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hearty congratulations, and such a liberal meed of praise, we are going further still: I have never seen a fête, as might have made many a man vain of what he had Rose, since I was a child, and I want to see you and done; but when the hall was ringing with acclamations, Thérèse, and many of my scholars, dancing on the he hid his face in his hands and burst into tears. Per-grass to-day. I should like to see every one around me haps he thought at that moment how glad his mother looking as happy as you do now!' and Olivier would have been could they have witnessed Rose clasped her hands in delight at this announcehis greeting in the country where his father had died, ment, and her blue eyes glistened with tears. “Now a prisoner of war. We heard with great pleasure that then, Olivier,' she said, 'the great change has come! our pupil had improved himself so much during the though not quite such a one as I used to wish to see.' winter, that he had now begun to give lessons himself. My dear child,' said Catharine quietly, 'what are All that long and beautiful summer he assembled his you talking of? My poor boy is no better ; that, you scholars upon the steps I have so often mentioned; know, is quite impossible.' they were the children of the neighbouring families, * You will laugh at me, Madame Lomier,' answered who passed the greater part of their lives at sea, or Rose blushing ; ' but it seems to me that Olivier ought down upon the shore, and never thought of gaining any now to be changed outwardly as well as inwardly. Oh education at all, unless, like Gélé, they intended to pre- I wish some kind fairy would touch him with her pare for taking the command of merchant vessels. wand, and make him a handsome young prince at
Perhaps during the present disastrous time in France, once! But instead of that'--- She stopped, and when all old laws and regulations are broken up, or Olivier continued in a lower tone: falling into disgrace, those relating to the seafaring • The outward change, Rose, will yet come to me, population of Boulogne are changing too; but in the when this mortal body shall put on immortality ; but time I have been describing it formed quite a distinct the work of preparation for that time is wrought by community, in which no intermarriages were permitted patience, and by love, and by exertion; if not that of with any other class. Lomier himself was a soldier active labour, yet that of the spirit; and this change when he first saw the widow of the pilot Gélé, and to began in me from the day I learnt to read, and tried to marry her he became a sailor, and bore all the hard. help others. You are the little fairy of my life,' he ships of a life to which, till then, he had been wholly a added with a smile of peculiar sweetness, and you ! stranger. One of the most curious of their privileges must promise to dance near me this evening, where I was that of the pilots' wives, four of whom were per. can see you as I sit upon my donkey.' mitted to dance in the first quadrille of any ball How gladly Rose promised, and kept her word, and honoured by the presence of a member of the royal how merrily the long summer evening passed away family. But besides such state occasions, they had the valley, I leave you all to imagine. many merry - meetings amongst themselves, in which their national good manners and peculiar costume appeared to great advantage. While Olivier was still only
THE PUBLIC HEALTH ACT. à child, his mother used to carry him to church at We congratulate our readers on the passing of an act Boulogne, and more often to the chapel on the downs, of parliament to enforce sanitary measures for England where the sailors' wives were accustomed to pray for and Wales, the metropolis alone excepted. After years their safe return, and for God's blessing on their toil. of agitation, through the press and otherwise, the public She used now and then also to take him with her on a will now have the satisfaction of seeing a law put in donkey to the .guinguette,' or rustic ball held in the practical operation to carry out principles which all, Valley du Denac, at which all their friends and rela- we believe, acknowledge to be correct. The • Public tions assembled ; but when he grew older, he became Health Act of 1848,' as it is called, falls short in some more and more afraid of being seen, and from one respects of what is desirable; but on the whole it forms year's end to the other, he seldom went farther than the a comprehensive and important piece of legislation, and street in which he lived, or the downs just above it. marks a distinct advance in social history. It is matter
