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they were attended by troops of archers, kept in con- instances temporary concerns, closely resembling the stant pay for that purpose, but never allowed to enterold Luckenbooths described in “The Traditions of the fortress. When customers arrived, they were Edinburgh:' their signs were in general one of the most obliged to sound a trumpet, which was answered by conspicuous articles in which they dealt, suspended the warder, who kept watch on the battlements night over the door or window, a custom also referred to in and day; when, if it was thought advisable, the basket the above-mentioned work; yet some of the wealthier was lowered, and they were drawn up, man by man, classes had painted signs even then, generally referring except in times of more than ordinary danger, when to some subject of Catholic legend, according to the samples of the goods were let down to them, and the spirit of the times ; and their owners were accustomed merchants arranged matters with them from one of the to stand in their doors, dressed in velvet hats, long loopholes. It is doubtful if shopkeeping on this prin- gowns of Kendal cloth, leathern girdles with a pouch ciple would pay in our generation ; but we live in at the left side, which was expected to answer the purbetter times. A fine contrast to it was presented by pose of our modern till; and the shopkeeper's chief the Alpine shops of Switzerland about a century ago : employment was to invite in all passengers, and adverthey consisted of lonely huts, built at the entrance of tise them of the quantity and quality of his goods. the principal mountain- passes, the door secured by a Even so late as the reign of James I., we find that latch from the depredations of the wolf, and the low- this task devolved on the apprentices; and Sir Walter latticed window revealing to the passing traveller cheese, Scott, in his ‘Fortunes of Nigel,' has chronicled their bread, coarse cloths, and almost every article his neces- accustomed cry, "What do you lack? What do you sity could require, each with the price marked upon lack, gracious sir, beauteous madam?' which, addressed it, which he was expected to deposit in the money-box indiscriminately to the passers on a London street, standing hard by, there being neither salesman nor would have a curious effect in our times ; but changes book-keeper; in fact, not an individual within leagues have come over shopkeeping as well as other matters of the solitary shop, the shepherd who had thus risked since then. May we not add, that our shopkeeping his little all coming once a month from the heights fashions, in other words, our trading operations, are the where his flock remained for the summer, to count and basis of our country's prosperity? There was a larger carry off his profits. The ideas from which such meaning than seems at first obvious in Sidney Smith's arrangements grew were worthy of the Golden Age; proposal to alter • Britain rules the waves,' to · Britain but the mountain-shops have long disappeared since rules the shops ;' and when Bonaparte stigmatised us steamers began to go up the Rhone and across Lake as a nation of shopkeepers, he uttered a true though Leman: it is even said that fashionable hotels in many unintentional eulogium on our national skill and sucinstances occupy their places.
cess in commerce, which, from the signs of the times, There is perhaps no foil to the pomp of London shops would seem appointed by Providence as one of the so complete as the Kassina of Morocco. It is a part most efficient instruments in forwarding the progress of the town where stuffs and other articles are exposed and improvement of society. for sale, and is composed of a number of small shops formed in the walls of the houses, about a yard from the ground, and of such a height within, as just to
LIBRARY STATISTICS. admit of a man's sitting cross-legged. The goods and An article in the August part of the 'Journal of the drawers are so arranged, that he reaches every article Statistical Society of London' gives a view of the prinwithout, and serves his customers as they stand in the cipal public libraries in Europe and the United States. street. These shops, which are found in all the towns The information conveyed by its figures is curious and of the empire, afford a striking example of the indo- important; but not so, we think, as even a 'subsidiary lence of the Moors. Here people resort as to an Ex- clement' (according to the compiler's notion) of the change in Europe—to transact business and hear news; educational condition of the states referred to. The and independent gentlemen often hire one of these people have rarely anything to do, at least in a direct shops, and pass the mornings in it for their amusement. manner, with the national libraries : that of the British
Still simpler are the accommodations for business in Museum, for instance, existing solely for the benefit of more distant African cities : the capital of Abyssinia the few scores of literary persons in London who resort does not contain a single shop, the place of traffic to it. In like manner, the collections of pictures in the being a great plain in the vicinity, to which the mer- houses of our nobility and gentry give no indication of chants proceed, each accompanied by a slave laden the state of art among the people; although the degree with goods, while the master carries an umbrella and of liberality with which these galleries are exhibited a mat; on reaching a convenient spot the mat is may influence to some little extent the progress of spread, the goods arranged upon it, the slave holds the popular taste. umbrella over his master, and the shop is opened for England is not famous for liberality either in literathe day, to be as quickly closed in the evening.
