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above all. Conceive the effect of a beautiful crown of the noble tree begins to wither; branch after branch dark-green graceful foliage borne on the summit of a drops mortified from the trunk; it becomes seared, leafslender shaft, probably a hundred and eighty feet less, and rotten from head to foot; and in a few months high. Then when the wind comes along the forest the struggle is suddenly terminated by a mighty wind. tops below, these gracious monarchs will be seen to The wood-boring insects and ants had long singled out bend in acknowledgment of fealty, and rising again, their victim, and in millions had eaten up its strength. to fling out the splendid feathers in their tufts, as The splendid trunk bends under the wind; a fresh gust though, when the momentary act of condescension was in greater violence catches it; and down it comes, overperformed, they hasted to resume the bearing of their whelming in its ruin not a few of the enemies which rank. The situations in which the palms often make had combined against it, and startling the whole fotheir appearance in these forests give them an addi- rest with the thundering crash betokening its destructional beauty. Sometimes on the summit of a gra- tion. A further work is, however, to be accomplished. nite rock, fed by the humus of centuries, its root Curious fungi steal over it, and revel on its dead carwatered by the forest stream, the Linnaan ‘prince cass, on which they display their splendid apparel and of vegetation' takes its stand, rising into the air like grotesque forms. In a short time the chemical influence a giant. Sometimes, likewise—for the palms are by of the air also aiding in the deed, they, too, have fulfilled no means uniform in size — they fix themselves in their office; and now the place where stood the pride of a desolate, solitary spot, the trunk swollen in the the forest “knows it no more,' save as a shapeless mass middle, and tapering above and below, thus wearing of vegetable earth. the appearance of vast nine-pins set up for the amuse- Penetrating more deeply into these forests, it is no ment of the ancient sons of Anak; and sometimes the figure to say that there is the kingdom of eternal night. children of the race will take the shelter of a sturdy The darkness is never broken by the intrusion of the green veteran, and, with a kind of vegetable vanity, solar beam, and the feebler moonlight is never known display their exquisite forms and hereditary coronets there. The period when the earth is rejoicing in the against his rugged ungainly trunk and distorted blaze of a mid-day sun, is that in which the darkness of branches.
these recesses only becomes a little modified for a dim While a comparatively dull similarity marks the obscurity. At this time the straight and lofty trunks forests of temperate regions, those of Brazil are conspi- of the trees alone are discernible; above them hangs a cuous for the wonderful variety and endless contrasts. dense impenetrable roof of branches and leaves; and the Here the silk-cotton-tree,' writes Dr Spix, “partly impression of being in a great vault, upheld by a thouarmed with strong thorns, begins at a considerable height sand rugged pillars, is that which most deeply affects. from the ground to spread out its thick arms and the traveller. A dreadful stillness, and an over-masterdigitated leaves, which are grouped in light and airy ing feeling of gloom, oppress the faculties, and he gladly masses,' while beyond, luxuriant trees of lower growth, retraces his steps to brighter scenes out of this valley and the Brazilian anda shooting out at a less height of the shadow of death. The most remarkable feature many branches profusely covered with leaves,' unite to of these ancient forests remains to be mentioned, and form a verdant arcade. The next curious object is the it is that which clothes them in the most elegant and hard outline of the trumpet - tree' (Cecropia peltata). fantastic garb: it is the innumerable, the incredible The stem, which is smooth, polished, and of an ash-gray multitude of parasitic plants and creepers. As though colour, springs up to a considerable height, and then the surface of the earth were insufficient for the pursuddenly flings out a whorl of branches like a ruff, pose of unfolding all the glorious productions of the which have white leaves at their extremities, reminding teeming soil, every hoary trunk is a flower-garden, us, to compare great things with small, of the anoma- every branch a flower -stand, on which a countless lous specimens of forest-trees which get imported into variety of plants, of the most exquisite foliage and this country in children's toy-boxes. In the deeper flower, put forth their beauties, adorning the great recesses of the forest are trees of colossal proportions. mass on which they thrive with a garment of divers Dr Von Martius gives the particulars of a locust-tree colours and odours not its own. Curiases, arums, the which fifteen Indians with outstretched arms could only splendid flowers of the pothos, the bromelias, the just embrace. Several others were upwards of eighty sweet-scented favourites of the South American garfeet in circumference at the bottom, and sixty feet where dens, and singular tillandrias, hang down in the most the boles became cylindrical. By counting the concen- astonishing