Rose le Blanc was one of the earliest and most pro- for regret that private and local interests have premising of Olivier's pupils, and she soon undertook the vented the application of the act to the metropolis ; but duties of an assistant also, for she used to trace the this exclusion cannot be long tolerated; nor can any letters upon a large slate with which he taught his long period of time elapse before a similar law is exscholars, and hold the book from which he read to tended to Scotland. them; and she saw that Olivier, whom she had pitied We may run over a few heads of the act. The chief so much, was forgetting to think of his own misfor: managernent is in the hands of a general board in Loutunes in his desire of instructing others. One bright don, and by this board superintending inspectors are autumo afternoon she came into the cottage leading appointed. Towns and districts get the act applied by her sister Thérèse by the hand, to see him before they petitioning the board. When applied, the local manage• set off for the long-talked-of 'guinguette.' They both ment is reposed in the town council, or in a body spewore their holiday dress, consisting of a black cloth cially appointed by rate-payers. The local board is to jacket, a scarlet petticoat, and a muslin apron, under appoint a surveyor, inspector of nuisances, clerk, treawhich were crossed the ends of the gay neckerchief : surer, and such other officers as may be necessars, on this great occasion they wore stockings with em- including a legally-qualified medical practitioner, to be broidered clocks, and velvet shoes fastened with small the officer of health for the district. With this assist. steel buckles ; Rose wore also her grandmother's long ance, the local board is entitled to order the cleansing gold earrings and her massive chain, for her mother and making of drains and sewers, and the removal of had these ornaments of her own, and she was the eldest all nuisances; to prevent houses being erected without daughter of the pilot Le Blanc; the neatest ima- drains and all suitable accommodations; to order that ginable little round-eared cap, trimmed with delicate houses already built, and defective in drainage, shall lace, completed her handsome costume. All flutter- be drained and otherwise improved; and to cause all ing with pleasure at the prospect of the fête, and yet houses to be supplied with water, if it can be done almost doubting whether she would not now rather at a cost of twopence a week—which will generally be stay with Catharine and her son than leave them alone, the case. The local boards have the power of regulating she found to her surprise that they likewise were slaughter-houses, and of preventing the establishment dressed in their Sunday attire. “Ah,' said she, Olivier ! of offensive trades. Streets are to be paved and cleaned I see that you are going again to the fisherman's by order of the boards, where this is not otherwise chapel ; how glad I am that you can earn money now provided for; and new streets cannot be commenced to ride there!'
without due notice being given. The local boards may •I shall stop a few minutes en passant with my establish and maintain public pleasure - grounds, erect mother at the chapel,' replied Olivier cheerfully; but water-works, and prevent interment in towns or under
churches and chapels. In them likewise is reposed the the day, and demands earnest and immediate attention. power of licensing and regulating common lodging. With the question of their own poor England and Scothouses. Every such place must be registered; the land can easily grapple; but complicated with a pronumber of its lodgers is to be specified, and it may be vision for, and supervision of, such hosts of intruders, it cleaned and ventilated by order of the board. Various becomes altogether unmanageable, and the philanthrominor regulations, all tending to preserve health, and pist resigns the subject in despair. prevent the spread of disease, are included in the act, which extends to 151 clauses, the whole seemingly so clear and intelligible, that we anticipate no difficulty in
WILLIAM ALLE N. carrying their provisions into operation.
What a splutter will the act make in those places which have WILLIAM ALLEN, one of the most enlightened and unhitherto nestled in filth, and resisted all reasonable tiring philanthropists of modern times, was the son of remonstrance on the score of injury to health!