ture or art. We debate eagerly about education, and To return nearer home: the mountainous districts on vie with each other in the unreserve of our confession the north-west of Ireland have yet shops whose primi- of its importance: but after all there is more cry than tive simplicity rivals the scenes of African commerce : wool. Knowledge is admitted to be a great and uni. a cabin, situated on some wild hill-side, or where a by- versal good; but we guard its avenues with the most way leads across a lonely bog, built of the native peat- jealous restrictions. Even the common highway of the moss, thatched with rushes, and having a large turf or alphabet must be approached only on certain onerous piece of dry sod suspended over the entrance by way of conditions ; and the libraries said to belong to the sign, which indicates that milk, coarse provisions of nation are carefully locked up from their owners. This all sorts, and occasionally malt spirits of illicit distilla- inconsistence prevails less upon the continent, where, tion, may be bought within. Of course the stock in generally speaking, the people are permitted to look at trade of such warehouses is rather limited; but they the monuments they have reared, and the collections of have one convenience unknown to more splendid | art they have made, and to read the books they have fabrics--that of being removed, premises and all, in the purchased. All the national libraries of Paris, for incourse of a forenoon, which is sometimes effected on stance, with the exception of that of the Arsenal, are account of the wind blowing too keenly in the ever- lending libraries, and so likewise are those of Munich,
Berlin, Copenhagen, Dresden, Wolfenbuttel, Milan, History affords no evidence that English shops were Naples, Brussels, the Hague, and Parma. Besides the ever constructed on this free-and-easy principle; but great public libraries of the capital, there are publie from the allusions and illustrations of the period, it libraries of considerable extent in most of the large prowould appear that the majority of London shops in the vincial towns in France, and to these valuable works are reign of Edward IV. were crowded, dingy, and in many occasionally sent at the expense of the nation. In our own country there is nothing of this sort, if we ex- From the general list of 383 libraries, we may extract clude a few favoured libraries; and what is even the the following notice of libraries in the United Kingfavour in this latter case but the liberty of robbing dom :- The British Museum, as above, 350,000 ; Sion publishers of their property? Fortunately, the public College, 27,000; King's College, Aberdeen, 20,000; as individuals does that which the public in its corporate Marischal College, Aberdeen, 12,000; Public Library, capacity makes a point of neglecting. Throughout the and New Public Library, Birmingham, 31,500 ; libraBritish islands there are hundreds of large libraries ries in Cambridge, 230,000 ; libraries in Dublin, 139,000 ; supported by subscription, and from these, as well as Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, 160,000 ; University from libraries of lesser size, there issue more copious Library, Edinburgh, 96,000; Library of Writers to the streams of knowledge than are poured from perhaps all Signet, 50,000; University Library, Glasgow, 50,000; the great national libraries of Europe put together. Hunterian Museum Library, 12,000 ; Cheetham Library,
Proceeding to the statement before us, it appears Manchester, 19,000 ; Bodleian Library, Oxford, 218.000; that the number of libraries in Europe, either open to other libraries in Oxford, 153,000; St Andrew's Unithe public or deriving their support from the public, versity Library (now one of the best conducted libraries is 383, of which '107 are in France, 41 in the Aus- in Great Britain), 53,000. trian states and in the kingdom of Lombardy and In the United States of America there are eighty-one Venice, 30 in the Prussian states, 28 in Great Britain public libraries, having an aggregate of 955,000 volumes, and Ireland (including Malta), 17 in Spain, 15 in the a third of which are in the states of Massachusetts, Papal states, 14 in Belgium, 13 in Switzerland, 12 in Pennsylvania, and New York. the Russian empire, 11 in Bavaria, 9 in Tuscany, 9 in No European public library is older than about the Sardinia, 8 in Sweden, 7 in Naples, 7 in Portugal, 5 in middle of the fifteenth century: that of Vienna has now Holland, 5 in Denmark, 5 in Saxony, 4 in Baden, 4 in been open to the public since the year 1575. The NaHesse, 3 in Wirtemberg, and 3 in Hanover.'