luxuriance and remarkable forms from tric rings of such parts as were accessible, he arrived at every aged tree. The trunks are also the dwellingthe conclusion that they were of the age of Homer! and place of a profusion of variously-tinted lichens—some 332 years old in the days of Pythagoras : one estimate, of a beautiful rose colour, others of a dazzling yellow, indeed, reduced their antiquity to 2052 years, while an- some blood-red, which paint the rough bark, and conother carried it up to 4104! The effect produced upon tribute a richness and a warmth of colouring to the the imagination by the sight of these vegetable patri- ensemble which can scarcely be conceived. Up other archs can scarcely be described. Many of the trees are giant stems creep passion-flowers, in rich exuberance, adorned with beautiful flowers of every conceivable hue, expanding in a variety of rich colours their singular and of odour equally varied, now attracting, and now form, once so awe-exciting, so deeply mysterious to the repelling the explorer. Some of them painted in the early discoverers of this continent. But the appearance gaudiest colours, glitter against the deep foliage, others of the luanths, visci, and orchids, which scramble over concealed under its shelter, while others again expand, these trees, the peu fails to describe. Here seated on and glitter, and fade at a height at which neither the a scaly palm, there reposing on an immense bough, or hand of man nor the invasion of animals can reach dangling from the farthest branch, they shed their them.
odours, inexpressibly sweet and grateful, and exult in Though the aspect of these mighty trees conveys their fantastic beauties, giving their resting - place a something of the impression of an eternal existence, splendour of appearance not to be equalled by the most they are not less mortal than their humbler compa- magnificent collection brought together by the hands of nions. Many agencies are in operation, the ultimate man. Yet more wonderful even than these are the effect of which is to pull them down, lay them level creeping and twining plants in these regions. An exwith the ground, and reduce them to their original dust. quisite wood-engraving, from a drawing by Martius, of If by ill-fortune one has long been surrounded by a a scene in the Orgar Mountains, will be found in Dr crowd of trees of another kind, like the great ones of Lindley's new work, The Vegetable Kingdom,' which our own race, its situation is eminently perilous. The will convey a definite idea at least of the elegant decoinsidious neighbours conspire to sap its strength, pur- ration thus contributed to the forest. Here will be seen loin its juices, and contend for the ground with its Flora in her playfullest mood, flinging garlands from struggling roots. The result is easy to be conceived: tree to tree, and binding in hymeneal cords, sometimes
of considerable strength, trees of the most opposite cha- piercing, stinging, penetrating, poisonous flies torment racter and aspect. These plants creep in immense coils every portion of the surface uncovered for an instant. to the topmost boughs, fling themselves to the nearest Monkeys and birds plunder his plantations : ants and neighbour, wind around the captive, and come down, cockroaches devour his food, and pull down his house twisting and curling in an inextricable manner, among about his ears. Abroad, the fierce cayman awaits him the boughs. Occasionally they twist together like great if he ventures near the pools, and the ounce, poisonous cables, and are seen strapping down some great tree to serpents, scorpions, centipedes, spiders, and acari, asthe earth, something after the similitude of the mast sault him in the woods. Yet with all these disadvanof a ship. Mr Darwin says, “ During the second day's tages, the same pen declares Brazil to be the fairest journey, we found the road so shut up, that it was neces- and most glorious country on the surface of the globe.' sary that a man should go abroad with a sword to cut We may take for an appropriate conclusion the earnest away the creepers. The woody creepers themselves, language of our most recent traveller, Darwin: It is covered by others, were of great thickness; some which easy to specify the individual objects of admiration in I measured were two feet in circumference. Many of these grand scenes ; but it is not possible to give an these creepers suffocate the trees around which they adequate idea of the higher feelings of wonder, astonishclasp. In every direction their writhing lengths appear, ment, and devotion which fill and elevate the mind. giving the scene the character of an enormous nest of Among the scenes which are deeply impressed upon my serpents. The surface of the ground is literally strewed mind, none exceed in sublimity the primeval forests with floral germs, in purple and gold, in scarlet and undefaced by the hand of man ; whether those of Brazil, blue, and in every tinge into which the rays of light can where the powers of life are predominant, or those of be arranged; while the exquisite delicacy of the foliage Terra del Fuego, where death and decay prevail. Both of the ferns and mimosa adds its peculiar grace to the are temples filled with the varied productions of the whole. Flowers which would be the pride and glory of God of nature. No one can stand in these solitudes our conservatories, here fall beneath the foot of the tra. unmoved, and without feeling that tbere is more in man veller at every step. Should he escape from the dense than the mere breath of his body.' groves in which he has been so long immersed, and gain the elevation of some lofty hill, what a scene presents itself! Grotesque cacti are all around, the curious trees
