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able forest, though it is only hard, dry, and tasteless. think of the masters as if they belonged to a distinct and Autumn shakes it down, and buries it as an untimely hostile tribe, forgetting—or rather wilfully shutting their abortion, with abortive leaves, and the dwarf-tree sinks eyes upon a fact which they know of their own knowback in despair into the icy arms of winter again, to re- ledge--that the latter rose originally from the same mass peat year after year-until perhaps a hundred are faintly of which themselves form a part; the masters regard their told upon its inner wood--the same mournful process. Not, let us gladly say, on the authority of one well com- gentlemen customers with envy, as persons who have no petent to speak, that all the Chinese take pleasure in right to be idle, never thinking that the leisure of which this cruel freak; for it is well known that some wealthy they complain has been bought by work; and the gentlemen-men surely who rightly estimate the blessings of men look up to a higher gentry or nobility as desertless liberty, even if they have not loftier conceptions as to minions of luck, omitting to carry their gaze a few genethe sensations (?) of vegetable vitality-spend consider-rations back, when the illustrious line would in most able sums in purchasing dwarf-trees for the express purpose of removing them from their earthen prisons, and cases be seen to spring from the meanest kinds of service. setting their cramped-up fibres free.
We might go on to remark, that the analytical follows of Since the exhibition of one of these starvelings in the necessity the synthetical process; that the greatest aggreChinese Collection, we have noticed what seems to be an gations of wealth return in time to their elements; that attempt to introduce this perverted taste among our the myriad wheels of fortune going constantly round in selves. We have had the pain of seeing a Tom Thumb this country differ only in the length of their revolution; rose-tree planted in a pot of an inch and achalf diameter, and that we are all, high and low, rich and poor, subject and struggling up to the altitude of three or four inches in its efforts to expand one or two rose-buds to the size
to the same laws of social change. But this does not of a small sixpence. More recently still, our attention interfere with the free agency of individuals; on the conhas been caught by some funny little green objects, trary, it shows that we have all a chance, if we will only planted in very fiery-looking pots like big thimbles, and place ourselves in the way; and it gives force and meanset forth in the shop-windows with a placard reading ing to the otherwise useless question, How to get on! thus, “ Real living miniature plants after the manner of There is no want of answers to this question, but they the Chinese, imported from Germany.' On closer inspec- are all more or less visionary and empirical. They tion, we were glad to find that there was no systematic usually proceed upon the quack system of nostrums, cruelty necessary in their production at anyrate, for they appeared to be simply very young members of the family Some recommend a calm and dogged perseverance as the of the cacti. Many of these little things are full of one thing needful; others a quick succession of energetic flower; and being tastefully arranged, put into miniature attempts; and so on; and all are backed, with equal flower-baskets or upon tiny flower-stands, they have, for strength, by proverbs of most respectable antiquity, illus. those who admire the minute, a pleasing effect. The art trated and proved by modern instances. It is not easy of dwarộng, where it has been confined to reasonable to find fault with the popular nostrums, for most of limits, where it has brought flowers in the room of forest- them are moral and sensible in themselves; but we all trees into the conservatory, or where it has been bene- know that a thing may be extremely applicable in a par: ficial in the orchard and field in restraining the excessive vigour of trees and plants, is a valuable handmaid to the ticular case, and yet mischievous, or merely absurd, if horticulturist : need we say when it is made subservient adopted as a specific. The continuance of the cry to an idle whim, or to gratify a morbid taste for the proves the emptiness of the answer. We do not get on a curious, we should be sorry to see it practised, or its bit the better for being told how; and at every new crisis practice encouraged in an age and time like ours ? we look with envy and hate upon those who are more
fortunate than ourselves, attributing our own misfortunes
to the unfair constitution of society. 'I have persevered, HOW TO GET ON?