tional Library of Paris was founded in 1595, but was The magnitude of these libraries is by no means in not made public till 1737. A century before the latter proportion to the size of the towns that contain them, or date, it contained about 17,000 volumes ; and in 1775, the wealth or importance of the countries to which they this had increased to 150,000. Then came the Revolubelong. In Great Britain and Ireland, for instance, tion, which made it a general receptacle for the confisthere are 43 volumes to every 100 inhabitants of the cated libraries of the convents and private individuals. towns that contain the books, while in Russia there are some of these, it is true, were summarily disposed of 80 to every 100. In Spain, to every 100 there are 106; for the service of the arsenals ;' but even in this case in France, 125; in the Austrian empire, 159 ; in the the librarians had usually a right of selection ; and the Prussian states, 196 ; in Parma, 204 ; in Mecklenburg, result appears in the fact, that this magnificent collection 238 ; in Hesse, 256 ; in the Papal states, 266 ; in Nas- numbers to-day at least 800,000 volumes. The library sau, 267; in Tuscany, 263 ; in Modena, 333; in Swit. of the British Museum was opened to the public in zerland, 340 ; in Bavaria, 347 ; in Saxony, 379; in Saxe- | 1757, with 40,000 volumes, after having been founded Meiningen, 400; in Denmark, 412; in Baden, 480 ; in four years. In 1800, it contained about 65,000 volumes ; Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 551 ; in Hesse-Darmstadt, 660; in in 1836, 240,000; and at present it contains, as is stated, Wirtemberg, 716; in Saxe-Weimar, 881; in Hanover, 350,000 volumes. The increase of this collection is 972; in Oldenburg, 1078; and in Brunswick, 2353 mainly attributable to donations; one half of its entire volumes.' These are curious proportions ; and if the contents having been presented or bequeathed. The magnitude of a public library were really any indication Copenhagen library, on the contrary, which has inof the educational condition of the country, we should creased in the space of a century from 65,000 to 410,000 have to conclude that Russia was twice, and Brunswick volumes, has done so by means of purchases equally fifty-five times, better educated than England.
liberal and judicious. 410,000—374,000; purchaseIf we restrict our view to the libraries in the capitals, donation ; Denmark-England. What a curious pawe find our own place still lower in the scale. London rallel! has only 20 volumes to every 100 inhabitants, while The average annual sums allotted to the support of Brussels has 100, Petersburg 108, Paris 143, Madrid the four chief libraries of Paris is L.23,555 : a greatly 153, Berlin 162, Rome 306, Copenhagen 465, Munich smaller sum having sufficed, till two years ago, for the 750, and Weimar 803. Thus the little city of Weimar library of the British Museum. But since 1846, an inis forty times better provided with books than the great crease of L. 10,000 for the purchase of books has been Babylon of the modern world.