Job Allen, a silk manufacturer in Spitalfields, and in This useful act, however, cannot do everything. Cer- youth gave promise of that spirit of enterprise for which tain social disorders which it cannot reach will still he was afterwards distinguished. At the age of fourprevail, and for these some supplementary law will be teen he constructed a telescope to assist himself in the requisite. We allude in particular to an evil which study of astronomy; and, as he mentions, not being threatens to overpower all means of remedy, unless it strong in cash,' he contrived to make the instrument meet with a speedy and efficient check. This is the of pasteboard and lenses, which cost him a shilling. overrunning of Great Britain Villages and small towns in the most remote localities Homely as was the device, he adjusted the glasses so are suffering under this infliction in a ratio equal to skilfully, that, to his delight, he could discover the that of large cities. The burden of the irruption is satellites of Jupiter. Chemistry was, however, his raising the poor-rates to an intolerable degree, and all favourite pursuit ; and even when a child, he made the ordinary methods of succouring the poor are be- frequent experiments in that science. He possessed coming abortive. If we get up a House of Refuge or good natural abilities, but they were not much cultiNightly Shelter to afford temporary relief to houseless vated by education, for he was employed in his father's strangers, the charity is swamped by vast migratory business, to which he devoted himself with diligence hordes of Irish; if we establish a School of Industry for the purpose of receiving the half-beggar, half-criminal and attention until his twenty-second year. children who crowd our streets, we find we are only
In 1792 he entered into partnership with Joseph attracting ragged families from Roscommon, and edu. Gurney Bevao, in a chemical establishment in London, cating and feeding youths who were born hundreds of and now his pursuits were congenial to his tastes. Sucmiles distant. Attempts to repress mendicancy, crime, cess attended his professional labours; but his diligence and disease, are little better than a burlesque, so long did not by any means prevent his attention to general as such an inexhaustible fountain of misery is permitted science, nor obstruct the operation of an earnest philanto pour forth its polluting streams over the land. The active humanity of the last few years has greatly thropy. William Allen was a member of the Society aggravated this social disorder. Nothing seemed more
of Friends, and that is almost saying that his views praiseworthy or Christian-like than to establish Shelters, were practical, and directed to social improvement. to which mendicants seeking alms might be referred, Blessed with a kindly disposition and enlarged underand where they would at least be fed and lodged for one standing, he seenis from the beginning of his career to night. No doubt receptacles of this class prevented have invented and wrought out schemes of human methe scandal of paupers being seen to perish for want. lioration. To do good, not merely to talk about it, was But what is likely to be the consequence?-a circulating the leading feature of his energetic character. Shortly population, who beg and carry disease and demoralisation through the country, always assured that they will after beginning business, he, in connection with Astley have board and lodging for nothing at each town they Cooper, Dr Babington, Joseph Fox, and others, formed come to. Thus a family of beggars may now make an
a Philosophical Society; and he talks in his diary of agreeable country excursion from Edinburgh to the vales sitting up all night preparing for lectures and makof Tweed and Yarrow, taking in Peebles and Selkirk ing experiments.' He was introduced in 1794 to Clarkby the way, and then return to town; lodging each night son; and the unity of feeling subsisting between them in comfortable harbourages provided by public charity. cemented a friendship which lasted for half a century. A person living in town, and not making practical in- Mr Bevan retired from business three years subsequent quiries on the subject, can have no proper idea of the mischief which the schemes we allude to are producing to the period at which Mr Allen entered the firm, and