says one, 'till I have grown gray-haired in poverty; I Pent up in these little islands there are some thirty have laughed at the instability of my comrades, till they million human beings struggling and shouldering their have risen into fortune above my head; I have stuck to way from the cradle to the grave. The means of com- my business, without turning my eyes to the right or the fortable living are enough, though not more than enough, left, till it has deserted me. Another declares that he for all; but the partition is influenced partly by indi- has seized every opportunity of bettering his condition; vidual management, and partly by a mystical sequence that he has worked day and night, and tried trade after of incidents, which, in our ignorance of its laws, we com- trade; and that now, when everything has failed with monly set down as chance. It is no wonder that, in this him, he sees by his side the poor drudge, the man of one anxious, eager crowd, we hear on all sides the cry, How idea, rising gradually into comfort, and eren rank. These to get on? By some it is uttered in a tone of earnest are terrible anomalies: they throw the specifics into disinquiry, while in others it assumes the accents of peevish- repute; and the cry begins anew, How to get on! ness, indignation, or despair. The unsuccessful complain We saw the other day a 'modern instance' of the inof the injustice not only of that tyrannical abstraction, justice of forlune. It occurred in the case of some boys, Fortune, but of their luckier brethren ; the impatient who were fishing in the Firth of Forth. One little, revile those who are before them for standing in their ragged, bareheaded, barefooted urchin stuck to his way; the indolent denounce the industrious for taking post like a limpet ; while his companions wandered the bread out of their mouths; some, losing heart, beg along the shore, casting their lines at every step. The humbly of the passers-by for the morsel they cannot earn; latter sought the fish, while the fish sought him; the and others take by fraud or force what they could far one not finding what they took so much trouble to more easily secure by honest ingenuity or resolve. The seek, and the other merely standing still, and securing malcontents array themselves in classes, order arms the candidates for the bait as fast as he could jerk against order, and the social war never wants fomenters them in. On returning from our stroll, we found this even among those who cannot be supposed to be either scene at its close. The limpet had unfastened himself blinded by ignorance or goaded by want.
from his rock, and was wending homewards with a string This struggle, notwithstanding its heterogeneous ele- of podleys and Aukes (young coalfish and founders) half ments, goes on, upon the whole, with great uniformity, a yard long; while his wearied and empty-handed comand its results are wonderfully impartial. The jealousy rades were walking gloomily by his side, eyeing him of classes originates in a mere delusion. The operatives I askance, and, we have no doubt, thinking within thema
selves that he had some hand in their bad luck. 'Aba!' impatience, but to keep up, as far as circumstances perthought we, in our wisdom, ' here is an illustration of mit, with the requirements of a refined and accomplished the great business of life: steadiness and perseverance are age, and thus be ready to avail ourselves of any reasonever sure of their reward !' The next day we passed the able opportunities that may offer. If no such opportusame place, and saw with marked approbation our young nities occur, what then? Why, then, we have enjoyed the friend once more upon his rock, while his unphilosophical finer part of success; we have lived beyond our social companions were prowling as formerly along the shore. condition; we have held intellectual association with the But somehow or other the result on this occasion was dif- master minds of the world; we have prolonged even life ferent. No steadiness, no perseverance, could gain the itself, by multiplying the spirit of life, which is Thought. limpet a single nibble, while the peripatetic efforts of As for the notion that we can only extend our mental the rest were highly successful; and as the boys were acquisitions by neglecting our social employment, that is going home, we heard the disappointed angler bitterly a fallacy which is refuted by the very constitution of the accusing his neighbours of having drawn away his fish! society in which we live. Were this notion correct, there
On this second occasion we were not so ready to draw would be no such thing as the constant progression we the moral. It was clear that some under-plot was going have described from the lower to the higher ranks: the on beneath the surface of the water, with the moves of whole mass would stagnate. which we were unacquainted--that the fortune of pod- But while openly avowing our disbelief in the old ley-catchers was determined by circumstances of which quack nostrunis which it has been customary to admiwe knew not the course or nature. It may be that, if we nister, by way of a placebo, to impatient spirits, we do were far enough advanced in science, we might be able to not go the length of denying to each its own special virtell, from the state perhaps of the wind or tide, whether tue. Perseverance, energy, prudence, resolution, sobriety, our enticements would have most effect if offered from honesty—all are necessary for success; but neither singly a rock or when wandering along the shore; but in the nor in the aggregate are they capable of insuring it. If meantime, it was clear that the podleys thought very we seek advancement, our minds must expand beyond little of our aphorisms, and laughed our nostrums to our present position, whatever it be; and this they can
