatched it out of the waves.

Her downcast eyes, and half-veiled modest brow, With all their remaining strength they scrambled to

Her loose-twined girdle, and her robes of white, their old station; and putting a coat on the top of the

Her long locks tinged by sunset's golden light.

The Hebrew craves his boon, and from the brink oar, hoisted it in the air, and watched with eagerness Of that bright well she gives his camels drink; for the effect. The boat had by this time reached within Then as he clasps the bracelets on her hands, a short distance of the land. Every eye of the gathered

With wondering look she views those sparkling bands,

Listens, and smiles to hear the old man speak, crowd was fixed on her with deep anxiety, and a loud

While timid blushes flutter o'er her cheek. lamentation arose when it was seen that she came as

Maid of a simple heart and untaught age ! she had gone. But a louder shout of joy was raised Whom toys could charm, and rudest tasks engage, when, a moment after, a strange signal was descried on Ah! little dreamt she then from her would spring the low level of the islet. The boat's head was turned

A mighty people, prophet, sage, and king!

Her memory treasured in each age and clime, instantaneously seaward, and two men at each oar sent

Her gentle name to perish but with time!' her through the water like an arrow. After a hard pull, they touched the shore, where the now nearly pros- From this beautiful picture he hastens through the trated group sat waiting their landing. The excite- desert, and then lingers for a while among the ancient ment had till this moment kept up their strength, but halls of Nineveh, till scared away by the flames which now they could not walk to the boat, and had to be rise from the funeral pile of Sardanapalus :lifted in. They had been upwards of seventy hours * Not sated yet, above the ruins rise without food or drink! Joyfully did the boat now The exulting flames, and dart into the skies: turn to the shore, where their landing was hailed with

Red through the night that fearful pillar glows, delight by a perfect gathering of the clans' from

And ghastly radiance o'er the city throws;

The heavens seemed blood, and Tigris' winding wavo the surrounding neighbourhood. Some weeks elapsed

Gleams the same crimson hue by mount and cave. before they had fully recovered their strength; and Quivers the light across the desert sands, some of the party had received a constitutional injury Where the lone pilgrim, wildly wondering, stands, that did not so soon pass away. Two things at least my

Thinking that far-off blaze some meteor driven

By demon hands along the verge of heaven; grandfather said he had learnt from the adventure

The pard, approaching human haunts for prey, the one was, not to be positive; the other, never to disre- Starts as he looks, and howling, scours away; gard the counsel of experience, even when its cautions seem

E'en on far Iran's hills those beams are seen, overstrained.

Where bends the Magian, musing but serene,
Deeming in light so grand dread Ormuzd nigh,

His star gemmed mantle blazing down the sky.'
MICHELL'S RUINS OF MANY LANDS.*

As a contrast, we may give the following bit of sunset :We are the more disposed to devote a column to this

* Calm sinks the sun o'er Edom's blighted hills, work, that we think the author has hardly received justice

And the whole air a pulseless silence fills : from our contemporaries. If the general tone of the The round red orb hath reached the horizon's brim, poem had been lower, and only risen occasionally into Shooting its crimson flames ere all be dim; comparative excellence, it would have met with more

Across the broad sands gleams the living fire,

Quivering, like hope, around each rocky spire. success. The reader would have been more struck with

These glories change, as lower sinks the sphere, its merits, and all sorts of prognostications would have And still each moment lovelier tints appear ; been hazarded as to the destinies of a writer exhibiting Saffron and amber flood the gorgeous west, so much capability. As it is, it sets out in a compara

Fairy-like towers in hucs Elysian drest; tively—but only a comparatively-high tone, from which

Now shafts of pallid gold are upward cast,

But all to softened purple yield at last.' it neither rises nor falls; and therefore is it branded with the stigma of mediocrity—a stigma far more fatal in As a companion to this, we append a moonlight scene :authorship than utter condemnation. But the poem is *Slow rises evening's moon; the silvery shower in reality as much above mediocrity as it is beneath the Lights, while it softens porch and ruined tower ; highest excellence; and the fact of such a flight being The huge sphinx-forms that line the desert way, equably sustained throughout several thousand verses is

The giant sculptures sleep beneath the ray: indicative of no common power.

The quivering beams, so softly, purely shed,

Rest like a crown of pearls on Memnon's head. There is here not even the hinted story of Childe E'en Gornoo's funeral rocks beyond the Nile, Harold. The new Pilgrim floats in imagination through

With all their hoary tombs, appear to smile. time and space, looking down upon the footsteps of lost

By tower and column flows the ancient stream, races and the fragments of crumbled empires. Babylon,

On each small wave the stars reflected gleam.

