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All have a knowledge of drugs and simples, such as may fall in there with many a European drug, by the have been in use amongst the fraternity for ages; but side of his Bengalee medicines, seeds, and poisons, har. none have the least knowledge of anatomy, or know ing the most jawbreaking names. Here the coberaz or the structure or use of one of the viscera.
doctor comes and selects and buys, not unfrequently Let this, however, not induce any one to despise my having recourse also to the garden or jungle, or to the Bengalee doctor, and set him down as a complete igno- shrine of the gods, for the tulsic, or the sacred burrut ramus. Some of these men will perform cures which or banian, for its thin, fibrous, pendent roots, highly startle Europeans of the greatest skill; and some of astringent, and on that account sought for by our medi. them possess nostrums, or quack medicines, as the cus. I have seen the thorn, thistle, and even cacti used erudite call them, which no inducement will make them with success-the gelatinous pulp of one of these latter divulge, and with which they cure cancers, spleen, ter species being known to the Bengalees as cooling and tian agues, &c. &c. to the surprise of our more learned astringent at the same time. countrymen. Such knowledge and such secrets gene- There exists another class of doctors in India ; but rally descend from father to son. The manuscripts of these, strictly speaking, cannot be called Bengalee docthe sire are intrusted to the young aspirant as soon as tors. These men are with the sepoy regiments, under he becomes a votary of Esculapius; he compounds his the guidance and tuition of the regimental surgeon. old father's medicines, and buys his drugs at the pussa- They are either Mohammedans, or Hindoos of the lowest ree's, and accompanies him in his rounds, and so pro- classes, and some of them acquire considerable skill and gresses in his sire's knowledge and practice.
experience in the course of their subordinate profesThis is one class of coberazes or doctors. Some, again, sional course. But not one case has fallen under my are entirely amateurs or self-taught geniuses. I have notice of one of these men, on retiring from the Comseen practitioners amongst gardeners, weavers, and shoe-pany's service, having set up for himself, with his store makers; and the latter of these frequently set them- of English knowledge and practice., I must not forget selves up as exorcists or devil expellers, and are such to mention, that amongst the Bengalee doctors, great men as we read of in Scripture. They exhort the Evil faith is attached to charms. When everything fails, One not only by mystic words, but chastise him with one of these self-taught geniuses will perchance recomblows, which are generally inflicted with an old shoe mend for an ague to get a certain number of yards of on the devoted head of the possessed patient. The evil cotton thread, spun by the chaste hands of a spinster; spirit is finally driven to an old tree or an old ruin; and and to speak in Mrs Glass's way, he will say, "Take the Hindoo wayfarer, in the shades of night, has an your thread in hand, and when you reach a peepul-tree, utter abhorrence of such known places, firmly believing then walk backwards, and wind the flimsy thread, that devils can be cast out, and that the power of without breaking, three times round the stem or performing such miracles still exists amongst their branches. Neither gaze to the right nor left; but nation.
there leave your offering, and go your way, and no The Bengalee doctor is contented with a small remu- doubt your faith will cure you.' The peepul-tree is in neration. As he has neither wasted much gold, nor one respect like the aspen : its leaves are affected by lost much of his precious time in study, he values his the slightest wind, and, like the aspen's, are constantly labours in his profession accordingly. Three or four in motion. Another hakeem may recommend the rupees are reckoned a handsome fee in a serious case: fever-smitten to get a plateful of rotees, or scones, and eight annas (a shilling of our money), or even half of halwah (a sweetmeat), and some other savoury things, that, may be given without affronting the medicus in and these must be gazed at by the patient, and excite trifling diseases ; and so poor or penurious is the Ben- his longing; and alongside of the eatables must be a galee, that he frequently makes a preliminary bargain lamb or kid, on whose head the sick man places his with the doctor, that a failure or death is to be followed hand; and after some prayers, the eatables and animal by a loss of his fee, or a forfeiture of half the sum. are carried out to the jungles or country, and set down
Now fancy the coberaz entering a sick-room, leaving by some interested relative, and there the viands and his slippers outside: he makes his obeisance, or some- scapegoat are left, and both doctor and patient look times none, according to he rank of the family, and with confiden for a miraculous cure. This is a Mothen seats himself at the head of the patient. He asks hammedan recipe. It is not an uncommon sight to see few questions, and is supposed to know almost every- a plateful of rice, and cowries, or pice, and curds and thing by feeling the pulse. The tongue, that great oracle red rags, placed at early dawn by some old Hindoo of our scientific men, is never consulted; the Bengalee wife where three roads meet, at the recommendation will inquire if you have a headache, or if you are thirsty ; of the coberaz; and wo to him who first touches or but if he were to say, 'Put out your tongue,' he might steps over these deadly charms! But I have done be taken for a madman. Bleeding, cupping, and blister generalising, and now come to an individual sketch. ing are understood ; but for the latter purpose vegetable My hero is Sumboo Mistree or Coberaz. To him I substances are used; and I have seen even gools, a sort owe a debt of gratitude; but for him, I could not have of artificial fireball, placed on the seat of disease, to smiled with a set of pearly teeth in the days of conquest bring on a flow of humour; but this is reckoned a and romance; nor could I, descending to more homely violent and painful process.