only do by the acquisition of knowledge. It is a simple Although it is impossible, however, to twist the inci- secret no doubt-as simple as that of Columbus when he. dent into an illustration in favour of any universal taught his audience how to make an egg stand on end. theory, it may suggest to us that in the bosom of society But for all that, it is the solution of the grand question: there are agencies at work as complicated and mysterious it is the way, and the only way, to get on. as those that govern the Forth. Is there, then, no general rule for getting on' in the world ! We think there is. We cannot tell what is coming; but we can hold A MONSTER UNVEILED. ourselves in preparation for what may befall... A ship Poor thing! I do feel for her. Though she is a perthat goes forth upon the ocean is provided with appli- son I never saw, yet hers seems a case of such oppresances both for catching the breeze and evading the storm; and were it otherwise, she would have no chancesion on the one hand, and such patient suffering on the of making a prosperous voyage.
If we examine the other, that one cannot but'history of men who have risen in society, we find their she often steals ouť then, when the wretch, I suppose,
Oh I daresay you'll see her in the morning, for elevation, although apparently the result of chance, to be
is in bed.' due, in reality, to the fact of their being ready to take
* But what could have induced a girl to tie herself to advantage of the wind or the current. To other
such a man?' wise is to suppose human beings to be inert logs floating
• Well, I don't know: the old story, I suppose-false upon the stream, or feathers dancing in the air. When we hear of a man plodding for life at a thankless profes- appearances; for no girl in her senses could have marsion, we may, in nine cases out of ten, conclude him to ried a man with his habits, if she had known of them be destitute of the information or accomplishments which beforehand. There is sometimes a kind of infatuation would have enabled him to take advantage of the thou- about women, I allow, which seems to blind them to sand circumstances which are constantly at work in such the real character of the man they are in love with ; crowded communities as ours.
but in this case I don't think she could have known We are frequently told of persons who have got on' how he conducted himself, or she certainly would have by chance ; but if we inquire into the particulars of the paused in time. Oh the wretch, I have no patience story, we are sure to discover that they possessed peculiar
with him!' capabilities for taking advantage of the opening that
This little dialogue took place in one of those neat, may have occurred. We knew a lad who was chosen bright, clean-windowed, gauzy-curtained houses, which from his compeers for a service which eventually led to form so many pretty districts within a walking disprodigious advancement. And why? Simply because tance of the mighty heart of the great metropolis, and this lad possessed, in a higher degree than the others, the between two ladies, the one the mistress of the said accomplishment of penmanship, which happened to be nice-looking cottage villa, and the other her guest, a specially wanted in his new employment. The illustra-country matron who had just arrived on a visit to her tion is a humble one; but if we call to mind the charac- town friend; and the object of the commiseration of ter of the age we live in, its varied knowledge, and high- both was the occupant of a larger and handsomer villa toned refinement, we shall be led from it to conclude, as exactly opposite, but apparently the abode of great a general rule, that something more than chance must wretchedness. rule the destinies of the fortunate. To descend still The following morning Mrs Braybrooke and her lower; suppose a cobbler working at his stall in a village guest Mrs Clayton were at the window of the parlour, -industriously, soberly, perseveringly. All, perhaps, will which commanded a full view of the dwelling of the not do. The village is waxing to a town; sanguine unhappy Mrs Williams, when the door quietly opened cobblers come faster than shoes to mend; and the poor and was as quietly closed again by the lady herself. man sinks into destitution. Why is this? Because • There she is, poor soul,' cried Mrs Braybrooke : he was a cobbler who stuck like cobbler's wax to the only look how carefully and noiselessly she draws the proverb, and never went beyond his last. Because his gate after her. She seems always afraid that the mind was imprisoned in his stall. Because he was unable slightest noi she may make even in the street may to take advantage of any one of the currents and counter- wake the fellow, who is now, I daresay, sleeping off the currents that are rushing and gushing in a rising place, effects of last night's dissipation.' and when his own stagnated, could only drift like a life- Mrs Clayton, with all the genial warmth of a truly less log.