made to our parliamentary grant, and the whole annual The number of public libraries in Europe exceeding sum allotted to the service of the library is now L.26,552. 10,000 volumes in amount, is 383, and the aggregate We may thus hope to see our national library rise into number of volumes in all these libraries is 20,012,735. a consequence more nearly corresponding than hitherto The following are the libraries, with the number of with the greatness of the country; since under the their volumes, in the capital cities :
operation of the special grant, there are 30,000 volumes 1. Paris (1), National Library, 800,000 vols. added every year to the collection. At the same time, 2. Munich, Royal Library,
- 600,000 in the name of the people generally, we cannot but 3. Berlin, Royal Library,
object to the practice of confining grants of this nature 4. Petersburg, Imperial Library, - 416,000
to London. What is paid for by all should, in justice, 5. Copenhagen, Royal Library,
as nearly as possible, be enjoyed by all. 6. London, British Museum Library, - 350,000 7. Vienna, Imperial Library,
313,000 8. Dresden, Royal Library,
THE MASONS OF PARIS. 9. Madrid, National Library,
200,000 10. Wolfenbuttel, Ducal Library, 200,000
Should you, when in Paris, desire to see the method of 11. Paris (2), Arsenal Library,
building one of those beautiful edifices with which the 12. Stuttgard, Royal Library,
174,000 French capital is adorned, the best thing we can recom13. Milan, Brera Library,
mend is, that you should rise early in the morning and 14. Paris (3), St Geneviève Library, - 150,000 15. Darmstadt, Grand-Ducal Library, - 150,000
proceed to the spot where an edifice is in the course of
150,000 16. Florence, Magliabecchian,
erection. If early enough, you will see arriving from
150,000 17. Naples, Royal Library,
all quarters a band of workmen clad in a characteristic 18. Brussels, Royal Library,
costume, of which the following is not an inaccurate 19. Rome (1), Casanate Library, 120,000
description :-A loose-fitting blouse of blue or white 20. Hague, Royal Library,
for some, for others a jacket of coarse cloth; a pocket 21. Paris (4), Mazarine Library,
100,000 stuffed with tobacco, and a short pipe, generally of clay, 22. Rome (2), Vatican Library, - 100,000 knowingly carved about the bowl, and a cotton pocket23. Parina, Ducal Library,
100,000 handkerchief with red squares; pantaloons of course
cloth or blue cotton ; enormously heavy and solid shoes, room to room, sees that every hand is properly employed, but no stockings or socks : the costume is completed by and, in case of need, gives his counsel and personal a cap or bonnet of cloth stuff, the material of which you assistance; and his services and advice are so much the suspect rather than recognise under the dabs of diluted more necessary, as every workman, upon meeting with a plaster and yellow clay produced by stone-sawing, with difficulty that seems to him insoluble, folds his arms peacewhich it is liberally adorned.
ably, and waits till Providence or the master-companion The wearers of this uniform are the artisans employed comes to his assistance. The importance of this personupon the building, who come to commence the labours age and his function it is easy to comprehend, as well as of the day. Previous to beginning work, according to an the care and caution the contractor should exercise in his ancient custom, they adjourn to the nearest wine-shop, appointment. It is necessary that he should not only be where a sip of some trifle prepares them, as they think, active and intelligent, but, what is more, incorruptible, for encountering their dusty occupation. This ceremony and courageously proof against the too often irresistible over, they adjourn to the boarded enclosure, where the arguments of the wine-seller. All these precious qualities work is carried on. Apropos of these rough-boarded are usually estimated at the price of from 180 to 200 fences : if encroaching on the public thoroughfares, they francs a month by the contractor, who retains his services are allowed to be put up only on paying at the rate of throughout the entire year, notwithstanding any length. five francs a metre each month they stand. When, there-ened cessation of labour through the occurrence of frost fore, we feel disposed to revile these ugly timber barriers and wintry weather. that interrupt the circulation for months together, we While we have been wandering through the building, have at least the consolation of remembering that they and stumbling here and there among the poles and contribute to the enormous budget of the city of Paris, scaffolding, the time has flown—it is nine o'clock: at the which enables the municipality from time to time to first stroke of the bell everything stands still; and all accelerate the march of improvement. Thus the public rush away to breakfast. Let us see what kind of a thing are compensated for the inconvenience they endure. is a French workman's breakfast. It is neither the meal
As the clock strikes six, every man hastens to re- porridge of the Scotch nor the tea and toast of the English. sume his work on the spot where he left off the night While the labourers eat modestly, in the open air, the before. Some climb up the ladders, and continue the morsel of pork, or the lump of sour cheese, together with careful laying of the stone blocks; others prepare the huge wedges from the enormous loaf, which you cannot mortar or the plaster on the spot. If there be sufficient have failed to remark tucked under their arms upon their space to saw and hew the stones at the foot of the arrival at the scene of their operations, the companion. building, you will hear the grinding of the saw and the masons resort to the nearest wine-seller, who has prepared sound of the mallet and chisel on all sides; if not, you them an ample breakfast of their favourite soup, a kind will see the barrowmen arrive from the stone-cutters' of vegetable pottage, flanked with fried potatoes and yard, bringing the stone-blocks already prepared for other roots, among which the carrot ranks as a conspilaying. Each companion-mason has a labourer assigned cuous delicacy--the bread, brought by the workmen to him, who is bound to execute his orders; these carry themselves, forming the solid portion of the meal. The the mortar which they have prepared to the upper storeys, whole is qualified with a quantity of cheap light wine; and also stones of moderate dimensions, and perform and, last of all, a pipe. At ten o'clock all resume their every possible service, necessary or not, which is required work until two, when the soup and ceremony of the of them, in the hope of being one day, sooner or later, morning are repeated, and the day terminates at six in served in their turn.
