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the cages, and the birds would come out and eat their some if it lives. And now tell me, Fanny, do you think crumbs on the table.'
that you can take all this trouble, and persevere for so • Where was the cat then, mamma?' asked Fanny. long a time, to obtain a peacock ?'
"Just sitting in his allotted place,' said her mamma; ' at • Indeed, indeed, mamma, I shall think nothing of the my brother's feet. In about another week my brother trouble,' said Fanny; 'and you know that all the time I let the cages stay hanging on the wall, but opened their shall have the pleasure of seeing the dear little peas doors, and the little birds came flying and singing to eat growing larger and stronger every day; and I will bring their breakfast with him; and when they had finished them out in the sun every fine day, and put them in again eating, they used to sing for him until he had finished before night. Indee mamma, they will be no trouble also. Then they used to fly to their cages when he rose to me.' from table, and then he fastened their doors until the * Then,' said her mamma,' we had better begin our work next morning. The cat alone was his dinner companion, at once, and walk over to Mrs Forrester's, and ask for the and sat very gravely on a chair near him until my brother eggs.' had dined, when the cat got his dinner on a plate on the
"I am sure,' said Fanny, 'that Mrs Forrester will give carpet. The cat and birds became at length so familiar, them to me ; for she said yesterday that she would wish to that the birds used to fly round him, and even to peck at know what present I would like best, as I am her godchild. his nose, and hit him with their wings, while he sat quite I am certain that she will be glad to give them to me.' demurely with his eyes half shut, never pretending to see
Fanny and her mamma were soon ready, and on their them.'
way to Mrs Forrester's house. When arrived there, they Mamma, pray tell me what became of them at last ?' found Mrs Forrester at home, who heard the whole story said Fanny.
of Fanny's wishes, and her mamma's plan for gratifying “The goldfinch died at last of some kind of illness, and them, and immediately sent to look for the peahen's nest, the canary was given away when my brother left home, which was found; and to Fanny's great joy three beautiand the lady who got it one day placed the cage close ful, large, pale-pink eggs were brought in, and presented to to an open window, with the door open; some noise in the her by Mrs Forrester ; and Fanny carried off her prize, room frightened the bird, and it flew off over the roofs of with many good wishes for her success in hatching. She the opposite houses, and she never saw it again ; the cat was able to procure a hen desirous of sitting the next day, lived to a good old age, respected and loved by all who and made a comfortable nest for her in a small room on knew him.'
the ground-floor, and placed the precious eggs under her "Thank you, mamma, for your story. I think I am like wings. you, for I do not like little pets, or any pets in cages. I need not say how anxiously Fanny reckoned the days Oh how I should love a peacock! Indeed, mamma, I as they passed; but I will tell you how regularly she took would give all my nice things for one.'
the hen every day and fed her, and gave her water to Fanny was a good little girl, and very affectionate, and drink, and then watched her for half an hour, while she her mamma was anxious to indulge her in any reasonable ran about the yard to refresh herself, and then put her on wish ; so the morning after the above conversation, she her nest again : her mamma allowed her time to do all asked if her thoughts were still occupied about the pea- this immediately after breakfast. cock.
Fanny did not expect to see her little pets until the 'Yes, indeed, mamma,' said Fanny. I was dreaming twenty-eighth day of sitting; but on the twenty-sixth all night of the lovely one we saw yesterday--all shining day, when she took up the hen, she heard a few short, in blue, and green, and gold; and I was so sorry when I sweet, musical notes, like the soft tones of a flute; she awoke that it was gone.'
examined the eggs, and found that the sounds proceeded Well, Fanny,' said her mamma, ‘I was thinking also from them: two of them were chipped at one end. She of the peacock; and I think I can make out a plan by gently replaced the hen on her nest, and ran to her which you can have one.'
mamma with à face radiant with smiles, to tell her the Oh, mamma, how ?—what way?” said Fanny with de good news. Her mamma told her not to disturb the hen
until the evening, when she might venture to take a peep light, all sorrowful expression disappearing from her coun
at her treasures again. tenance.