womanly heart, looked over, and followed with her eyes The way to get on is not to rush from employment to as far as the street allowed this quiet-looking, brokenemployment, or to worry ourselves and others with our spirited wife, investing the whole figure, from the neatly-trimmed straw-bonnet to the tips of the bright tion of the house, 'I find,' she said, “you are a near little boots, with a most intense and mysterious sym- neighbour of a dear friend of mine, Mrs Williams.' pathy; then fixing her anxious interested gaze on the Mrs Williams!' exclaimed both her hearers, pale opposite house, she said, 'And how do they live? How with excitement and curiosity; "Mrs Williams ! 'Oh do people under such circumstances pass the day? It how very singular that you should know her, poor is a thing I cannot comprehend; for were Clayton to miserable creature! Oh do tell us about'act in such a way, I am sure I couldn't endure it a * Poor-miserable! What can you mean? You mis. week.'
take; my Mrs Williams is the happiest little woman . It does seem scarcely intelligible,' answered Mrs in London!' Braybrooke; but I'll tell you how they appear to do. Oh it cannot be the same,' said Mrs Bray brooke. She gets up and has her breakfast by herself—for with 'I mean our opposite neighbour in Hawthorn Villa; I out any wish to pry, we can see straight through their thought it couldn't be'house from front to back. About this time she often ‘Hawthorn Villa !—the very house. You surely cancomes out, I suppose, to pay a visit or two in the not have seen her, or her husband, who'neighbourhood, or perhaps to call on her tradespeople ; Oh the dreadful, wretched, gambling fellow!' interand you will see her by and by return, looking up, as rupted Mrs Braybrooke. 'I wouldn't know such a she approaches, at the bedroom window; and if the man blind be drawn up, she rushes in, thinking, I daresay, 'He!' in her turn interrupted her friend Mrs Ecclesto herself, “ How angry he will be if he comes down hall. He a gambler! He is the most exemplary young and finds that I am not there to give him his break- man in London - a pattern of every domestic virtue fast!” Sometimes he has his breakfast at twelve—at -kind, gentle, amiable, and passionately fond of his one-at two; and I have seen him sitting down to it young wife!' when she was having her dinner.'
My dear Mrs Eccleshall, how can you say all this of * And when does he have his dinner?'
a man whose conduct is the common talk of the neighOb, his dinner; I daresay that is a different sort of bourhood; a man lost to every sense of shame, I should thing from hers—poor woman! He dines, I suppose, suppose; who comes home to his desolate wife at all at a club, or with his boon companions, or anywhere, in hours; whose only ostensible means of living is gambfact, but at home.'
ling or something equally disreputable; who – • And when does he come home then generally ?' You have been most grievously misled,' again in.
"At all hours. We hear him open the little gate terposed Mrs Eccleshall. • Who can have so grossly with his key at three, four, and five in the morning. slandered my excellent friend Williams? He cannot Indeed our milkman told Susan that he has seen him help his late hours, poor fellow. That may safely be sneaking in, pale, haggard, and worn out with his horrid called his misfortune, but not his fault!' and the good vigils, at the hour decent people are seated at break- lady warmed as she spoke, till she had to untie her fast.'
bonnet and fan her glowing face with her handkerchief
. • I wonder if she waits up for him?'