and matronly days, and matter-of-fact and substantial The operation of cupping is performed by barbers, or things, have eaten a beef-steak or a roll at the present badenies--the latter being a low caste of people, some- moment, if it had not been for this same Sumboo, thing like the gipsies. A doctor may recommend cup- whose invaluable tooth-powder I use to this time, in ping, but his caste prohibits him from sucking the preference to Ruspini's dentifrice, and all other beauticow's horn to draw blood. Leeches abound in the fully sealed and scented powders for ladies' toilets in marshes of Hindoostan, and a plentiful supply is always little white boxes. kept of them by the above-mentioned badenies, as well Sumboo, then, as known by me in days gone by, was as by midwives, who always belong to some of the an active, slender personage, with a round visage, fair lowest castes among the Hindoos.
complexion for a Hindoo, and clear brown eye. His As cutaneous diseases are common, and productive height five feet eight inches, possessing a fine regular set of great annoyance in the hot and moist climate of Ben- of teeth, and a thick, trim moustache on his upper lip; gal, so the Bengalee doctor is most dexterous in curing for Bengalees let their beards grow on their chin only ringworms, and the most repulsive-looking eruptions in the days of mourning, when the razor is not used for In such cases they use alteratives, of which sarsaparilla forty days. If on a visit to a superior, Sumboo was to is well known, along with their poisonous external ap- be seen with the very beau-ideal of turbans on his wellplications, otherwise their red precipitate and borax, shaped though small head; the muslin as white as &c. might be very injurious. In every Indian town a snow, and every fold and plait laid on by a scientific druggist or pussaree may be found ; and a scientific eye) turban-dresser. His zama, a very full dress, made of mulmul also, hanging in folds about him, like a fashion- neyman baker, who was supported right and left by the able lady's dress in the present day; and well might Brothers Carr. Another baker was acting as secretary Sumboo be styled a man in petticoats. Sumboo always to the meeting, the object of which was, inter alia, to wore a yellow plain slipper; and with true Bengalee elicit opinions as to the mode in which the workmen feelings of respect, entered barefoot into a superior's had enjoyed their late excursion to Edinburgh, and at house. My favourite's good - humour was imperturb the same time to consider the pleasure trip for 1849. able, and a smile was always on his face to cheer the The fact of employers and employed occupying the sick man. A white scarf generally ornamented Sumboo's same benches will appear sufficiently startling when shoulders, and over this a shawl was thrown in winter. contrasted with the degraded position of the bakers in A bright tin-box, containing pills and medicines, was London; and perhaps more so, when it is added that generally in Sumboo's hands, although a black cloth the work people at this meeting expressed their sentibag, like an instrument-holder of our surgeons, occa- ments in a free and intelligent manner, void of restraint, sionally was patronised instead, and placed, rolled up, and equally void of arrogance. The number of people under his arm. My Esculapius was conversable with engaged in the Messrs Carr's works varies from ninety those for whose abilities he had respect; he talked to a hundred. with impartiality of his own practice in comparison of thirty-one engaged in baking, seven were apprenwith that of the sahibloag's,' and highly valued any tices, between sixteen and twenty years of age, from six European recipes if they were given him. He was far months to seven years in the trade; the twenty-four from niggardly with his own knowledge; and to my others were journeymen, twenty-one of whom were beown father, whom he respected and knew well, I have tween twenty and thirty years of age; the ages of the heard him as frankly and candidly speak of the com- remaining three were respectively forty-four, fifty-three, pounds of his salves or pills as any well-informed and sixty years. The journeymen had been from seven physician of our own nation would do. To his own to twelve years in the trade. Being struck with the comcompatriots he was of course all mystery, well knowing parative youth of the great majority of the parties, Messrs that ignorance delights in marvels.