the evening. This labourer or garçon mason has been, from time im- The companion-masons, as well as the labourers, inhabit memorial, the faithful servant of a master or companion, all quarters of the town, but appear to give a decided as the mood may prompt. Thus a mason, perched on preference to the neighbourhood of the Hôtel de Ville, the upper storey, will call his garçon; the garçon, quick and the small dirty and narrow streets and lanes which as thought, clambers up five or six ladders, leaps from abut upon the municipal palace, where the cheapest scaffold to scaffold, from beam to beam. Now, my lad,' lodgings are to be met with. They sometimes unite to says the mason, ‘go and look for my pipe !' and the form a chamber, assembling at the house of a letter of victim descends with the prospect of another journey lodgings, who follows, besides, the profession of tavern. on equally important business. But when the term of keeper, or restaurateur. This worthy provides daily, or his apprenticeship is expired, and he is a mason himself, rather nightly, suppers for the workmen, and even gives he will have his garçon, who shall dance up and down credit to those out of employment whose characters are in search of his pipe, or for a less sufficient reason, if he good. choose to make him.
The general rendezvous of the companion-masons is at If it were necessary in our day, when monarchs are the Place de Grève. From five o'clock in the morning confined by chartery, constitutions, and representative they arrive there in crowds, some in search of work, others chanıbers, to personify despotism, we could not choose on the look-out for comrades; the roleur is also always a better example than the companion-mason, and we there at that early hour: this functionary, so named from would add his garçon to the picture, as a living symbol his keeping a list or enrolment of the parties wanting of devotion and self-denial : we make use of the word work, is engaged and paid by the body for the purpose of mason, as the generic term under which all workmen in procuring employment for those in want of it; there also buildings are ordinarily classed; but the stone-cutter, come the contractors to engage any number of workmen the stone-setter, the plasterer, &c. have also their garçon they may need. The carpenters and joiners frequent the or labourer.
Place de Grève as well as the masons; the locksmiths The following is the value of the various workmen have chosen a domicile near the Pont-au-Change, where rated in current coin :-Stone-cutter, per day, four francs
, the wine-shop is an equally necessary appendage, an four and a-half, and five francs; masons, stone-setters, &c. asylum, indeed, rarely deserted. per day, three francs, three and a half, and rarely four We have dwelt at some length upon the occupations of francs; garçons, barrowmen, and other labourers, per day, the masons, because it is only at the scene of their two francs, to two and a-half.