‘His misfortune?' murmured Mrs Braybrooke. "How Oh no, for we see the light of her solitary candle in can that be called a misfortune which a man can help her room always as we are going to bed; and you may | any day he pleases ?' be sure my heart bleeds for her-poor solitary thing! . But he cannot help it, poor soul! He would be too I don't know, indeed, that I was ever so interested happy to spend his evenings at home with his dear little about any stranger as I am about this young crea- wife, but you know his business begins when other ture.'
people's is over.' • Dear, dear! it is terrible!' sighed the sympathising Then what, in Heaven's name, is his business?' Mrs Clayton. “But does any one visit them ? Have Why, didn't you know? He's the EDITOR of a they friends do you think?'
MORNING NEWSPAPER!' I don't think he can have many friends, the heartless fellow; but there are a great many people callingstylish people too-in carriages; and there is he, the
A VISIT TO THE DERBYSHIRE POTTERIES. wretch, often with his half-slept look, smiling and hand. These works are scattered over a finely-undulating ing the ladies out, as if he were the most exemplary district lying midway between Burton-on-Trent and husband in the world.'
the classic town of Ashby-de-la-Zouch-the more im* Has she children? I hope she has, as they would portant being comprised in the villages of Woodville console her in his long absences.' No, even that comfort is denied her; she has no
-or Wooden-Box, as the labouring population persist one to cheer her: her own thoughts must be her com- in calling it—and Swadlincote. The neighbourhood panions at such times. But perhaps it is a blessing; abounds in the most essential materials — coal and for what kind of father could such a man make? Oh clay; and the eye, as it roams over the slopes of the I should like to know her; and yet I dread any acquaint-hills, is attracted by the gray smoke of distant limeance with her husband; Bray brooke, you know, wouldn't kilns-huge conical furnaces smoking like petty vol. know such a man.'
canoes ; and here and there the tall chimney and black My dear Mary, you have made me quite melan- creaking machinery of the coal-pits. It is one of the choly: let us go out. You know I have much to see, and many people to call upon; and here we are losing scenes, half agricultural half commercial
, so often met the best part of the day in something not much removed with in the midland counties — the greenness of the from scandal.'
pastures and hedgerows obscured by smoke, and the The ladies of course set out, saw all the loves of fields intersected by numerous black footpaths, or gra. bonnets' in Regent Street; all the sacrifices that were dually disappearing under the continually-accumulatbeing voluntarily offered up in Oxford Street; bought ing heaps of refuse. Industrial art, however, is always a great many things for 'less than half the original deserving of attention, whatever its locality; as, apart cost;' made calls ; laughed and chatted away a pleasant from the gratification arising out of the sight of the exciting day for the country lady, who, happily for various mechanical or other operations, there are pecuherself, forgot in the bustle the drooping crestfallen liarities originati bird who was fretting itself away in its pretty cage in effect upon the manners and habits of the persons
in local circumstances, and their Road. The next day a lady, a friend of Mrs Clayton, who employed. had been out when she had left her card the day before, During a recent sojourn in the north, I was enabled called, and after chatting for some time, turned to to visit the works at Swadlincote, where I met with Mrs Braybrooke, and complimenting her on the situa- I a most cordial reception from Messrs Sharpe the pro
prietors, who at the same time gave me every facility number of faces, it is obvious, may be made to vary for making such inquiries as suggested themselves. It with the size of the article, and a most agreeable effect should be premised that the crockery made upon this is produced by this comparatively slight modification, district is, almost without exception, “yellow ware,' especially in some specimens where each angle of the which, humble as it is, presents ample scope for the exterior was made the termination of a moulded Gothic
heading immediately below the rim. In a similar way exercise of inventive genius.
the edge of a pie-dish is made to present a series of I was first conducted to the stores of raw material - graceful curves to the eye, without at all complicating the clay, which is obtained at distances of a mile or so, the task of future cleansing. in different parts of the valley in which the manufac- After the vessels made by the thrower have undertory is situated. It lies at a depth varying from five gone a partial drying, they are finished on a lathe by to thirty yards beneath the surface, with a seam of coal the turner, who also applies the stripes or bands of immediately above it. It is of a dirty gray colour, and colour. On the bench before him are seen several close when broken, invariably exhibits remains of what and the spouts terminated by one, two, or more quills.