SUBLIMITIES OF THE TOE. called the lily-trees,' or vellosias, having thick naked What is worth doing at all, deserves to be done well! stems, and dividing like a fork, with a few branches Aim to surpass every one in the line of life you have tipped with tufts of leaves, the most singular forms of adopted, and success is scarcely doubtful! Such appear the vegetable world, thrive on the plain at his feet, to have been the maxims that guided the elder Vestris over which the emus, or American ostriches, gallop in in his grand efforts to put himself at the head of the flocks, and his eyes roam in never-tiring admiration dancing world. Was Vestris wrong? Certainly not: over a sea of forest, of waving foliage, of changing tints, he not only carried off the highest honours of his proand of inexpressible majesty, spreading out its broad fession, but was able to inspire his son Auguste with a arms into the distant horizon. So thick and uninter- proper spirit of emulation. A notice of a few traits of rupted,' writes Humboldt, ' are the forests which cover the character and history of this remarkable man may the plains of South America between the Orinoco and amuse a leisure moment. the Amazon, that were it not for intervening rivers, the Vestris was the son of a painter of some merit at monkeys, almost the only inhabitants of these regions, Florence, and coming to Paris in the latter half of the might pass along the tops of the trees for several hun eighteenth century, soon became the idol of the public, dred miles together without touching the earth.' as well as of the court of Versailles, where he acquired
These primeval forests are only silent during the mid- the flattering cognomen of Le Dieu de la Danse. day glare of the tropical sun. The dawn of morning Auguste Vestris was also a favourite at court, and is greeted by legions of monkeys, tree-frogs, and toads, sometimes presumed so far on the kindness of his royal and when the sun arises the scene is full of life. 'Squir- protectress, Marie-Antoinette, as to decline dancing on rels, troops of gregarious monkeys, issue inquisitively very slight and frivolous pretexts. This occurring once from the interior of the woods to the plantations, and when Marie-Antoinette had expressed her purpose of leap whirling and chattering from tree to tree. Birds being present at the opera, he was instantly arrested. of the most singular forms, and of the most superb His father, alarmed at the consequences of such folly plumage, flutter singly or in companies through the fra. and imprudence, hastened to intreat the queen's pardon grant bushes. The green, blue, and red parrots assemble through the medium of one of her ladies-in-waiting. on the tops of the trees, or fly toward the plantations My son,' said he, could not surely have been aware and islands, filling the air with their screams. The busy that her majesty meant to honour the house with her orioles creep out of their long, pendent, bag-shaped presence, otherwise, can it be believed that he would nests, to visit the orange-trees; and their sentinels an- have refused to dance before his generous benefactress? nounce, with a loud screaming cry, the approach of man. I am grieved beyond the power of expression at this Above all these strange voices, the metallic tones of the misunderstanding between the Houses of Vestris and uraponga sound from the tops of the highest trees, re. Bourbon, which have always been on the very best sembling the strokes of the hammer on the anvil, filling terms since our removal from Florence to Paris. My the wanderer with astonishment. Delicate humming- son is au désespoir at so unhappy an occurrence, and birds, rivalling in beauty and lustre diamonds, emeralds, will dance like an angel if her majesty will graciously and sapphires, hover round the brightest flowers.' Thus, command him to be set at liberty,' and in a regular succession, do these happy creatures The young man was instantly restored to freedom; spend their brief existence. The sun declines, the beasts and on appearing before Marie-Antoinette, surpassed of the forest do creep forth in search of prey, 'till at last himself in the graceful exercise of his talent. The the howling of the monkeys, the sloth with the cry as queen applauded him; and as she was about to leare of one in distress, the croaking frogs, and the chirping her box, the elder Vestris presented his son, who came grasshoppers with their monotonous note, conclude the to return her thanks. day, and the bass tones of the bullfrog announce the Ah, Monsieur Vestris !' said Marie-Antoinette to the approach of night. Myriads of luminous beetles now father, you never danced as well as your son has done fly about like ignes-fatui, and blood-sucking bats hover this evening.' like phantoms in the profound darkness of the night.'* • That is very likely, madame,' replied the old man ;
But it must not be supposed that these forests are a for, please your majesty, I never had a Vestris for my paradise to man. Swarms of mosquitoes, multitudes of teacher!'