Silence-Death's sister-round her watch doth keep, Nineveh, Egypt, the rock-temples, the cities of ancient Save when the night-winds faintly moan and creep, America, the ruins of Greece, Italy, Arabia, Syria-all Or woo, with whispers, yonder lonely palm, pass in review before him. If the author's mind were That droops, like some sad spirit, 'mid the calm, philosophical instead of merely sensuous, there would

Mourning o'er Thebes, as in her shroud she lies, here be the materials for a great poem; but, incapable

No more to rule, or ope her lovely eyes.' of the loftiest Alights either of thought or of the muse, After sunset and moonlight, we offer morning as a better he bas produced only a series of agreeable pictures. sketch than either :This, however, is no inconsiderable achievement in the

* The morn awakes; along each granite height present state of the art; and Mr Michell's work, besides, That bounds the east soft streams the rosy light.

More distant still, the Red Sea glows and smiles * Tegs, London : 1848.

Through all his coral rocks, and leafy isles.

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The acacia, shadowed by the loftier palm,

agency in choosing their rulers. But the restraints on Begins to drop its odour-breathing balm:

journeymen in that country are still more oppressive. As The lotus-flower, which all the night had kept Her soft leaves closed, wherein some sylphid slept,

soon as the years of his apprenticeship have expired, the

young mechanic is obliged, in the phrase of his country, to Woke by the beam, unfolds her bosom fair, And freedom gives the sky-born slumberer there.

. wander' for three years. For this purpose he is furnished, The humming-bird flits round the blossomed bower,

by the master of his craft in which he has served his apShaking his plumes, himself a flying flower.

prenticeship, with a duly-authenticated wandering-book, The giant ostrich leaves his cave of rest,

with which he goes to seek employment. In whatever city And seeks the tracl ss desert of the west:

he arrives, on presenting himself, with his credentials, at The fierce hyena, ever fond of gloom,

the house-of-call or harbour of the craft in which he has Flies to his haunt-some ancient rock-cut tomb.

served his time, he is allowed, gratis, a day's food and a Far in the desert sounds the carnel's bell, Where Arabs quit their tents beside the well;

night's lodging. If he wishes to get employed in that And early monks, where Coptic convents crown

place, he is assisted in procuring it. If he does not wish The steep hill's brow, on flowery vales look down,

it, or fails in the attempt, he must pursue his wandering; Drink the soft breeze, and scan heaven's depth of blue, and this lasts three years before he can anywhere be adNor sigh to join a world they never know.'

mitted as a master. I have heard it argued that this

system had the advantage of circulating knowledge from Such pictures are to be found almost in every page, place to place, and imparting to the young artisan the and in them lies the charm of the poem. We cannot

fruits of travel and intercourse with the world. But howafford, however, more than one other extract; but that of ever beneficial travelling may be, when undertaken by itself would justify the qualified praise we have bestowed those who have the taste and capacity to profit by it, I upon Mr Michell. The soene is in Mexico, at the place cannot but think that to compel every young man who where a chapel dedicated to the Virgin has succeeded a has just served out his time to leave home in the manner temple of the God of the Air :

I have described, must bring his habits and morals into

peril, and be regarded rather as a hardship than as an Man, ages, creeds, have melted from those plains;

advantage. There is no sanctuary of virtue like home.Now o'er the giant structure Quiet reigns.

Everett's Address,
Spring decks its mouldering sides with many a flower,
That woos the bee at morning's dewy hour.

WHO ARE THE TRULY VALUABLE IN SOCIETY.
Where frowned the Toltec's God, the Virgin now
Sheds her meek smile, and Christian votaries bow;

The value set upon a member of society should be, not
While, sadly sweet, the circling yew-trees wave,

according to the fineness or intensity of his feelings, to the And crosses deck the ancient Pagan's grave.

acuteness of his sensibility, or to his readiness to weep for, “ Ave Maria !” evening's balmy breeze

or deplore the misery he may meet with in the world, but Wafts the soft prayer, like music, through the trees ; 'Mid golden clouds, his curtained couch of sleep,

in proportion to the sacrifices he is ready to make, and to The sun o'erhangs the vast Pacific deep,

the knowledge and talents which he is able and willing to Gilds the far isles that tropic glories bear,

contribute towards removing this misery. To benefit manAnd charms to rest each storm-fiend brooding there.