vessels resembling teapots, with hollow straight handles, appear to have been rushes, among which frequently Each of these vessels contains a colour in solution, and occur perfect and beautiful impressions of small leaves. the turner, taking them up in turn, places the quills In ‘getting' this clay, where near the surface, a singu- close to the swiftly-revolving jug or basin, and by blowlar fact has come to light: the overlying bed of coal ing into the handle, forces the colour against the clay, has been in many places dug away, apparently by on which it remains permanently imprinted. In this human agency, but not the slightest clue exists as to way any variety of bands may be produced : and here the period when the removal was effected.
also due regard has been had to improve and chasten After excavation, many tons of the clay are laid to be ugly because it is cheap. By the introduction of
the effect. There is no good reason why a thing should gether in flat heaps, and exposed to the atmosphere, by black or dark - brown veins transferred from printed which means the hardened lumps disintegrate, and get paper, the appearance of Sienna marble is given to the into working condition: the length of time required finished articles, and a character stamped on yellow for this purpose is about six months. To insure a con- ware qualifying it to take its place among more costly tinual supply, a number of these heaps are kept in dif- clay: in fact marbling raises it to an equality of price ferent stages of forwardness. Their presence upon the with other kinds. Those extraordinary figures seen on ground immediately surrounding the works is one of the sides of yellow jugs and basins, representing a bunch the ugly features of the neighbourhood.
of moss or cluster of fibrous sea-weed, are produced by When ready for use, the clay is mixed and mashed one touch of a pencil charged with colour. These are with water, no other ingredient being necessary, as is put on by the turner's assistant-frequently a female the case in the Staffordshire potteries, where superior who takes the vessels away as fast as they are finished, kinds of ware are manufactured. When sufficiently first giving a few rapid touches with the brush. The attenuated, it is passed through a fine silk sieve, and colour being mixed with tobacco water, runs of itself falls, perfectly freed from grit and other coarse sub- into the fantastic shapes above alluded to. By and by stances, into a deep brick cistern, from which it is these will give place to a better style of art, and the pumped into an adjoining cistern, called the ‘kiln,' not vessels which escape breakage may do duty in the more than one foot in depth, but fifty feet long and five museums of posterity. feet wide. While on this kiln, the superabundant water After the turning, the vessels are ready for the spouts is evaporated by the application of heat, after which and handles. The latter are produced by filling a boxthe clay becomes surprisingly tenacious, and is ready press with clay, and then by a turn of the handle, a for the throwers,'' pressers,' or dish-makers.'
strip of clay of the required form, three or four feet in The thrower works with a horizontal wheel in length, is forced out at an orifice underneath. The front of him. Taking up a lump of the moist clay, he strips are cut into lengths, trimmed, and bent to the throws it down upon the revolving instrument, and in proper curve, and affixed by moistening the points of a few seconds, under his manipulation, the shapeless contact with a little water. mass becomes a basin, vase, or jar. In this way jugs, When dried a sufficient time in the atmosphere, or, mugs, bowls, garden-pots, and a host of miscellaneous according to the weather, in a 'hothouse,' the whole articles, are produced with marvellous despatch — al. batch of ware is put into the ' biscuit-oven'to be fired.' most incredible to a stranger, and yet essential to the Most persons are familiar with the enormous conical urgent appeal for cheapness. It is interesting to note structures to be seen at potteries and glass - works. the instantaneousness with which changes of form are Within the outer wall an inner circle is built up, which made: whatever be the object in the workman's forms the oven. The articles to be fired are placed thought, such it rises before him-jug, mug, vase, or inside of large coarse pans, called 'seggars,' made of basin-a slight variation in the pressure or application fireclay and marl--plate on plate, basin in basin, as of the fingers produces the required variation. How closely as possible; and when filled, the seggars are much in this case depends on tact! Each movement, piled one on the other, until the oven, which will confrom throwing down the lump to its separation from tain nearly 3000, is completely occupied. The mouth the wheel as a finished vessel, can only be acquired by is then bricked up, and the fires lighted. These are steady practice. Much, too, depends on the condition ranged at the bottom of the edifice, and the heat and of the thrower's hands. After a strike, or a long fit of flame on their passage upwards soon convert the whole idleness, a short apprenticeship, so to speak, must be contents of the oven into a glowing red-hot mass; the served before they again acquire the accustomed ease process lasting for three days. and smoothness.