He In the Night Shelter at Peebles, 1440 vagrant paupers, the young man then became leading partner. a large proportion being Irish, have been accommodated married, and we now see him happy and prosperous : during the last six months. At this rate, a population his duties were his delight; and domestic love shed greater than that of the town goes through it annually its hallowed influence on his path. Brief, however, on a sorning excursion; while, as is observed by a local was the duration of felicity ; for, ten months after his report, the number of persons who apply for alms is as marriage, death deprived him of his amiable partner, large as ever. But besides those who are admitted to and left him with a motherless infant. This sad Houses of Refuge, there is a numerous body of vagrants who, preferring a wild independence, take up their event for a time so completely unhinged him, that quarters at low lodging-houses, where a small payment he was unable to continue his favourite pursuits. is exacted. We are glad to observe that the provisions It did not, however, deaden his sympathies, for in of the Public Health Act reach this class of dwellings, 1797, in conjunction with a Mr William Phillips, he
not only odious as a focus of demoralisation, but of con- formed what was long known as “ The Spitalfields Soup | tagious distem pers; and the law will therefore speedily Society,' to which he gave up all his energies. In
do what landlords, from a sense of what is due to society, March 1798, the name of William Allen appears also on should long ago have done. Yet the frightful evils arising from this source will not be thoroughly assuaged, the Condition of the Poor;' and these societies proved
a list of the committee of · The Society for Bettering unless the poor-law and police authorities, seeking, if necessary, new powers, shall put a stop to the influx of highly beneficial at a time when bread was seventeenbegging Irish, and send home those who are in the pence-halfpenny a loaf. But his benevolence was not
course of becoming chargeable on Scotch and English confined to public charities, for he was daily seen enter| parishes. This is, in short, the monster grievance of | ing the abodes of misery, and devoting himself to other
labours of love. It was, however, for a time only that terfuge of a barbarous age, barren in expedients to save, his ardour in the pursuit of scientific investigation was strong only to destroy.' It is gratifying to state that checked; for, two years after, he resumed his labours in the application was successful. In the same year Mr that branch of knowledge with renewed vigour. It is Allen became treasurer to the British and Foreign not generally desirable for a young man, who is anxious School Society; and the affairs of Joseph Lancaster to succeed in one particular department of science, to were now in such a state of embarrassment, that a divide his attention among others; but we can scarcely | vigorous effort was necessary to prevent this excellent quarrel with William Allen, though we find him one institution from falling to the ground, notwithstanding day with Astley Cooper and Dr Bradley trying experi- the indefatigable labours of its worthy founder. His ments in respiration ; another with Humphry Davy heart was set on this new undertaking, for in bis diary making discoveries in electricity ; on a third, freezing he says: 'Of all the concerns that I have anything to quicksilver with muriate of lime, &c. with his friend do with, the Lancasterian lies the most heavily on my Pepys; and on the following, with Dr Jenner and mind.' This school business brought him into frequent others making observations on the cow - pox. About communication with different members of the royal this time, too, he entered rather deeply into the study family, who had become its patrons. Among these was of botany, gained some knowledge of drawing, engaged the Duke of Kent; and his royal highness conceived a tutor to assist him in mathematics, improved himself such a strong regard for him, that he ever treated him in French and German, and made further observations as a confidential and attached friend. in astronomy, besides aiding in the formation of geolo- In 1813 we find our philanthropist forming fresh gical and mineralogical societies, and becoming a mem- pla of benevolence in the erection of savings' banks, ber of the Board of Agriculture, where he gave frequent to a friend at Bristol he writes : * Hast thou turned lectures. From this time his public engagements were thy attention to the subject of a bank for the poor, in so numerous, that we can here only glance at them. which their little savings of threepence or sixpence a We are astonished, as we proceed, to find that a com- week might accumulate for their benefit? I have conparatively humble individual, in the course of a brief sulted Morgan, the great calculator, and he is to sketch life, was enabled to accomplish such a vast amount of me a plan.' good as he effected.