Fanny's joy was unbounded when she returned, to see "First, then,' said her mamma, 'I must tell you that my
two beautiful little creatures speckled white and brown, plan does not require you to part with your dolls, your
with long graceful necks, and long wings, and large innopigeons, your playthings, or your kitten; but you must cent-looking eyes ; and they were uttering soft sweet notes pay a far greater price for your peacock-you must take continually. Fanny was in raptures, and remembered no a considerable degree of trouble, and have patience and
more her past trouble. Some little girls may wonder that perseverance for a long time before you obtain your wishes. Fanny was so much delighted; but Fanny was a lively Do you think you can undertake all this?'
creature, with strong affections. I am sure I can, mamma,' said Fanny, clapping her By her mamma's advice, Fanny did not feed her little hands. 'I shall not mind any trouble ; and, mamma, dear pets that night, but left them to be kept warm under the mamma, you shall see how persevering I can be. Do, hen's wings until next morning, when she steeped some przy do, mamma, tell me what I have to do? I do not crumbs in warm water for them ; but they only stretched care for the length of time, if I get the peacock at last; out their long necks and looked at it, but did not know and I will have him so tame, to follow me about, and to how to eat it. So Fanny opened their bills a little, and put feed out of my hand.'
small bits into them, to teach them. By her mamma's “I will tell you my plan now,' said her mamma,' and directions, she carried them and the hen to the front of then you will be a better judge of what you have to under the house in the sunshine : the hen immediately began to take. Pray did you not see a peahen at Mrs Forrester's pick small seeds of grass for them, but they only' stretched yesterday?'
out their long necks and looked at them: the hen then . I do recollect, mamma,' said Fanny, seeing an ugly went to the soft clay and scraped away until she found a thing there, but the peacock was so beautiful, that I did little worm, which she held up exultingly in her bill to them; not mind anything else.'
but her strange nurslings only looked at it, although she * And yet, Fanny,' said her mamma, “your hopes of pro-chucked and called to them. The poor hen then appeared curing a peacock depend chiefly on that ugly thing. This quite at a loss how to please them; but she fell to work is the beginning of June, and the peahen must have laid again, and this time she scraped up a fat earwig, which she some eggs. I asked Mrs Forrester if she intended rearing held up to them as before. This fare appeared to please any peafowl this season, and she said that she did not, as their fancy, for one of them ran over and took it, and they were too troublesome. Now if Mrs Forrester will be devoured it eagerly. The hen scraped again, and seemed so kind as to give you two or three eggs, we can get a quite contented as earwig on earwig disappeared down their farmyard hen to hatch them ; but you will have much long throats, and never was at fault again to know what trouble with them, they are so delicate, and must be kept pleased them. Fanny also gave them oatmeal and barleyso carefully from the cold. The domestic hen, however, cake broken small. She took great care to bring them will be a great assistance to you, as she is a tender nurse, into the house every evening; and when the cold weather and will not bring the young birds to roost on high trees, as came, she kept them in the house on severe days, and fed a pea hen would do. Then you must remember that it them there ; and they got so tame, that they ate from her will be three years before you will see such a splendid bird hand, and perched on her feet and hands. They always as Mrs Forrester's; but in two years it will be very hand- came in to the parlour at breakfast-time, to get crumbs on the carpet ; and Fanny was very happy to have them, and every one praised her for the constant care she took of
WAIT NO LONGER! them.
Ou for such an educationWhen they were six months old, their kind nurse, the
Knowledge prospering in the land, hen, forsook them; and Fanny was fearful about them.
As shall make this busy nation But her place was immediately supplied by a little ban
Great in heart as strong in hand. tam-cock, which took them under his protection and patronage ; and it was very droll to see him marching
Knowledge free and unencumbered, along, followed by the peafowl, which were three times as
Wearing no dogmatic fetters; large as himself; and when he got food, he called them
Quickening minds that long have slumbered; and divided it for them; he also roosted with them. He
Doubling life by living letters. continued his attentions and self-imposed care until they were able to take care of themselves, and long afterwards,
Knowledge that shall lift opinion for bantam-cocks are particularly affectionate ; and it was
High above life's sordid bustle: not the first time that Fanny's had taken the care of
Thought claims limitless dominionorphan chickens.
Men have souls as well as muscle. When June returned, Fanny's mamma and Mrs Forres
Knowledge that shall rouse the city, ter were so pleased with her attention and perseverance,
Stir the village, shake the glen; that they each made her a nice present. Her mamma
Teach the smiter in the snithy, gave her a house for her peafowl, open at the sides, and
And the ploughman, they are men. roofed with boards on the top, which was portable, and could be placed wherever there was most shelter. It was
All who will may gather knowledge, painted green, and looked very pretty in the shrubbery.