The ware, after this first burning, is called ' biscuit,' Messrs Sharpe have shown that the manufacture of and has changed its hue from brownish gray to a deliyellow ware, not less than that of nobler products, ad-cate cream colour; the yellow tinge is subsequently mits of improvements. In their hands the uncouthly produced by the glaze and a second firing in the daubed vessels are assuming an ornamental and even Glost-oven.' There, however, the articles cannot be elegant appearance, without adding to the cost or dimi. so closely placed as in the biscuit-oven, as by the fusion nishing the utility. These changes are of a nature to of the glaze with which they are coated, they would, cause a large development in the moulders' (pressers') whenever the surfaces came into contact, be inseparably branch of the trade." I saw some of the first of the im- fastened together. A space between them is therefore proved articles : one of the alterations consists in giving absolutely indispensable, and the separation is effected a decagonal or polygonal form to the outside of a basin by means of stilts' and 'spurs ;' a sort of small tripod, without destroying the circular form within. The with pointed extremities, on which the articles rest one
within the other, so that the points of contact are is an approach to abjectness, an absence of a well-to-do reduced to a minimun, and the glaze remains unin- expression, which cannot be referred to the nature of jured. The Glost-oven will contain about 2000 seg. the occupation. Perhaps we have here a phase of the gars; when filled with these, the mouth is bricked up, labour question, on which it may not be unprofitable as in the former case, but leaving one small opening, to bestow a little consideration. two or three inches square, by which to draw out the The population of the immediate neighbourhood
trials.' These are rings of dark-coloured clay, manu- comprises about 1000 souls; their habits are migratory, factured expressly for the purpose, and placed in the and many are not natives. The men in the employment interior of the pile opposite the orifice; and their co- of Messrs Sharpe earn from 18s. to L.2 per week; women lour, on being withdrawn at the end of about twenty- from 7s. to 93.; and in some instances father, mother, four hours, by means of a long slender iron rod, at once and three or four children are engaged at the manufacinforms the practised observer whether to stop or con- tory. The hours of labour are from six to six, with tinue the burning. If the former, the screen of brick- intervals for meals. Now it is a lamentable fact, that work that closes the mouth is taken down, the fires whatever the amount of earnings, nothing is saved. In are put out, the external air rushes in on the glowing too many instances a large proportion of the wages mass; and when sufficiently cooled, the seggars are received on Saturday is wasted in sottish revels before brought out, and their contents, now finished, trans- Monday, With the exception of pinepins, there are ferred to the store-rooms. There is a remarkable diffe- no recreations ; the little gardens which in the Stas. rence in the effect of cold air upon the heated ware: if fordshire potteries present so pleasing an array of suffered to rush suddenly into the biscuit-oven, every choice flowers, are here carelessly kept or altogether article would be cracked by the lowering of the tempe- neglected. There being no savings' bank in the village, rature. In this there is therefore no withdrawing of the employers on one occasion proposed to some of the the screen or fires, but all is suffered to cool gradually. | workmen that a small portion of the weekly wages In the Glost-oven, on the contrary, no damage ensues should be left towards a fund to be had recourse to in from the sudden admission of air: the glaze, from some slack seasons or in case of illness. Books were procause not clearly explained, appears to prevent the vided to keep the men's accounts, and for a time small breaking. Sometimes when goods are urgently wanted, sums were left as proposed. Very soon, however, every or the men wish to get through their work early, they man claimed the reserved amount due to him, and some will enter the oven and bring out the seggars while it is among them intimated that “Masters only want to find yet apparently too hot for the endurance of anything out how much money we've got, and then cut us down.' but a salamander-another instance of the wonderful | In another instance the employers endeavoured to power of adaptation to circumstances in the human con- establish a library, and to promote the sale among stitution. There are four ovens connected with these their hands of a monthly periodical, in which, at the works; the stock of seggars is 10,000, but constantly cost of a penny, pleasing information and instruction renewed, as the loss by wear and breakage is from 200 were conveyed. Even this was distrusted by the work. to 300 per week. It is sometimes difficult to get rid of people, as a design of the employers to induce sober the rapidly-accumulating refuse; its general destination and frugal habits, in order to their being found able to is to repair the roads. At present it is in demand for live upon some contemplated reduction of wages. The railway purposes. In districts where gravel is scarce, object was thus defeated, and the few who had begun refuse pots and pans may make serviceable ballast. to read soon ceased to pay any attention to books.