These plans were carried into effect three years after. In 1801, Mr Allen became a lecturer at the Askesian | The same year, from a pure desire to improve the con. Society (the name now given to the Philosophical dition of the poor, he united with the schemes which Society before-mentioned). The next year he joined Robert Owen was then carrying out at Lanark. He the Linnæan Society, and lectured on chemistry at was urged to this step by the solicitations of his friends; Guy's Hospital. The year following he was elected but it subsequently caused him much distress of mind, one of the presidents at Guy's, and by the advice of owing to the very opposite views which he and Mr friends, accepted an invitation from the Royal Institu- Owen held on the subject of religion. In the February tion, of which he was a member, to become one of their of 1814, Wilberforce interested Allen and Clarkson for lecturers. In 1804 he gave (in the whole) as many as the Lascars and Chinese ; and with them sought and 108 lectures. He had now all but reached the pinnacle obtained permission to visit the barracks at Ratcliff, of fame, and wealth and honours lay temptingly before where two hundred of those unhappy creatures were him. It is obvious, however, that his object was not living in a most deplorable condition. The Lascars
' self-aggrandisement or worldly applause, but that his Society was in consequence formed for their relief. Mr ! motives were purely disinterested; for we find him Allen also associated himself with the Peace Society; 1 devoting his property, talents, and health wholly to the and when the allied sovereigns visited London, a deputa !! benefit of his fellow-creatures. In 1805 he joined the tion from the Society of Friends presented addresses to committee formed by Clarkson, Wilberforce, and others them. The address for the emperor of Russia was sent for the abolition of the slave-trade. This iniquitous to Count Lieven, and on the day following Mr Allen traffic had long drawn forth his warmest sympathies; waited on that nobleman, to make arrangements for its and when quite young, he made a resolution never presentation. Greatly to his astonishment, instead of to use sugar (which was procured principally by the a ceremonious reception, the count was awaiting his labour of negroes) until the freedom of the slaves was arrival in his carriage. Having invited him to enter, secured. This enthusiasm continued for forty-three he said that the emperor had expressed a desire to years. Nor was his heart less feelingly alive to the attend a Friends' meeting, and proposed that they sufferings of his fellow-countrymen. He recognised should therefore embrace the present opportunity, the claims of a man and a brother, however low he They accordingly drove off to Count Nesselrode's
, had sunk in wretchedness and vice, and bent his ener- where the emperor, the Grand Duchess of Oldenburg, gies to the reformation of the criminal code, especially the Duke of Oldenburg, and the Duke of Wurtem. to the subject of punishment by death. For this ob- burg joined them, and they rode together to the nearest ject a party of seven gentlemen dined together at his meeting-house then open for devotion. The good people house in Plough Court in July 1808, and formed them- were no doubt surprised at this unexpected arrival ; selves into a society. The punishment of death was at but there was no commotion. The strangers took their that time inflicted for very slight offences. In 1813 we seats along with the rest of the congregation; and find him interesting himself for a young man who, when the meeting broke up, expressed themselves being convicted of jumping in at a window, and steal- pleased with their visit. ing certain articles of very little value, was condemned The year 1815 is marked by fresh labours in the to death. The following is an extract from a letter cause of benevolence. Allen's ever-active mind now he wrote to Lord Sidmouth on the subject :- Shall projected an institution for the reformation of juvenile a person - to whom, be it remembered, society has criminals ; and in the ensuing year, in the midst of failed in its duty, by suffering him to grow up in these numerous engagements, le brought out a journal
, ignorance for the crime of stealing to the amount of a entitled • The Philanthropist,' the object of which was few shillings, and without any aggravating circum- to show that each individual may in some measure allestances, suffer the very same punishment which you viate the sufferings of his fellow-creatures, and add to inflict upon him who has been guilty of the most bar- the amount of human happiness. In 1816 he entered barous murder, and, in short, endure the greatest upon another new and important sphere of usefulness
, punishment which one human being can intlict upon which was visits to the different European countries, for another? To reform the
guilty, and to restore them as the purpose of ascertaining, from personal inquiry, the useful members of the community, is a glorious triumph state of prison discipline, and examining into the subof humanity, and marks a state rising in the scale of jects of national education, the condition of the poor, and civilisation ; but to have no other resource than the liberty of conscience. After such investigations he propunishment of death, reminds me of the miserable sub-ceeded to the various courts, and made known his obser.!