Prompt for every earnest wooer ; Mrs Forrester's present was a silver peacock, beautifully
Indifferent to school or college, chased for a brooch: so she was doubly rewarded for her
She aids the persevering doer. trouble and care, and her nurslings proved to be a cock
Shall we wait-and wait for ever, and hen. The peacock is now in full beauty and splen
Still procrastination rueing ; dour, and walks about like an emperor, to the great de
Self-exertion trusting never light of Fanny.
Always dreaming-never doing?
Make man what he onght to be:
Never yet hath gun or sabro
Conquered such a victory! initiated into the ancient mystery of freemasonry. How
W. she obtained this honour we shall lay before our readers. Lord Doneraile, Miss St Leger's father, a very zealous mason, held a warrant, and occasionally opened Lodge at
COMPENSATIONS. Doneraile House, his sons and some intimate friends Do you not perceive, then, that evil is necessary for the assisting, and it is said that never were the masonic duties development of good: can you say that misery is not essenmore rigidly performed than by them. Previous to the tial for happiness ? Illness is the exception to health, yet initiation of a gentleman to the first steps of masonry, what should we know of health anless illness existed to Miss St Leger, who was a young girl, happened to be in an indicate it? If at this moment you were on a sick-bed, apartment adjoining the room generally used as a lodge- your condition would induce pity from your friends-virtue
This room at the time was undergoing some alte- again emanating from evil. They would do all in their ration ; amongst other things, the wall was considerably power to ease your sufferings-kindness, another virtue, is reduced in one part. The young lady having heard the thus manifested. You would feel grateful for their atten- ; voices of the freemasons, and prompted by the curiosity tion--gratitude, you see, springs up! If you bear your natural to all to see this mystery, so long and so secretly affliction with 'fortitude-again good arises! If, on the locked up from public view, she had the courage to pick a contrary, you are impatient, those around you refrain from brick from the wall with her scissors, and
witnessed the saying or doing the slightest thing to irritate you-goodceremony through the two first steps. Curiosity satisfied, ness again emanates from the same soil! At length you fear at once took possession of her mind. There was no become stronger, and then, being slightly ailing, you feel mode
of escape except through the very room where the comparatively happy-thus happiness has absolutely arisen concluding part of the second step was still being solem- from that which, in its positive nature, is an evil; and the nised, and that being at the far end, and the room a very very affliction which made you grieve, is, by a slight modilarge one, she had resolution sufficient to attempt her fication, not altering its original nature, a subject for conescape that way; and with light but trembling step glided gratulation and pleasure ! Thus, Alfred, depend upon it, along unobserved, laid her hand on the handle of the door, however we may doubt the perfection of the laws of the and gently opening it, before her stood, to her dismay, a Creator, all is completely in accordance with benerolent grim and surly tyter with his long sword unsheathed.” A design; and when you complain of the existence of evil in shriek that pierced through the apartment alarmed the the world, you complain of the very element which deremembers of the lodge, who, all rushing to the door, and lops goodness.-Affection, finding that Miss St Leger had been in the room during the ceremony, in the first aroxysm of their rage, her death was resolved on, but from the moving supplication Death comes equally to us all, and makes us all eqnal of her younger brother, her life was saved, on condition of when it comes. The ashes of an oak in a chimney are 10 her going through the whole of the solemn ceremony
she epitaph of that oak, to tell me how high, or how large, that had unlawfully witnessed. This she consented to, and was ; it tells me not what flocks it sheltered while it stoed, they conducted the beautiful and terrified young lady nor what men it hurt when it fell
. The dust of great per: through those trials which are sometimes more than sons' graves is speechless too; it says nothing, it distinenough for masculine resolution, little thinking they were guishes nothing. As soon the dust of a wretch whom taking into the bosom of their craft a member that would thou wouldst not, as of a prince whom thou couldst not afterwards reflect a lustre on the annals of masonry. The look upon, will trouble thine eyes if the wind blow it lady was cousin to General Anthony St Leger, governor of thither; and when a whirlwind hath blown the dust of the St Lucia, who instituted the interesting race and the churchyard into the church, and the man sweeps out celebrated Doncaster St Leger stakes. Miss St Leger the dust of the church into the churchyard, who will married Richard Aldworth, Esq. of Newmarket. When- undertake to sift those dusts again, and to pronounce ever a benefit was given at the theatres in Dublin or Cork This is the patrician, this
is the noble flower, and this the for the Masonic Female Orphan Asylum, she walked at yoeman, this the plebeian bran.-Donne. the head of the freemasons with her apron and other insignia of freemasonry, and sat in the front row of the Published by W. & R. Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh. Also stage box. The house was always crowded on those occasions. Her portrait is in the lodge-room of almost every
sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow: W. &. Osk,
147 Strand, London ; and J. M'GLASKAN, 21 D'Olier Stræt, lodge in Ireland.--Limerick Chronicle.
Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CHIAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR
THE PEOPLE,' 'CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &o.