Adjoining the store-rooms, where the finished ware | This dogged resistance to enlightened attempts to ameis piled away, are the packing-rooms, in which men are liorate their condition, is a striking yet lamentable chacontinually engaged in despatching crates well filled racteristic of the class in question. with goods to order. A singular practice prevails in Great forbearance, it is clear, must be exercised in this department in enumerating the various articles dealing with such notions-notions as suicidal to the which are sold by dozens : but here a dozen does not possessor as they are mischievous to others. Take, for always mean twelve ; for in order to keep up a unifor- example, the simple exchange of work for wages : the mity of prices in the accounts, one big jug, which may employers say to the men, . We shall be busy now, and be worth as much as thirty-six little ones, is reckoned must work hard for the next twelve months. Instead as a dozen ; the thirty-six are also set down as a dozen ; of seeking to turn this promising state of things to acand so on with intermediate sizes. Dishes and plates, count, the men immediately slacken their exertions, and however, and some other articles, are counted twelve to instead of making full time, are content to crawl through the dozen.
about five days a week. On the other hand, in a slack Messrs Sharpe's trading connections are almost ex- season they are as eager to work as they were before clusively confined to the United States and British indifferent, and will get through as much in three days possessions in America ; and in going through the as in five days on ordinary occasions. Again, should store-rooms, the visitor is struck by the sight of many one of the turners prove to be of a more aspiring articles which seldom or never come into use in this and enterprising character than his fellows, he is precountry. Some of these, an exaggerated teapot in vented from rising by absurd trade regulations. It is a particular, are so ugly, as to say but little in favour of rule of this branch of the business, when a certain backwoods' taste. English hawkers will scarcely take amount of work is required, to leave the apportioning them, even as a free gift. The most characteristic of it to the men themselves; and, provided the order article, however, is the spittoon; this, by recent im- be completed to time, the masters offer no interference. provements, is made sufficiently ornamental to appear on the principle of equal rights, the law keeps ererg in a drawing-room. Some are of extraordinary dimen- one at the same dead level : the turner who could finish sions after a registered model : it has been proposed to his twenty or thirty dozens per day, is not permitted call them the Congressional Spittoon.' The idea was to undertake more than he who can finish but ten dozen. suggested to one of the firm while on a visit to the The oppressive nature of such a regulation as this will House of Representatives at Washington, by seeing a at once be obvious. In some instances, where men have large square pine box, with a grass turf in the bottom left off drinking habits, and manifested a desire to get of it , placed at each door of the rotunda : and the new forward, the employers would
be glad to encourage the article is his attempt to render the results of a dis- progressive disposition; but the statute steps in
, and gusting habit somewhat less repulsive.
repels the kindly aid, and dooms the aspirant to & While looking at work, attention is naturally drawn position hopeless as that inflicted by the caste laws of to the workers. About a hundred hands' are em- India. It will be long before education, or what is ployed in this establishment; and the impression left usually comprehended in the word, will reach this and on the mind, after a review of the whole, is, in spite of similar evils. Might not a remedy be found in some a feeling to the contrary, that of a lower class. There | local legislative influence ?