vations, at the same time suggesting such improvements Edgeworth on the subject. After expressing her fears as were deemed necessary to the case. He was in most that the scheme would be found impracticable in the instances well received, though he sometimes had to present state of the Irish peasantry, she says: “Your contend with strong opposition from those who thought dairy plans, for instance, which have succeeded so well knowledge too powerful an instrument to be placed in in Switzerland, would not do in this country, at least the hands of the mass. He brought forth arguments not without a century's experiments. Paddy would fall showing the fallacy of this idea, and proving that igno- to disputing with the dairyman, would go to law with rance is an insurmountable barrier to the progress of mo- him for his share of the common cow's milk, or for her rality and civilisation. He also strongly maintained the trespassing, or he would pledge his eighth or sixteenth rights of conscience, asserting that the business of civil part of her for his rent, or a bottle of whisky, and the governors is the protection of the people in their rights cow would be pounded, and repledged, and repounded, and privileges ; but that they have nothing to do in and bailed, and canted, and things impossible for you matters of religion, provided that the good order of the to foresee-perhaps impossible for your English imagicommunity is not disturbed.' The first of these jour- nation to conceive-would happen to the cow and the neys was taken in company with several friends. After dairyman. In all your attempts to serve my poor dear crossing to Calais, they passed through Belgium and countrymen, you would find that, whilst you were deHolland into Germany and Switzerland. At Geneva monstrating to them what would be their greatest Mr Allen experienced a severe shock in the death of advantage, they would be always making out a short his second wife. He deeply felt her loss, and soon after cut--not a royal road, but a bog road-to their own returned to his native land. His second tour was com- by-objects. Paddy would be most grateful, most sinmenced in August 1818. He was then accompanied cerely grateful to you, and would bless your honour, by Mr Stephen Grellet. Their first mission was to and your honour's honour, with all his heart; but he Norway, and from thence they passed into Sweden. would nevertheless not scruple, on every practicable At Stockholm they had a private interview with the occasion, to-to-to cheat, I will not say, that is a king, to whom they had previously sent an address on coarse word—but to circumvent you. At every turn the important subjects before-mentioned. As their salu- you would find Paddy trying to walk round you, begging tation on parting was rather uncommon, we will give your honour's pardon-hat off, bowing to the ground the account from his diary. "The king was most kind to you-all the while laughing in your face, if you found and cordial. While I was holding his hand to take leave, him out; and if he outwitted you, loving you all the in the love which I felt for him, I expressed my desire better for being such an innocent. Seriously, there is that the Lord would bless and preserve him. It seemed no doubt that the Irish people would learn honesty, to go to his heart, and he presented his cheeks for me punctuality, order, and economy, with proper motives, to kiss, first one, then the other. He took the same leave and proper training, in due time; but do not leave time of Stephen and Enoch [friends who were with him], and out of your account. Very sorry should I be, either in commended himself to our prayers.' The party then jest or earnest, to discourage any of that enthusiasm of embarked for Finland, and journeyed on to St Peters- benevolence which animates you in their favour; but burg. The emperor was absent when they arrived at as Paddy himself would say, Sure it is better to be the Russian capital ; but they were kindly received by disappointed in the beginning than the end." Each the royal family and their court. Alexander returned failure in attempts to do good in this country discoushortly after, and he showed that his professions of rages the friends of humanity, and encourages the regard when in England were sincere, by receiving railers, scoffers, and croakers, and puts us back in hope them without ceremony, and by treating them with perhaps half a century. Therefore think before you the warmth and confidence of friendship. The follow- begin, and begin upon a small scale, which you may ing spring they left St Petersburg for Moscow, and extend as you please afterwards.' after passing through Tartary and Greece, returned In 1826 Mr Allen discontinued his lectures at Guy's home through Italy and France.