No. 253. NEW SERIES.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 1848.
may plant himself on one whose banks are not ticketed O RUS!
with threats against trespassers. Mr Stoddart celebrates O Rus, quando,' &c.—Oh country! when shall I see the trouting which he enjoys in and about Kelso; but thee again?' may now be repeated with a more pro- | Mr Stoddart knows that it is a fearful joy which any found feeling than at any former time, for it begins to stranger could snatch with a rod in his hand in that seem greatly problematical if such a thing as the coun- neighbourhood. His better course would be to join the try ever again can be seen. We still talk of going to Anglers' Club, which is fain to lease a bit of Tweed's the country, and when we do go out of town, and find silver streams glittering in the sunny beams,' in order ourselves amongst corn-fields, or by river sides, or in that it may catch its fish in peace. The Highlands one the midst of woods, we are apt to think or suppose, or might suppose to be too wide to be beset by any such to speak as if we thought or supposed, that we really restrictions. Let any one who thinks so try to peneare in the country. But a little reflection in such cir- trate Glen Tilt. It looks like the country, but it is all cumstances soon convinces us that we are not in the a deception. It is merely a shop where game is kept country at all—that is, what we have always under for sale, and to which none can be admitted but those stood to be the country. From our earliest days, we who are disposed to become customers. The country! have been taught to regard the country as a place in — with ground officers and gillies walking about it. As direct contrast to the city. In the one place all is arti- well call the Surrey Zoological Gardens the Vale of ficial, or man's work. In the other all natural, or God's Tempe. O Rus, again! work. Now, what so forcibly strikes me is, that things There are some things in which one never learns are not now in a more natural state in the country than lessons from disappointment, but continually renews in the town. Nay, I sometimes feel tempted to prefer the effort, only to be disappointed once more. Such are that kind of country which Mr Paxton can make in one's annual autumnal attempts to see the country. the midst of a large city, to that larger out-of-town With elated feelings we go to take out our ticket by kind; simply for this reason, that Mr Paxton's land- the stage-coach. We make the journey in a semiscape is fully the more successful in excluding artificial delirium, thinking, 'Well, now, after all my year's toils, objects and disturbing associations.
I am going to have two or three charming days in the I am far from saying that the country ought to be un-country. We get to our destination, some famed and cultivated, in order to satisfy one's ideas about it. On favourite place of resort, where there are inns and the contrary, agricultural economy enters into these lodgings for visitants like us. Say it is the Bridge of ideas. We think of the simple farmers of Horace and Allan, which really is a place of considerable rural Virgil, the sunburnt Sabine wife, the oxen bearing the merits, at least in comparison with others. Full of inverted yoke on their languid necks, the latis otia eager expectation, we set out to explore its most celefundis, the errantes greges, the mugitusque boîm : all these brated walk, which we have been told conducts through things, if to be had genuine and unsophisticated, would a delightful woody valley. Behold, on the other side of only add to our enjoyment of the old idea of the country. the pretty rocky channel of the stream, a railway cutBut, spirit of Flaccus! what wouldst thou have thought ting through the hazel banks! There is the panting, of a large farm, with all its modern mechanism, con- smoking train coming up, with no one knows how verting it into a mere food-producing factory? Shade many passengers, first, second, and third class, or how of Maro! where would have been thy Georgics, if thou much goods traffic. The spoil banks have spoiled hunhadst had to include considerations as to Mark Lane, dreds of the ancient oaks and birks of Allan Water, and competition with the markets of Odessa and New and tamed one whole side of the valley effectually. York? · Can we imagine the former poet lost in the And this is called the country! . After all, your walk delights of grapes and wine in remoto gramine, if that through the woods on the undisturbed side is pleasing.' Temotum gramen had been soiled with the smoke of a With every fifth tree bearing the inviting shop-bill of steam-engine, belched from a red brick chimney, which Messrs Shaw and Baldwin, haberdashers in Stirling ! rears its tall form over the steading to the utter defor. This the country! O Flaccus and Maro—the country! mation of the landscape ? Why, the very gleaners, per. This very village, not many years ago, was really a haps one of the most pleasing features of old farm life, village, with pretty rustic objects about it, and nothing are no more. Their work is done by a machine, in else. But it is the very fate of such places to be loved order to add infinitesimally to the accounts of produce. too well, and to perish in that love. City folks flock to Call you this the country?