kind is a much more difficult task than some seem to “ Ave Maria!" mountain, plain, and shore,

imagine ; it is not quite so easy as to make a display of Hear the loud gong, the crowd's mad shout no more :

amiable sensibility: the first requires long study and painSoft as an angel's sigh, the bell's low sound

ful abstinence from the various alluring pleasures by which Steals from yon tower, and floats in whispers round. Day smiles in death, and throws a crimson streak,

we are surrounded; the second in most cases demands Like Beauty's blush, along each snowy peak;

only a little acting, and even when sincere, is utterly useE'en Orizaba's fires ascend on high,

less to the public.- Westminster Reriew. The lurid flames turned roses in the sky. Mild are the rites, and gentle is the creed,

CLOTH MADE OF PINE-APPLE LEAVES.
Thus doomed red Moloch's worship to succeed ;

Some time ago we observed in the neighbourhood of
Eve's purple charm, the music of the hour,
Pour on the soul their soft dissolving power,

Batu Blyer & number of Chinese labourers employed in
Melt the full heart, and waft the thoughts above,

cleaning the fibres of pine-apple leaves for exportation to On wings of warın devotion, hope, and love.'

China, a new and promising branch of industry in SingaThe pamphlet from which these extracts are taken pore. The process of extracting and bleaching the fibres

is exceedingly simple. The first step is to remove the forms only a portion of the poem, which is to be com- fleshy or succulent side of the leaf. A Chinese, astride on pleted in three monthly parts; and we may notice it as a narrow stool, extends on it in front of him a pine-apple a circumstance indicative of the great change which has leaf, one end of which is kept firm by being placed betaken place in the cost of literature, that the price of neath a small bundle of cloth on which he sits. He then the part before us, containing one hundred well-filled with a kind of two-handled plane made of bamboo repages of such poetry as we have quoted, interspersed with moves the succulent matter. Another man receives the a few notes, is only one shilling.

leaves as they are planed, and with his thumb-nail loosens
and gathers the fibres about the middle of the leaf, which
enables him by one effort to detach the whole of them
from the outer skin. The fibres are next steeped in water

for some time, after which they are washed, in order to
The different crafts in Germany are incorporations recog- free them from the matter that still adheres and binda
nised by law, governed by usages of great antiquity, with them together. They are now laid out to dry and bleacha
a fund to defray the corporate expenses, and in each con- on rude frames of split bamboo. The process of steering,
siderable town a house of entertainment is selected as the washing, and exposing to the sun is repeated for some days
house-of-call, or “harbour,' as it is styled, of cach particular until the fibres are considered to be properly bleached
craft. Thus you see in the German towns a number of Without further preparation they are sent into town for
taverns indicated by their signs, “Masons' Harbour,” Black-exportation to China. Nearly all the islands near Singa-
smiths' Harbour,' &c. No one is allowed to set up as a pore are more or less planted with pine-apples, which, at a
master workman in any trade unless he is admitted as a rough estimate, cover an extent of two thousand acres,
freeman or member of the craft; and such is the stationary The enormous quantity of leaves that are annually suffered
condition of most parts of Germany, that no person is ad- to putrefy on the ground would supply fibre for a large
mitted as a master workman in any trade except to supply manufactory of valuable piva cloth. The fibres should be
the place of some one deceased or retired from business. cleaned on the spot. Fortunately the pine-apple planters
When such a vacancy occurs, all those desirous of being are not Malays, but industrious and thrifty Bugis, most of
permitted to fill it present a piece of work, executed as well / whom have families. These men could be readily induced
as they are able to do it, which is called their master-piece, to prepare the fibres. Let any merchant offer an adequate
being offered to obtain the place of a master workinan. price, and a steady annual supply will soon be obtained
Nominally, the best workman gets the place; but you will Journal of the Indian Archipelago.
easily conceive that in reality some kind of favouritism
must generally decide it. Thus is every man obliged to
submit to all the chances of a popular election whether he

Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also shall be allowed to work for his bread; and that, too, in a

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow ; W. 8. Obr,

147 Strand, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, country where the people are not permitted to have any Dublin.--Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.

THE CRAFTS IN GERMANY.

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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE,' CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

No. 255. NEW SERIES.

SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 18, 1848.

Price 11d.