Hospital, and his farewell address to the students was A third journey in 1822 was undertaken principally printed. It was so beautiful and appropriate, that it from a desire to interest the Emperor Alexander in the would be well if it had a wider circulation. The folabolition of slavery, and to plead the cause of the poor lowing year he was married a third time to a widow Greeks. They had several interviews at Vienna, and lady belonging to the Society of Friends. His choice the emperor entered warmly into Allen's benevolent was again a happy one, and tended to gild his declining projects. Alexander was himself going to Verona, and days. This lady died before him, eight years after he urged our philanthropist to visit that place. Here their union. He now spent a great part of his time at again they met-met for the last time on earth. Their a small house near Lindfield, in the midst of the cotparting was touching, for difference of station and the tages for the poor he had been instrumental in erecting. formalities of a court were overlooked in the warm It was his favourite retreat from the fatigue and bustle gushing feelings of affection. They continued in con- of public life. He had not, however, finished his career versation for some hours, being, to use his own words, of usefulness. In 1832 he took another journey, which 'both loath to part. It was,' he goes on to say, “ be- embraced Holland, Hanover, Prussia, and Hungary ; tween nine and ten o'clock when I rose. He (the em- and in 1833 he crossed the Pyrenees, and visited Spain peror) embraced and kissed me three times, saying, for the same objects as before. " Remember me to your family; I should like to know We cannot pass over a passage in his history which, them. Ah! when and where shall we meet again!”' | though trifling, shows his character as truly as his Mr Canning had desired the British minister at Turin public acts of benevolence. When upwards of seventy, to make inquiries into the real state of the Waldenses, he was obliged, from weakness, to discontinue those who were suffering severe persecution. Mr Allen, who labours which had so long been his delight. To avoid had proceeded thither on leaving Verona, agreed to the temptations to impatience often felt after a life of accompany that gentleman into the valleys, and in con- activity, and also with the idea of being useful, he endeasequence of the report they gave, some important pri- voured to make acquaintance with all the young people vileges were granted.
in his neighbourhood, and devoted much time to their In 1825 he established a School of Industry at Lind- instruction and amusement; thus, like the setting sun, he field near Brighton; and about the same time (in con- shed light and beauty to the last. His health gradually junction with the late John Smith, M. P.) made trial of declined, and his death, which was peaceful, took place à plan he had long had in contemplation-a Cottage on the 30th of December 1843. Society, now entitled 'The Society for Improving the Few rise to the honours, and fewer still to the useCondition of the Labouring-Classes.' He was desirous fulness, which William Allen attained. Talent and forof introducing this plan into Ireland, and we cannot tuitous circumstances aided his progress ; but the secret forbear giving the following amusing letter from Miss of his success was steadiness of purpose and unwearied
BY A LADY.
THIRD ARTICLE BEFORE CHRISTMAS.
industry. His labours were systematic, which pre- to show; and the beautiful sombrero, the brown felt vented either loss of time or confusion; and the strong hat with its broad flexible leaf, covering the black hair sense of duty, which was the spring of all his actions, which fell in glossy lengths upon their shoulders. They kept him from turning giddy with applause. His life walked like stage heroes, with an easy swing of the teaches a useful lesson, and his example is not the body when moving, not unlike the spring of our Highleast benefit he has conferred on the world. He being landers; but they are a very much taller race of men. dead yet speaketh.'
The other commodities to be disposed of in this general mart for all descriptions of goods were for the most part
the produce of the country, and such foreign wares in WIN TERING IN PA U.
exchange as were likely to be of service to a simple people. The dealers, male and female, sat out in the open air the whole day, though the cold was very severe
-a black gloomy frost, and the mountains white to It was a curious 1st of November to northerns like us their base. The people never seemed to feel the cold : --no fires till the evening, leaves on all the trees, the all winter they sat out, or in their shops with open country in high beauty, and the sun still requiring to doors, or in their rooms with open windows; very be shaded from our eyes by an umbrella, without which warmly clad, to be sure, and the women always with protection many of the British inhabitants never stir chaufferettes to set their feet on, but no fires, except at out during the whole year. Pau now filled fast, fresh intervals, in their kitchens; and there they remained, families arriving daily. Towards the end of the last laughing, talking, singing, working, to all appearance month all the French officials had returned to their quite as comfortable as I was beside my hearth heaped employments, and now the visitors were all pouring in with glowing logs, with my screen, and my rugs, and from the watering-places, and the strangers from a my carefully closed windows. greater distance. The streets soon looked busier, and The horses brought to this fair of St Martin's were the English chapel was quite crowded on Sundays. It some of them very handsome, though small; they were is the custom for the new arrivals to call on all those generally unbroken, and a few looked as if it would not they find already established. We had fulfilled our be an easy task to train them. The manufactured goods duty in this respect to the few we had found before us; of the district were remarkable for their excellence. and after we had called at the Mairie and at the Pré- The linen and the knitting I have mentioned; they were fecture, we were repaid in kind by a shower of cards quite equalled by the woollens. The blankets were falling on our table daily, till the society had exhausted beautiful ; very soft, and very thick, and very white; itself. We had a universal acquaintance, owing to a with such handsome bright-red borders, that one of family connexion between us and a Bearnais noble. them would have bought the results of a whole hunting Rather an odd circumstance prevented my getting season from a North American Indian. The finer stuffs immediately into the regular business of visiting, for were very superior; the Barèges, made at Luz, the a business it is, and one very full of ceremonious mousselines de laine and de chèvre, the tartans, were all punctilios.