them because they are sweetly rural, and never rest Professor Wilson has sung-for his prose articles are till, having converted them into smart towns, they disnoble poems—of the beauties of the Scottish streams, and cover that they are sweetly rural no longer, and so the pleasures of angling in them. But let the angler desert them. And thus it is that the flood of sophistibe careful of his choice amongst those streams, that he cation spreads over the land, until it is at last difficult,
if not impossible, to find one spot which answers to our they may paidle, and no gowans which their infant old ideas of the country. And once more we cry, hands may pu', and their infant eyes gaze into till the O Rus !'
silver-set gold becomes a heart idea for ever? I fear I have now wandered pretty nearly over the whole me not, and cannot but anticipate that 0 Rus! must of this island of Great Britain, and at length I am yet come as a wail from many lands. pretty nearly convinced that it contains no such thing as country. I once got to a charming place in a VISIT TO THE PRISON AT READING. nook of Devonshire, which seemed at first sight a A short time ago, when at Reading in Berkshire, I perfect Elysium, and sitting down on a stone, I said, took occasion to visit the prison of that place—a large * Well, here now at last is one little place really simple and handsome building, with courtyards, occupying and rural; here is one last vestige of the country.' an airy situation on a knoll outside the town. The Looking round, I beheld on a wall close by me an establishment, in its actual organisation, differs little advertisement of Life Pills! On another occasion I from the prison of Pentonville, and some other new jails found myself in an exquisitely-beautiful nook of the throughout the kingdom, and so far there was no perFirth of Clyde, a spot apparently so inaccessible, that ceptible novelty to engage attention; the only thing I thought life might there be dreamt away without any probably which renders it worthy of special notice, is intrusion of the base ideas of the artificial world, and the reputation it has obtained for the successful reclawith nothing around one but a few primitive-minded | mation of criminals; and it may be well to know how swains and gentle damoiselles. Behold, on turning a far such a result is founded on any peculiar method of corner, a whole nest of boxes belonging to Glasgow treatment. citizens, and a ticket advertising the rest of the ground The system of discipline pursued at Reading is a • To FEU' on the most advantageous terms, while over blending of work with moral and religious instruction ; the neighbouring knowe came the smoke, and hiss, and the inmates are confined each in a separate light cell, plunge of a steamer, which, as the more lengthened as is now almost universal in prisons of this class; and announcement of the newspapers was sedulous to tell, in these cells, except at intervals of exercise in the called twice every day to take up and let down pas outer courts, and when attending chapel, or when consengers! Look abroad, and it is all the same. In the signed to an infirmary, they may be said to live from most retired spots in Switzerland you are beset by the period of entrance to departure. After visiting men, women, and children, bent on converting you into different wards, and looking into various cells, I was capital, by being your guides to waterfalls, by selling enabled to remark wherein lay the chief difference beyou toys, or exercising force on your feelings of charity. tween the course of life in this and other establishments. The very shepherds far up among the Alpine soli- It was evident there was less work going on. The Centudes, if there be anything fine about their situation to tral Prison at Perth may be compared to a manufactory attract visitors, convert their châlets into auberges, and the prison of Reading to a monastery. My own imquickly lose the fine edge and flush of savage inno- pressions have always been in favour of giving prisoners cence in a thirst for francs and batzen. Ascend Vesu- plenty of work. I have considered labour to be in some vius, and you will be pulled to pieces among competing respects synonymous with virtue, as idleness is with guides. Travel in Arcadia, and it is odds against your vice. And this is no new view. Labora et ora is escape from being robbed. The Castalian fountain itself not a saying of yesterday. That the framers of the is now probably, like St Anton's Well on Arthur's new prison system now generally in vogue have enterSeat, dealt out to the passing traveller for coppers. In tained similar opinions is pretty obvious – the looni, short, every part of the earth proclaims that the coun- plane, hammer, have become instruments of discipline. try, the true country as it was of old, is a lost idea. Instead of yells, and the clanking of chains, the corriWe may cry 'O Rus!' till we are hoarse, but we never dors of our prisons resound with the brisk movements again shall see the country. We must rest content to of the shuttle. All this, one is inclined to believe, must have it only as a poetical tradition.