* Then,' rejoined the queen smiling, 'the merit, doubt. * Spix and Martius. Travels in Brazil.
less, is chiefly yours; and indeed I never can forget
your dancing the Minuet de la Cour with Mademoiselle less have hastened into his mother's gallery on hearing Guimard : it was quite a gem of art.'
of your visit at the Colonna Palace. Alas! alas ! sango Whereon the veteran artist raised bis head with that di me! What do I behold? Can I believe my senses ? grace which was quite peculiar to himself; for, filled How, how! poor young man! You salute him with as he was with amour-propre to a ridiculous degree, this that stiff melancholy English countenance, which is only old man had the noblest manners possible. Many a suited to almsgiving among the galley-slaves ! So, sir, grand seigneur might have envied him the graceful and that is the way you would reward him for his polité dignified ease with which he was so eminently gifted empressement! And what is the consequence, my prince? by nature ; and several scions of nobility placed them. He looks coldly on you ; he will criticise and avoid you ; selves under his tuition, to learn the secret of that perhaps become your enemy: there is no help for it! courtly address which was so essential to their rank Let not this lesson, sir, be thrown away upon you ; and position in life. On such occasions he would often and when you see his brother Don Gaetano Colonna apmake observations full of originality, and which indi- proach you, take care that your amiable manner should cated a subtle discernment of the follies and weaknesses at once express to him, “ I am truly happy to make of the great world. One of his pupils happening to be your acquaintance; I desire your friendship, and I offer present at a lesson which he was giving the Prince de you mine; and (here a little pride and self-possession Lamarck, was so much diverted at the tone and style will not be amiss)—it is worth having." of his instructions, that he noted down his words, which "Always be cordial, without empressement, Monsieur have been transmitted to us in the memoirs of a con- le Prince. Believe me, it is the best plan. The modern temporary; and they are so characteristic of him, as to fashion of stiffness is never proof against an affable carry us back to the princely salon where Vestris dis- manner; one in which dignity is blended with kindness coursed with all the gravity of a philosopher on those is the most suitable. minutiæ of etiquette which in the eighteenth century • Now, sir, let us descend a few steps. Salute some were regarded as matters of deep importance.
famous virtuoso : salute him frankly, cordially. Take Let us then hold up our heads, and lend a docile ear care what you are about, Monsieur le Prince ; do not be to the courtly maxims of 'Lé Diû dé la Danse,' as he in a hurry. Behold in this celebrated artist the delight was wont to call himself in his broad Italianised of a whole empire; a man of nothing exalted to the French.
skies !-one whom monarchs cherish, whom they ennoble Let us see, Monsieur le Prince. There, there-very and enrich. Represent to yourself old Vestris honoured well. Salute first-salute-her majesty the empress with a pension, decorated with the black ribbon, which of Germany. Ah! lower, sir-lower (the last word in I would have there now, sir (pointing to his breast), if a quick impatient tone). You must remain three- it were not for this Luciferic revolution. Behold in me quarters of a second, sir, before you attempt to rise. the Chevalier Vestris ! Salute, sir-salute; a little There--that will do very well. In rising, sir, you must lower if you please, sir : there—that will do.' turn your head gently and modestly towards the right The dearest object of Vestris's ambition was to be hand of her imperial and apostolical majesty. Kiss that decorated with the black ribbon of the order of St hand which bears the sceptre (without, however, pre- Michael; and it was impossible to enlighten him as to suming to raise your eyes to the august countenance of the unsuitability of such an honour being conferred the sovereign).