Carr explained that “older hands," generally brought Sumboo was not a rich man, so his house and furni- from Scotland, were found so intractable, owing to their ture were humble. He always went on foot; and after drinking habits and non-compliance with the rules and his professional visits were over, he would be seen orderly conduct which it was sought to establish on the going to the river in a coarse dhooty to perform his premises, that they were obliged to give a preference to ablutions and his devotions. Of his domestic connec- younger and steadier men. Six of the apprentices were tions I know nothing; but I think that, like most poor very healthy; the seventh, his father said, was a delicate Hindoos, he had but one wife. The only extravagance boy from infancy, and was then complaining of dorsal Sumboo was guilty of—if extravagance it may be called, weakness; he had not been more than seven months at where religious feelings and prejudices were concerned- the trade. Of the twenty-four journeymen, only one was, that he had once a year, in the month of October, was ill, and he (a delicate person from birth) laboured the image of Cartic, or the god of war, made in his under cold and slight cough; the remainder were in the house; and this was styled giving a Cartic Poogha. enjoyment of robust health. On more minute inquiries Why he made that dapper, peacock-mounted divinity as to their past health, I found that seventeen had never his household god, who can tell ? Perhaps he merely ailed anything since they joined the baking: one had lived and acted as his fathers had lived and acted be been four days ill during the five years that he had fore him : so a beautifully gilt and varnished god was been engaged in the establishment: one had had made at his expense; and Brahmins and musicians diarrhæa twice a year, and attributed much of his prewere hired, first to honour, and then to drown Cartic sent good health to teetotalism : one had suffered from after the days of ceremony and worship were over. erysipelas in the leg, caused by heavy work in a former
This is all I know and can divulge of the individual situation : a third had had the rheumatic fever : anand his tribe. Whether he be still in the land of the other had the intermittent fever when working at living, crowned with gray hairs and a happy conscience, Leith: one was liable to sore throat. A ready explanaor whether Gunga has washed over his ashes, and obli- tion was offered of the erysipelas and intermittent fever terated the spot of his obsequies, Heaven only can tell, by the parties themselves, who had been exposed to for it is thirty long years since I saw Sumboo.
heavy work, long hours, and confined rooms. They
were most healthy in their present situation. The CARLISLE BAKERS.
rheumatic fever was the only severe case of disease, as
far as I could learn, that had occurred in the establishA rew weeks ago we presented, from a published report ment since its formation twelve years ago. One of the of Dr Guy, an account of the deplorable condition of workmen, an elderly person, whose memory and manner the London operative bakers. Dr Guy's paper has, it lacked nothing of youthful energy, could safely vouch, appears, suggested to Dr Henry Lonsdale the propriety for six years of his experience, that there were “no imof inquiring into the state of health and morals of a portant diseases amongst the men,” by which I underlarge body of individuals employed in the baking estab- stood that the ailments had been most trifling. Personal lishment of J. D. Carr and Co.
, Carlisle. The inquiry observation assured me of the healthy appearance of was entered on with a view to ascertain whether there the workmen. I questioned them, however, closely as was anything in the baking trade necessarily tending to their liability to erysipelas and other skin diseases, to bad health and demoralisation; and the result is spitting of blood, affections of the lungs, rheumatism, such as may be anticipated: in a well-conducted estab- and fever ; and I was gratified to learn their remarklishment, with reasonable hours of labour, there is able immunity, with the exception of the rheumatic nothing in the baking, any more than in any other case already alluded to. Mr J. D. Carr informed me trade, to lower the standard of health or deteriorate (and he was confirmed by other speakers at this meetthe habits. Dr Lonsdale having furnished a paper on ing) that he could not remember any particular disease the subject to the Journal of Public Health, we are en- occurring during the twelve years; that there had been abled to offer an abridged statement of his observations; no death among the bakers; and the only one which and these will be perused with not the less interest, had occurred during that time was a carter of adthat we gave an account of Messrs Carr's great baking vanced age. concern some years ago in these pages.