be an improvement; but the authorities of Reading It is surely a very sad consideration that, in the prison give it as their conviction that work may be development of things in our age, anything so delight- carried too far as a moral engine, and therefore within ful should so utterly perish. Some will bring it for their domain they have substituted religious instruction ward as a consolation that what comes instead is of and meditation for much of the usual course of labour. more real value. It is not merely,' they will say, I was interested in hearing explanations on this sub
that farms become more productive under the exalted ject; and they were freely and kindly offered by the mechanical system to which they are now subjected, Rev. Mr Field, the chaplain of the establishment, who or that a pretty valley is rendered all the better thing has recently given to the world a work, the best of its by affording a line for railway communication ; but, kind, on the separate system of imprisonment.* Before in the advance of all these materialities, the basis is making any comment on the extent of the instruction laid for grander moralities also. Space being more afforded, it may be proper to follow Mr Field through his densely peopied, greater social and political problems description of the daily life in the prison, beginning with are worked out, and man, on the whole, undergoes an the admittance of a prisoner. On the prisoner being exaltation. Well, I don't know, I have my misgivings. conducted to the inner gates of the jail, his commitment Be it observed the country is one of the things which having been examined by the officer in attendance, and has hitherto operated most largely on the human race the doors being closed, the constable is no longer respon-its green and its bloomery have solaced the eyes of sible for the safe custody of his charge. Escape, either by men in all times; its solitudes have afforded a field violence or cunning, being next to impossible, handcuffs where his soul could relax itself in meditation, and and irons are now removed; the person of the prisoner drink in the pure refreshing spirit of nature. Can they now want all this, and yet be the same beings? Will of Imprisonment, with a Detailed Account of the Discipline .
* Prison Discipline; and the Advantages of the Separate System the future generations be quite what they ought to be in Pursued in the New County Jail at Reading. By the Rer
. d. all respects, if there be no burns in which, while young, Field, M.A., Chaplain. 2 vols. 8vo. London: Longman. 1848
is searched, and all things taken from him which would mation, it is the practice of the chaplain to recommend be either useless or injurious to him whilst in confine- him to the kind consideration of the clergyman to ment. He is then lodged, for a few hours at most, in a whose parish he may be returning, as the most effecreception-cell, there to await the inspection of the tual means of rendering good determinations steadfast. surgeon, who daily visits the prison. This examination Sadly imperfect, however, must our system of criminal having been made, the prisoner is next led to the baths, treatment yet remain until some plan for the employbeing shown, as he passes, the dark cells, which, as a ment of the released offender shall furnish him with preventive to breaches of discipline, he is kindly fore- the opportunity of obtaining an honest subsistence by warned are provided for the punishment of the refrac- his own efforts.' tory. Whilst allowed the needsul indulgence of a warm In this last sentence Mr Field points to what has bath, his own clothes are removed to be fumigated, and been often referred to as a desideratum-places of volunlaid up until his liberation, and he is provided with all tary refuge, where work would be given to released prirequisite apparel at the expense of the county. The soners till they could find employment elsewhere. We process of cleansing and clothing having been completed, would, however, recommend great caution in attempting the prisoner is next conducted to his appointed cell; if the establishment of any such institutions. While they for trial, in a wing which is distinguished as the Jail, might benefit a few, to the greater number they would in which safe custody alone is the object sought and in- in all likelihood only prove places of rendezvous, where sured; or if convicted, in some part of the House of new depredations could be conveniently planned; and at Correction. The cell being furnished with books, &c. the very least, they would be national workshops, with the inmate finds relief in his seclusion, means of im- crime as a qualification for admission. The very proprovement are at once within his reach, some profitable jection of a scheme of this kind shows the danger to employment is permitted, and the diligent occupation which society is exposed by the plans of an inconsideof time, though not enforced, is encouraged.'