labours that their veritable physiognomy is perceptible
. At taskwork, as labour is always rated at a higher We ought now to say something of their pleasures: as we value than time, a good workman can wonderfully aug- said before, these are of the calm and quiet sort, and on ment his salary, earning from seven to eight francs a day. high days, consist chiefly in an extraordinary consumpThe stone-cutters generally work task-work. To counte- tion of cold viands; giblet pies, more or less authentic; ract the too indulgent dispositions, the contractor keeps and salads furiously seasoned; and especially wine at six upon the premises a superintendent, with the title of or eight sous a pint. The whole is varied by walks, of master-companion mason, charged with entire authority pure observation, to see the balls and dancing parties, over the workmen. It is he who rebukes the idle, fines the waltzes and polkas, which in every possible season the late-comers, and registers the absent; he runs from are in full swing in the suburbs, and at the barriers of
the city. These scenes are not unfrequently attended trict exclusively. It is not with them as with the waterwith quarrels, in which the masons take a more active carriers, who are mostly Auvergnats, or as with the part; but the disposition to intermeddle and foment charcoal-burners, who all originate in the calcined gorges strife is unfortunately not peculiar to them, but shared of the Cantal. From the north as from the south of the alike by all the laborious classes of the French capital, kingdom, from the mountainous region of the Puy de so proud of its refinement in luxury and civilisation. Dôme, from Dauphiny or the level plains of Champagne,
It is on fête days only that the mason makes any from Bourdeaux and from Lille, from the Pyrenees and attempt at personal display; then he puts on his new from the Moselle, from La Creuse and the Upper Rhine, blue coat with broad lappets, and bright metal buttons crowds of building operatives swarm regularly to the shining proudly in the sun; then he changes his heavy capital; and in the patois of the various races, as they mud-coated shoes for boots, equally solid, but brilliant gossip during the intervals of labour, you may recognise with blacking of the choicest polish: on these days of the sharp accent of Provence, the drawling pronunciation solemnity he brings forth his broad silver watch, the of Lorraine, and the unintelligible idiom of Alsace. possession of which he more than intimates by a wide These various parties are not all easily satisfied : thus silk ribbon floating gallantly upon his waistcoat, and during the recent erection of the fortifications of Paris, a trinkets of glittering steel. The masons greatly enjoy whole gang of masons, from Flanders, abandoned the their fêtes or holidays, the frolics on such occasions being works because the flavour of the Parisian beer was not to to a certain extent tempered by religious observances. their liking; and a party of English labourers on the Besides these stated cessations from work, the masons Rouen railway, sick of soup, soddened salads, and sour enjoy certain occasional recreations connected with their wine, recrossed the Channel in the avowed search of professional labours. Two of these special festivities may British beef and ale. be noticed—the crowning with flowers,' and the 'con- An immense number of German builders also find occuduct of comrades.
pation in France; and sometimes their importation is so The last thing done to a house is to polish and orna- recent, that the least ignorant, or, if you will, the most ment it with carvings outside, and these operations are learned among them, is obliged to act as interpreter for performed by the more skilled craftsmen, who are sus- his fellow-countrymen. The workmen from La Creuse are pended by ropes on purpose. When this nice work is also very numerous, and their peaceable and honest concompleted, the building is finished. Now comes the duct has acquired for them an honourable reputation for ceremony of crowning. All the artisans employed club morality: Picardy, Normandy, Dauphiny, and the detogether, and buy an enormous branch of a tree bushy partment of Herault, supply excellent stone-cutters. with leafage, which they bedeck with ornaments of flowers That class of workmen who spend their days in the and ribbons; then one of their number, chosen by lot, laborious occupation of building the rough walls, are all ascends to the top of the house they have just built, and exclusively natives of the neighbourhood of Limoges. erects the resplendent bouquet. As soon as the body They are bound inseparably together by a strong spirit of of workmen see the joyous signal waving proudly in clanship, and practise a rigorous economy, which their the air, the favours streaming in the light breeze, and enemies revile as avarice. During the times of the the foliage gently undulating over the summit of the recess, which commences about the 20th of November, house, the foundations of which they dug but a few and lasts till the middle of March, they manage to months before, they raise their united voices in a shout regain, either singly or in small bodies, the country of applause and gratulation. This ceremony accom- which gave them birth; there they carry the savings of plished, they take two other bouquets, more remarkable the year, until at length, having accumulated enough to for their dimensions than the beauty of the flowers with buy a small plot of ground, they return to their cherished which they are loaded, and repair to the residences of the country, to quit it no more, content with the humblest proprietor and the contractor. These parties, in exchange independence, because it is the welcome reward of their for the verdant and odorous offering of the workmen, own industry. surrender a few five-franc pieces, in the expenditure of In a country like France, where the police keep inceswhich the day is merrily concluded, without any regard sant watch, with such touching solicitude, over all the for the fatigues of yesterday, or anxiety respecting the citizens, we may well suppose that they have neglected uncertainties of the morrow. The crowning with flowers, nothing that could tend to maintain order and submisa modest and charming solemnity, typifying the exalsion among the vast body of building operatives, or even tation of nature over the triumphs of art, is one of those to enable them at any time to verify the conduct of bappy traditions which are but too rarely met with each individual. Accordingly, we find that the adminisamong the various bodies of artisans.