• The extremely good health manifested by the 'Being introduced into the large packing-room of the bakers, as given above, may be said to pervade the establishment--a room ninety-nine feet by twenty-four, whole establishment. I examined twenty-eight boys, and having thirteen large windows-I found nearly whose ages varied from twelve to fifteen years. Eighteen seventy well-dressed working men and boys assembled of these are engaged in the lighter duties of biscuitunder the presidency of one of their number-a jour-making-sixteen of whom looked extremely well, and
had ruddy complexions; two were rather pale-faced, industry, and more careful regard for their interests, on but professedly healthy and vigorous. The ten others, the part of their workmen. engaged in the packing department, were unexception- When I re-peruse Dr Guy's account of the London ably healthy-a remark which applies to the whole bakers, and recall my own brief experience of the same number since they joined the trade.
class in Edinburgh, and then turn to Messrs Carr's 'I had an opportunity of seeing three millers, three establishment, how striking the contrast! Here are packing-men, five joiners and carpenters, eight shop- workshops, wages, and hours of work, which tend to men, and two carters, men of middle age principally, bodily comfort and healthy vigour ; here are schools of and all in excellent health, and some apparently amused instruction, reading-rooms, and library, to develop the at any questions being put relative to that which their moral and intellectual man; here the employers show countenances bespoke was so fully enjoyed by them. the example of temperance, urbanity, and order-all
'In the course of the evening I elicited from four or which are calculated to promote self-improvement and five of this intelligent body of workmen several impor- self-respect, and to make their workpeople good and tant statements confirmatory of those recorded by Dr respectable citizens. I have endeavoured to show that Guy, relative to the highly objectionable condition of they are a healthy body of men — probably more so the London bakers. An almost similar state of things than any other class in Carlisle—and from what I can exists in Edinburgh, or at least did a short time ago. learn, they have the character of being steady, obliging, The lads are sent too early to the trade, and work from and intelligent. three in the morning till six or seven in the evening, It is evident, from Dr Guy's paper, that in London in underground rooms of extremely small dimensions, the men work double hours, and that masters literally and dreadfully overheated ; carry enormous weights on rob their workmen of health and life ; but as far as I the head; and when they retire to rest, it is not to can learn, this “ double-time" system has not yielded a homes of comfort, as their sleeping - berths are too corresponding amount of wealth to the employer. Such often recesses in the wall, little better than large cup- a system cannot be expected to thrive. Man's labour, boards.
to be valuable, demands a due supply of good food and To what circumstances do the workmen of Messrs a proportionate amount of rest. Masters ought to Carr owe their good health and past immunity from dis- be made aware, if they are not already, that work ease, as compared with their own class in metropolitan pursued for eighteen hours out of the twenty-four towns, or those of other classes of artisans, generally must be attended with many imperfections—much hard considered more favourably placed in point of health in fighting against time; much carelessness and indifferthe same city of Carlisle ?
ence, and great waste of material. I say nothing of the Dr Lonsdale solves this question by a reference to the filthy habits and depraved feelings which such a system airiness of the apartments, the arrangements for insur- of slavery engenders; nor would it be politic to attempt ing cleanliness, the temperate habits of all concerned, an analysis of the principles of guiding men who, seeing and the comparatively short working hours. "The themselves lowered physically and morally in the scale daily operations commence at half-past five A. m., and of artisanship, and daily pillaged of seven or eight close at six P. M., with forty-five minutes to breakfast, hours' work by unscrupulous masters, may possibly be and an hour to dinner; so that the actual hours of inclined to forget the difference between meum and tuum, labour are ten hours and forty-five minutes daily. On and seek, at their masters' cost, some equivalent for Saturdays they close at five P. M. The wages of the their unrequited services.' workmen vary from 23s. to 25s. to foremen ; 18s. to 20s. In conclusion, Dr Lonsdale remonstrates with the for journeymen ; and 3s. to 5s. to boys, with an allow- practice of requiring hot rolls for breakfast, which is in ance of biscuits daily. None are allowed to work over- reality the main cause of the oppression to which the time without being paid, and their remuneration for London bakers are subjected. We do not absolutely over-time exceeds the ordinary rate of wages. Such despair of seeing master bakers emulating the Carrs as wages, properly laid out in a provincial town, enable respects various arrangements; but it must be borne in the men to rent comfortable dwellings, or lodgings with mind that in the establishment just described no rolls are good sleeping apartments, to live on wholesome food, baked : it is only a bread-and-biscuit factory. In usual and dress themselves respectably as artisans. That circumstances, master bakers, even with the best intenthey obtain these comforts I am fully satisfied from in- tions, cannot follow the example given them at Carlisle. quiry made. Being teetotalers, they spend no money They are compelled, by a matter of public taste, to work in public-houses.'