rate philanthropy. In pampering the most worthless His course now begins. At six o'clock in the morn- part of the community at the expense of the toiling ing he is summoned from bed, opens and shakes up his millions, it will generally be agreed we have gone far bedding, washes himself, cleans the cell and corridor, enough. A serious objection to the separate system and rolls up his hammock. At eight o'clock he break- of imprisonment is its enormous expense. The prifasts, and then usually spends some leisure time in pre-soners are handsomely lodged, well fed, and a large paring a lesson for the schoolmaster, which he has body of respectable individuals, including a governor been recommended, but not compelled to learn. At ten and chaplain, require to be employed. In the prison minutes past nine the bell rings for chapel, to which of Reading, the average cost of maintenance of an the male and female prisoners go, each individual five inmate is 10s. 6d. per week; and reckoning expense paces apart, to prevent communication, the women with of trial, &c. the county is put to an outlay of at least their veils, and the men with the peaks of their caps L.30 for each convicted prisoner. The expenses indown. From ten till eleven the prisoner takes exercise curred for such purposes, however, ought not to be in the airing-yard, or else is employed at the pumps. grudged, if the end is effected. But there lies a From eleven till twelve, on alternate days, he receives question. The system of separate imprisonment is instruction from the chaplain in a class, and on the expected to work beneficially in two ways-- by the other days assists in cleaning the prison, or employs terror it inspires, and the reformation it effects. Comhimself, if permitted, in working at his own trade. pared with the vicious and inhumane practices formerly From one till three-Instruction, work, and receiving a in use, it seems all that wisdom and philanthropy can visit in his cell twice a week from the chaplain. From suggest. If we suppose a clown transferred suddenly three till four-Exercise in the open air. From four from the tumult of a village taproom to the stately till six-He is visited in his cell by the schoolmaster, sobriety of a drawing-room, filled with elegantly-dressed when class lessons are repeated, and he is privately ladies, we shall not imagine so wild a change as that taught writing, arithmetic, or something else calculated experienced by a criminal caught up from the midst of to improve the mind or to be of advantage in after-life. | his associates and placed in a prison conducted on the Intervals occupied as before. Six-Supper; after which separate system. Seclusion, stillness, order, decency, the remaining space is devoted to mental and moral respectability-how terrible do these things appear to improvement exclusively, till eight o'clock, when the such a man! The world seems to be turned upside prisoner goes to bed.
down. The morality he has laughed at is no longer a Each cell is 13 feet in length, 7 in breadth, and 10 in jest; the religion he has spurned is no longer a fable; height, and besides being well ventilated, is kept at a the parson he has mocked is his master. It is no wonder proper temperature by pipes from a hot-air apparatus. that he believes the tales he has been told of so terrible Provided with a table, seat, and every needful accom- a system creating insanity ; and indeed many prisoners modation, the cell is also lighted with gas; and, in short, endeavour to take advantage of the supposed fact by nothing is wanting to render the apartment a pleasant pretending to turn mad ! and healthful place of residence. Unfortunately, when Pleasant speculations these; but unfortunately somedischarged from his prison home, the subject of so much thing can be said per contra. It may happen that attention finds himself exposed to that terrible neces- many persons do not value liberty very highly, parsity-independent exertion. Referring to this stage of ticularly when associated with destitution; they may his course, Mr Field observes : ‘His situation is most rather have a liking for quarters at 10s. 6d. a week perilous and painful. lle is probably destitute, and paid for by the public. The warm bath, the regular his character is lost. Hence means of obtaining the diet, the clean clothing, the light work, the books to necessaries of life by honest industry are seldom af- read, and the well - ventilated apartments, which our forded. Those whose advice and example might tend splendid prisons invitingly offer for their acceptance, to strengthen good resolutions and encourage reforma- have doubtless charms for a certain class of minds. tion treat him as an outcast; whilst former companions Thus in abolishing a harsh routine of penal discipline, in crime invite his return, offering assistance and relief. revolting to humanity, and practically valueless as a Rejected by others, he is welcomed by them. Allured means of reformation, we may have either gone too far by promises, and almost compelled by threats to aban- in an opposite direction, or been forgetful of the new don recent purposes of amendment, who can estimate conditions into which society scems to be merging. the force of temptation to which the poor liberated The subject at all events demands careful consideraoffender is exposed ? In order to stay the return to tion. Some of the humbler classes of the people are crime, by providing for the day's necessities, a small becoming so destitute, so lost to all sense of decency, sum is given to every criminal on his discharge from that it would not be surprising to see a general run Reading Jail; and if his conduct during his imprison- made on the prisons. In the prison of Liverpool, ment has been such as to induce the hope of his refor- | as it appears, a number of Irish vagrants are (or