tration has multiplied the regulations and ordinances The conduct of comrades' is a ceremony much more affecting them from time to time, until at length it conin vogue in the provinces than at Paris. It is a mark of trols the operations of the companionships, fixes their esteem conferred upon a workman who is leaving them itineraries, appoints their salaries, and allots the hours by his companions, who take this mode of testifying their of labour throughout the year; lastly, it compels each friendly regard and respect. This benevolent demon- man to keep a book, which is in some sort the account. stration is principally in usage among the workmen affi- current of his conduct and position as a workman ; this liated to some one or other of the societies of compa- book is an abridged memoir of the owner's existence, as nionship. On the day of departure they assemble in well as his cash-book and ledger; in it he must inscribe great numbers, every one clad in his festal garb, and the date of his engagements, the names of his employers, accompany their departing friend to a certain distance the sums which he receives, and, upon the first page, from the town he is leaving. One carries his staff, his own name, surname, profession, &c. according to the another his knapsack, and bottles and glasses are distri- eternal formula. Though this livret is, for bad characters, buted among the rest ; they proceed on their journey, a register of faults, and an act of perpetual accusation, gossipping, singing, and drinking until the moment of for the honest, sober, peaceable, and industrious labourer separation; then they drink a general bumper to the it becomes a veritable book of gold, in which are inhealth and prosperity of the traveller, and separate. scribed his titles of nobility; honourable and just titles, Quarrels are rare at these festivities; for independently inasmuch as they spring from the practice of intelligence, of the natural good-humour of the French, they indulge industry, and integrity. for the most part only in very light wines, which raise We could mention more than one illustrious indivithe spirits, but do not intoxicate to an injurious degree. dual who, by active perseverance, have ascended from the What a step towards temperance would be the general inferior ranks to a high position, and who look not use of these wines, instead of beer or gin, among our without pride upon the humble book which was the conworking-classes in England !
fidant of their former deprivation and fatigue ; and we As might be expected in the case of a profession which may well pardon that pride which glances with complaembraces a greater number of operatives than any other, cency from the calculation of a princely revenue to the its members are not supplied by any one particular dis- soiled and tattered pages of the operative's work-book.
precept was given in the law of Moses:—Speak unto the TEMPERANCE STATISTICS.
children of Israel, and bid them that they make them There are at present in England, Ireland, and Scotland, fringes in the borders of their garments, throughout their eight hundred and fifty temperance societies, with one mil generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borlion six hundred and forty thousand members. In the ders a ribband of blue.'-Num. XV., 38. Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, there are nine hundred and fifty temperance societies, with three hundred and seventy thousand members. In South America there
GIVE PLACE, YE LADIES. are seventeen thousand persons who have signed the temperance pledge. In Germany there are fifteen hundred (A ballad copied in Collier's Extracts from the Registers of the temperance societies, with one million three hundred thou
Stationers' Company : Date, 1666-7.] sand members. In Sweden and Norway there are five
Give place, you lad yes all, hundred and ten temperance societies, with one hundred
Unto my mistresse faire, and twenty thousand members. In the Sandwich Islands
For none of you, or great or small, there are five thousand persons who have signed the pledge
Can with my love compare. of total abstinence. At the Cape of Good Hope there are nine hundred pledged members. It is ascertained that up
If you would knowe her well, wards of seven thousand persons annually perish in Great
You shall her nowe beholde, Britain through accidents while drunk; and the loss to the
If any tonge at all may tell working-classes alone, through drinking, appears to be an
Her beautic[s] manyfolde. nually tive hundred and fifty millions of dollars. The enor
She is not high ne lowe, mous sum of four hundred and ninety millions of dollars was expended in Great Britain last year for intoxicating
But just the perfect height,
Below my head, above my hart, beverages, and five hundred and twenty millions of gallons of malt liquors were brewed last year in Great Britain. In
And then a wand more straight. the United States there are three thousand seven hundred
She is not full ne spare, and ten temperance societies, with two million six hundred
But just as she sholde bee, and fifteen thousand members, which includes the Sons of
An armfull for a god, I swearo; Temperance. In Russia all temperance societies are strictly
And more-she loveth mee. forbidden by the emperor. In Prussia, Austria, and Italy, there are no temperance societies. In France the tem
Her shape hath noe defect, perance cause, although yet in its infancy, is greatly on
Or none that I can finde, the increase. The first temperance society in the world,
Such as in deede you might expect so far as discovery is known, was formed in Germany on
From so well formde a minde. Christmas day in the year 1600.-C. K. Delaran of New
Her skin not blacke, ne white, York.