their men an unreasonable length of time daily. On À library, evening and Sunday school, and a reading- the public, therefore, be the blame, until the hot roll is room, are the engines of moral advancement. • The utterly banished from the breakfast table. We agree hours of recreation are spent partly in reading and with Dr Lonsdale in thinking that the duty of disusing partly in out-door exercise. The fact of the workmen this unwholesome species of bread .merits the atten. living almost around the door of the mill
, adds mate- tion of those who occasionally lend a helping hand to rially to their resting at the time of meals. In the win- ameliorate the condition of the humbler classes.' ter, the reading-room is well attended, and the demand for books materially increased. A foremen's meeting is
ALUM WORKS. held weekly, at which one of the firm attends, and every encouragement is given to the men to mention The manufacture of alum, which consists in the reanything which appears to them calculated to improve fining of a rough mineral substance, was begun in Engtheir own condition or that of the establishment. The land in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by Sir Thomas kind urbanity of the masters has kindled a kindred Chaloner, who established works for the purpose near spirit amongst the men. The workmen assist each Whitby. At this place the manufacture is still carried other in times of distress-a fund being temporarily on, as may be observed by persons voyaging along established for the purpose. No instance has occurred the coast of Yorkshire. Whitby is situated on beds of parties engaged in the establishment soliciting paro- of aluminous schist, which extend over a district thirty chial relief. Such a fact requires no comment.
miles in length, and terminate on the coast in cliffs • In lieu of races and other dissipating amusements, rising in some places to a height of 750 feet. This which fleet by, and leave no pleasant remembrances, the schist, commonly known as alum slate, is partly bituMessrs Carr entertain their workpeople to a day's ex- minous, and contains scattered particles of iron pyrites. cursion from Carlisle during the summer months; and It is of a bluish-gray colour, resembling hardened clay a joyous day it is to all to visit interesting localities. in appearance, and decomposes, coming off in flakes or To the Messrs Carr a trip of this kind may probably layers on exposure to the atmosphere: the most valucost L.40; but I verily believe that they reap good in able lies near the surface. Among this schist there are terest for this and other benefactions by an increased / large portions which, when laid in a heap, and sprinkled
with sea-water, take fire spontaneously, and burn until Whenever it is dissolved in a saturated state, it is run all the combustible material is exhausted. Some of the off into the crystallising vessels, which are called rochschists combine all the elements of alum, from which ing casks. These casks are about five feet high, three the refuse has simply to be separated ; others contain feet wide in the middle, and somewhat narrower at the clay and sulphur only, and after being converted into ends; they are made of very strong staves, nicely fitted sulphate of alumina, require the addition of an alkali to to each other, and held together by strong iron hoops, form alum. The schists which are too hard to decom- which are driven on pro tempore, so that they may be pose naturally, are reduced to the proper state by the easily knocked off again, in order to take the staves aid of fire. In whatever way the process may be carried asunder. The concentrated solution during its slow on, the result ought to be the same; the combination cooling in these close vessels forms large regular crysin certain definite proportions of sulphuric acid, alumina, tals, which hang down from the top, and project from and water—the constituents of alum.
the sides, while a thick layer or cake lines the whole At Whitby, after the aluminous material is excavated, interior of the cask. At the end of eight or ten days, it is removed to the calcining ground in barrows, or by more or less, according to the weather, the hoops and trucks running on tramways. Here a quantity of fagots staves are removed, when a cask of apparently solid and dry furze is disposed so as to form a bed about two alum is exposed to view. The workman now pierces feet thick, and four or five yards square : on this the this mass with a pickaxe at the side near the bottom, schist, or 'mine,' as it is technically called, is piled to and allows the mother water of the interior to run off the height of four feet, when the underlying wood is set on the sloping stone floor into a proper cistern, whence on fire. After this, more and more of the fagots and mine it is taken and added to another quantity of washed is added, until a heap 100 feet high and 200 in length powder, to be crystallised with it. The alum is next and width is formed, containing 100,000 cubic yards. broken into lumps, exposed in a proper place to One hundred and thirty tons of the calcined material are dry, and is then put into the finished bing for the required to produce one ton of alum. To prevent as market.' much as possible the waste of sulphuric acid from so Alum crystallises in octahedrons—a form which may enormous an ignited mass, the crevices are stopped with be represented by two four-sided pyramids joined base small fragments of the refuse clay moistened. This at to base. Besides the manufactories already enumerated, the same time excludes the air, binds the heap together, there are others in Belgium, Bohemia, Sweden, and and keeps it from falling in. The calcination of a large France. In various parts of the world, it is sometimes mass at once, as is the practice at Whitby, is said to found existing naturally in a pure state, on stones or in cause a prodigious loss of sulphuric acid. At the alum certain mineral waters. It is met with near Naples, works near Glasgow, the more economical method of where the argillaceous soil is abundantly penetrated low heaps widely spread is adopted.