superior to our own fabrics of the same sort. The fine The very agreeable society of this beautifully-situated wool of the Pyrenees, dyed in that clear atmosphere, town is composed of a great variety of people. There admits of no competition. They were not cheap. Noare the members of the local government, a few Pari- thing from the loom is cheap in France except broadsians in search of health, some Spanish refugees, a Pole cloth for gentlemen's coats. A lady finds the materiais or two, a stray Italian, a very superior description of of her dress much more costly here than at home, ex. British to those who frequent the small French towns cept in the one article of millinery; and yet a woman along the northern coast, and a selection from the offi- dresses at less expense here than at home, although a cers of the regiments in garrison. Much has British single article the least out of the reigning fashion is money done for this pretty place. Houses for us to live never seen upon her. A French wardrobe is so small, it is in, shops to provide us with the many necessaries we not good taste to exhibit a daily variety of costume; and fancy requisite, carriages, doctors, have all sprung up everything is of the best, wearing well to the end: no within a very few years by the help of British gold. It imitation lace, or imitation cambric, or slight satin ever would be a melancholy day for this part of France made use of. A degree of attention is paid to the care were the many foreign residents ever to take it into of all these valuables, which is the only true economy. their heads to leave it. But this is not likely.
I would not wish my young countrywomen to devote We were attracted to the window one very cold day quite so much earnest thought to the business of the early in the month by the buzz and tread of a multi- toilette as is the habit of most of their French neightude, and looking out, saw the whole street-filled by a bours, but it would not be unwise to take a lesson from crowd that put the whole town into a commotion. It them in their management of small funds for this purwas St Martin's day, the great fair of the year. On pose, or in the propriety with which ages, and seasons, going out, we found our way lay between rows of and the sort of entertainments frequented, are attended closely-set stalls, not only in our own neighbourhood, to in the selection of suitable equipnients, and in the but in every street and lane almost in the town. The refinement of despising all the frippery too successfully market-place, the space before the Préfecture, before recommended to the British fair as cheaper than it the churches, all other spaces, indeed, were completely ever could have been made for the money.' 'Not that a occupied by the stalls of the sellers and a mob of pur- cultivated taste can altogether approve of French taste chasers. The Haute Plante, where the barracks are, in dress. They are too fond of striking contrasts in was really choked up with horses, ponies, mules, and colours; not always judicious in choosing what is best the necessary attendants upon their sale, many of whom adapted to face, or figure, or complexion. They too were Spaniards, who came from a distance, even from servilely follow the exact pattern of the fashion. I the plains beyond the mountains, with their spirited never could reconcile my eyes to yellow bonnets with merchandise. They added considerably to the interest red ribbons inside of them; but the putting on is so of this amusing scene, from their picturesque appear- inimitable, the fitting so perfect, the freshness so reance, their commanding air and figure, their dignified markable, that they all seem to be new out of the manner, and very graceful costume-all
, however, best dressmaker's hands whenever they show themselves in admired at a distance, and behind the wind. They public. The carelessness of their home négligé there wore breeches open at the knee, and long stockings to is no danger of our ever copying. meet them, both generally black; a brown or blue Our landlord called upon us about this very cold time, jacket, with open sleeves, in some cases ornamented and taught us how to keep very much better fires with hanging buttons ; a broad red sash round the We had, with English neatness, made the servants rewaist; a turned-over shirt collar, when they had one move the ashes every morning from the fireplace, white