But of a lovelie lew,
As if created for delight;
Yet she is mortall too.
Her haire is not to[o] darke, Sir John Pringle,' says Dr Hodgkin, “who accompanied
No, nor I weene to(o) light; our army into the north at the time of the Rebellion, relates
It is what it sholde be; and markothat the health of the soldiers was greatly promoted by
It pleaseth me outright. their wearing flannel waistcoats, with which they had been
Her eies nor greene, nor gray, supplied on their march by some Society of Friends ;' and Sir George Ballingall, in his lectures on military surgery,
Nor like the heavens above; adduces the testimony of Sir James Macgrigor to the state
And more of them what needes I say, ment that, in the Peninsula, the best-clothed regiments
But that they looke and love? were generally the most healthy; adding that, when in
Her foote not short ne longe, India, he witnessed a remarkable proof of the usefulness of
And what may more surprise, flannel in checking the progress of the most aggravated
Though some, perchance, may thinke me WTODS, form of dysentery, in the second battalion of the Royals.
'Tis just the fitting size. Captain Murray told Dr Combe that he was so strongly impressed, from former experience, with a sense of the
Her hande, yea, then, her hande, efficacy of the protection afforded by the constant use of
With fingers large or fine, flannel, next the skin, that, when, on his arrival in England,
It is enough, you understand, in December 1823, after two years' service amid the ice
I like it-and 'tis mine. bergs on the coast of Labrador, the ship was ordered to
In briefe, I am content sail immediately for the West Indies, he ordered the purser
To take her as she is, to draw two extra flannel shirts and pairs of drawers for
And holde that she by Heaven was sent each man, and instituted a regular daily inspection to see
To make compleate my blisse. that they were worn. These precautions were followed by the happiest results. He proceeded to his station with
Then ladyes, all give place a crew of 150 men; visited almost every island in the West
Unto my mistresse faire, Indies, and many of the ports of the Gulf of Mexico; and
For nowe you knowe so well her grace, notwithstanding the sudden transition from extreme cli
You needes must all dispaire. mates, returned to England without the loss of a single man, or having any sick on board on his arrival. It would be going too far to ascribe this excellent state of health
WONDERS OF CHEMISTRY. solely to tlie use of flannel; but there can be little doubt
Aquafortis and the air we breathe are made of the same that the latter was an important element in Captain materials. Linen and sugar, and spirits of wine, are so Murray's success.'—Robertson on Dict and Regimen. much alike in their chemical composition, that an old
shirt can be converted into its own weight'in sugar, and
the sugar into spirits of wine. Wine is made of two subEverybody has heard and made use of the phrase "true stances, one of which is the cause of almost all combinablue;' but everybody does not know that its first assumption of burning, and the other will burn with more rapidity tion was by the Covenanters, in opposition to the scarlet than anything in nature. The famous Peruvian bark, so badge of Charles I. , and hence it was taken by the troops much used
to strengthen stomachs, and the poisonous of Lesley and Montrose in 1639. The adoption of the principle of opium, are found of the same materials.colour was one of those religious pedantries in which the Scientific American. Covenanters affected a pharisaical observance of the scriptural letter, and the usages of the Hebrews; and thus, as
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