by sulphuric acid ; and in Yorkshire there are alum During the process of calcination the heap diminishes springs. The most famous chemists have from time to to one-half its original size, and becomes at last porous time directed their attention to the analysis of alum, and open to the air throughout: its decomposition is with the view of effecting improvements in its manufacilitated by an occasional sprinkling with water. It facture; the general production has not only been beneis usual to have a number of heaps burning in succes- fited by these analyses, but the facility of adulteration sion, in order that every part of the works may go on diminished. The best alum is said to be made in Italy; uninterruptedly throughout the year. When a heap that manufactured in France and England is not unhas become quite cold, it is ready for lixiviation : the frequently impregnated with sulphate of iron. Among calcined lumps are thrown into pits and macerated in the improvements to be effected in the process, a means water from eight to ten hours; the water becomes of preventing the present waste of sulphuric acid is impregnated with sulphate of alumine; and under the greatly to be desired. name of alum liquor,' is drawn off into cisterns placed The uses of alum are manifold and important: incorat a lower level, upon a fresh supply of roasted mine, porated with paper, it presents a hard, smooth surface, until it acquires a certain specific gravity. More water fit for writing upon; furriers employ it in the preservais poured over the lumps left behind in the pits, and tion of the hairy covering of skins; it retards putrefacthe whole of the material is washed and soaked again tion in animal substances; and hardens the tallow used and again until the whole of the alum is extracted. To for candles. Its astringent properties are valuable in facilitate this operation, the cisterns are generally con
medicine, and its caustic properties, as calcined alum, structed on the side of a hill, and the better these are in surgery. But it is in dyeing that the use of alum is arranged, the more economically can the manufacture most important and most widely diffused. It is rare be conducted.
that colouring matters present any affinity for the subThe different liquors obtained from the maceration stances to be dyed ; most of them would disappear with are classed as strong, seconds, and thirds. To facilitate the first washing, were there no medium by which they the subsidence of the sulphate of lime and iron, and the could be fixed. The substance employed for this purearth held in suspension, the solution is sometimes pose is called a mordant or biter-in; and in this respect boiled; a process by which the sulphuric acid is made alum holds a pre-eminent rank. This mineral is also to combine the more readily with its affinities. When, made subservient to other less praiseworthy purposes : to avoid expense, this preliminary boiling is omitted, bakers use it to give a good colour to bad flour, and to the alum produced will be impure, and of inferior qua- swell a comparatively small lump of dough into a large lity. After cooling, the liquor is transferred to lead | loaf; iced ginger-beer and lemonade offered for sale at pans, in which it is kept boiling for twenty-four hours; railway stations and other places, if narrowly inspected, the loss in evaporation being supplied by pumping in will be found imbedded in lumps of alum, which pass additional quantities of mother water, until the re- very well for ice. quired degree of concentration is attained. About four hundredweight of alum is said to be the daily quantity obtained from each pan. The liquor in the pans is run A scheme has been lately projected in London for the off every morning into the settler,' where the alkali, improvement of Ireland, which is thus graphically desometimes a lye made from kelp, is added. Twenty-two scribed
by the correspondent of the ' Inverness Courier :'tons of muriate of potash go to the formation of one hun. It is briefly this to convert all the peat bogs into chardred tons of alum. From the settler the liquor passes above laudable purpose. A first meeting of its projectors
coal! A society is in course of being organised for the into coolers to crystallise; the crystals, after standing and promoters was held here the other day, presided over four days, are washed and drained, and, as described by by Lord de Mauley. A Mr Rogers, said to be an eminent Dr Ure, the washed alum is put into a lead pan, with civil-engineer, expounded the nature and advantages of just enough of water to dissolve it at a boiling heat; the project. There are in Ireland about three million acres fire is applied, and the solution is promoted by stirring. I of peat bog. Being situated at various elevations above