TRACINGS OF THE ALPS.

visitor observes the bed form of many of the mountain

masses, the strange contortions to which strata have in Ye Ice-falls ! ye that, from the Mountain's brow, Adown enormous Ravines slope amain

some places been subjected, like the foldings of an illTorrents, methinks, that heard a mighty Voice,

put-up piece of cloth in a draper's warehouse, and that And stopped at once amid their maddesi plunge!

we owe many of the prominent peaks to the hardness of Motionless torrents ! silent cataracts !

some of the vertical strata, while neighbouring beds have Who made you glorious as the gates of Heaven

been wearing down under the influence of the weather, Beneath the full keen Moon ?

COLERIDOE.

and from other causes. There are, however, formations The first sight of the Alps is an era in one's exist- connected with the Alps, as high as the chalk and even ence. I had of course read of them since I had read the tertiary, and thus it has been ascertained that they anything, had heard people describe their beauty and are comparatively young hills-younger than the Pyresublimity as something wonderful, and fully prepared nees, younger than the Scottish hills, and even the myself for a natural scene far beyond any that ever met Mendips -- having necessarily been thrown up into my eyes before. Yet so truly inconceivable are the their present arrangement subsequently to the deposiextraordinary features of nature, that the reality came tion of those modern rocks. I somewhat startled a at last with the force of perfect novelty. It is not, party of ladies and gentlemen in an Interlacken penhowever, that the objects impress us in a proportion to sion, by one evening quietly mentioning this deduction their actual magnitude. On the contrary, I am willing of M. Elie de Beaumont, which may certainly be reto own that, taking Ben Nevis at 4370 feet, our impres- garded as one of the most interesting results of sciension from it is not multiplied by quite so much as three tific investigation developed in our time. It was with when we behold an Alp known to be 13,000. When we no wish to exaggerate the very natural wonder of our look, moreover, at the Staubach, and are told that that tea-table, but in the hope of kindling a love of or revermisty cascade falls directly from a rock as high above ence for science, that I proceeded to advert to the fact, the place where we stand as the top of Arthur's Seat is that all these strata had originally been detrital matter above the plain at its foot, we do not receive the in- deposited at the bottom of the sea ; that, as proof of this, pression of altitude which we would expect. The mental my friends might find the shells of sea animals (nummueye seems to get accommodated to the new scale on lites) on the top of Mount Pilatus ; and that it might be which all nature is cast, and thus, it would appear, there said of several of those overpowering hills themselves is even a kind of disappointment inevitable to all fresh that they had been built up to the praise of the Creator visitants of the Alps. Yet no such feeling ever tells of heaven and earth by the immediate agency of anior can tell upon them, as the actual appearance of all malcules, limestone being regarded as a detritus from objects is far more than enough to solemnify and de- coral reefs. It is surely as well to know a few such light any mind of the least sensibility. We may lose particulars when one goes to see grand sights; for while much, because, in fact, we can nowhere get into a posi- it would doubtless be pedantic to analyse the Alps tion where the whole mass of any part of the Alps may geologically at every step, there is no necessary incombear upon our sense at once; but still, whether we patibility between a sense of their picturesque effects wander under the shades of those mighty hills, or pass and the apprehension of a history of their formation, over any part of them, whether we survey them from which is even more of a marvel than their astounding some elevated peak, or from some distant point-such magnificence. as Vevay, or Berne, or even the Jura-we must confess, The Alps spring from a general level of country, with hushed and awe-struck spirit, that our ideas of which is far from low on the side of Switzerland ; at external nature are receiving an extension which might least it is generally very much above the elevation of almost be said to double in a moment all the former any inhabited ground in Scotland, Wales, or any other experiences of a life.

part of the British Islands. Coming from a land where The Alps may be comprehensively described as the 800 feet gives an ungenial climate even in valleys, we entral eminent ground of Western Europe, a fact are somewhat surprised to find Swiss villages looking learly enough indicated by the descent of the affluents sufficiently comfortable at 2500 feet, and even more. A of the Rhone, Rline, Danube, and Po from the midst great part of the surface, however, ranges between 1200 of them, each to fall into its own sea. It has been and 1500 feet, and here the vine grows with tolerable liscovered of late years that they do not form what luxuriance in the less-exposed situations. The vast abunnay properly be called chains of mountains, but rather dance of wood and water throughout the whole country roups surrounding certain centres, these centres being the former extending up the hills to 6000 feet—the enerally granitic, while the outlying hills are for the profusion of quaintly-fashioned wooden houses scattered nost part composed of ancient stratified rocks, tossed everywhere almost as high as the trees; the exquisite p into all sorts of inclinations. The most careless I economy of the people, giving to the whole landscape

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