A friendless dog, a famished hound,
the sea - level, they are all capable of being easily and effectually drained. By a process lately discovered and patented, the peat-fuel may be condensed and hardened, and rendered as dense, and consequently as portable, as pit coals. All the aqueous matter, amounting to forty per cent. (whether of bulk or weight, is not stated), can be squeezed out. In this state it is far superior to coals as a fuel for producing steam, because of the diffusive and radiating properties of the heat it gives out. A boiler in a steam-ship or railway engine would last double the time when ministered to by the beneficent fires of peat instead of the deleterious ones of coal. There would be little or no smoke. Then one at least of the two great evils of life would be avoided—“a smoky house, and a scolding wife." But this is not all-very far from it: the peats could be converted into charcoal, of a much superior quality than the charcoal of wood, and at about a third of the cost. Then this charcoal would be of inestimable value in agricultural, manufacturing, sanitary, or domestic points of view. As a fertiliser of the soil, it would supersede guano, bone manure, lime, and farmyard dung. În manufactures it would smelt iron, and other metals and minerals, in the most effective and economical manner-rendering them all of three times their present value. As a disinfecting and deodorising agent, it would put a stop to all contagious and infectious diseases. It would sweep away all unpleasant odours, as its action is both instantaneous and continuous. In the kitchen or parlour fire the diffusive properties of the heat will be highly appreciated, and the absence of smoke will withdraw from the guidwife all pretexts for being out of temper. I wonder, however, that its usefulness in the manufacture of gunpowder was not mentioned. Then, when the bogs are cleared away, the land on which they stand, the stances, are quite in a condition to be excellent arable
land, and to be particularly fitted for the growth of flax. Then this ground is to be lotted out in small patches to industrious tenants, and the whole land is to teem with plenty and gladness, as in the happy but fabulous vales of Cashmere. To effect this grand purpose, a company has been formed or projected-capital L.500,000, in L.10 shares. Annual profits L.160,000—half to the fortunate shareholders, and the other half to the industrious cotters, for the cultivation of their allotments. A million of money to be paid annually in labour; everybody to be employed by task-work, and paid weekly for his labour. Such is one of the Utopian views exhibited in the ever-varying phantasmagoria of Irish history and speculation. If all this peat and charcoal speculation can do so much for Ireland, what may it not also do for Scotland?' Quite right to ask this question. Scotsmen, look to your bogs; and do not allow these sources of wealth to lie any longer neglected.
There came a glorious summer day,
A verdurous bank, bent green and steep,
BESSY AND HER DOG.
Among the weeds the child crept down-
BY MARY BENNETT.
No harm feared she, the happy child ! Singing her simple ditties wild ; And prattling gaily, as she bound With the long grass her posy round; Till bending down where clustering grew Forget-me-nots of fairer blue Than any elsewhere in her view. Angel of Death ! they were thine own: She slipped upon a treacherous stone, And sank deep in the lovely stream, Under the evening's golden gleam.
Bessy was always wandering; Whilst to her pretty self she'd sing Many a rhyme-Heaven knows who taught herHour by hour, where no one sought her. Sometimes on the skirts of a lane, Bareheaded in a rapid rain; Sometimes lagging down the hill, A nutshell at the brook to fill ; Or a-bed on mossy steep, Lulling herself and doll to sleep; Now in the wood, now in the meadow, In the light, and in the shadow. No one thought, no one cared, How the little Bessy fared. Was she hungry, was she fed, Was she alive, or was she dead : 'Twas no matter; her grief or glee Moved not a heart that I could see. And yet, before her friends were dead, A cotter in the hamlet said (In answer to a mother's prayer) He'd guard the orphan child with care. But when the mother lay in dust, The cotter broke his holy trust : And like a little gipsy wild Roamed the poor ragged orphan chill.
The mournful midnight fast drew near,
Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also
sold by D. CHAMBERS, 99 Miller Street, Glasgow ; W. S. ORN, 147 Strand, London; and J. M'GLASRAN, 21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.