upon a public dancer, even though he were the most * You must not, sir, give any sort of expression to distinguished of his profession. your physiognomy while saluting so great a princess. At a time when the aged Maréchal de Richelieu was À certain air of respect, and even of fear, should per- lying on his deathbed, Vestris was continually in his vade your whole person, and in so awful a moment, antechamber urgently requesting to see bim on an affair will not diminish aught from the gracefulness of your of great importance. Being at length admitted to the figure.
maréchal's presence, he intreated of the dying man to * You may represent to yourself so many dazzling obtain for him the joint solicitations of the four first crowns, magnificent titles, dominions, supremacies : so lords of the bed-chamber, begging of the king to bestow many past ages of power, mighty victories, and other upon him the honour he so much coveted.
• Signor sublime thoughts, until you are penetrated with vene- Vestris,' replied the maréchal, “it is not fitting that I ration. That is all, sir.
should write on this subject to the king; but I promise "Now, Monsieur le Prince, salute Madame la Land- you that on my first attendance at Versailles, I will grave de Hesse Darmstadt. Ah! that is too low-too speak to his majesty concerning you.' low by four inches. You salute her as if she was a Oh! my lord, may I hope that?'queen. Shade, sir-shade! Begin again if you please. I can answer for nothing, but for my speaking of it Ah, that is well! Bravissimamente ? You must not to the king, if ever I leave my bed again ; and you may forget that it is but a landgrave you are saluting, after depend upon it my request will make him smile.' having just quitted the imperial court of Luxembourg. The maréchal died, and Vestris never attained the Now let your eye rest a moment on the venerable object of his fond ambition. lady-in-waiting, and say to her, by your courteous He was also subject to the lesser vanity of desiring to glance and smile, " Apart from the trammels of eti- conceal his age, and took incredible pains to deceive quette, I offer you, Madame la Comtesse, all the respect others in this matter. A celebrated danseuse having one ful homage which is due to your virtues, your age, and day acknowledged, amid a large circle, her obligations to the position you occupy at court."
him as her teacher-Oh! mignonne Rosette !' he replied, Now, sir, I should like to see you salute the Con- you talk of having taken lessons from me; but, my stable de Rome. Ah! niy prince, how you do pain dear madame, you were a teacher yourself long before and trouble me! Is this the fruit of so much care and I had any pupils. I really do believe,' continued he, experience of all my zeal and labour? That is not addressing the friends who were present—' I really the way, Monsieur le Prince : it is too low for you-a believe she takes me for Old Saturn, or for the Destiny great deal too low! One would suppose that you mis- of Homer.' took an excellency for a royal highness, and that you Such were the foibles of this eccentric man, who were bowing as humbly to her as if you were a gentle- united the utmost niaiserie and chorographical fanatiman from Poitou. Let your frank open air express to cism with an extraordinary degree of acuteness of perher agreeably : “ Princess, I am really rejoiced that my ception and originality of mind. Not only was he visit to Rome enables me to form the acquaintance of looked upon as one of the singularities of the eighteenth 80 illustrious a lady, the flower of Italian dames, and century, but also was he esteemed by those who knew one who does honour to her country by protecting the him on account of his many amiable qualities ; and we beaux arts." Then turn quickly towards the Prince of do not detail his weaknesses in a spirit of mockery or Palestrina, the Constable's eldest son, who will doubt- ) ridicule, for who amongst us can boast of being free
from the petty foibles of humanity? Happy those who with Ireland as a great fountain of mendicancy, it is are not tainted by worse follies than the inoffensive barely possible, with all the checks that can be instiambition and the harmless vanity which marked the tuted, to reduce the number of begging and pilfering character of this clever master of the dance.
children in large cities. In other words, the more we do to relieve individual responsibility, the more requires
to be done. We would not, however, from a theoretic ENGLISH PENAL SCHOOLS.
conviction of this important fact, throw overboard all With all the remarkable advancement which the pre- those schemes which have of late aimed at assuaging sent age has made in practical science, and in many juvenile vagabondism and crime. According to Lord matters of social concern, it is undeniable that little or Ashley's statement, we have 30,000 destitute children in nothing has been done in the way of solving that great the metropolis alone; according to the last return of the problem—the cause and cure of juvenile crime. All metropolitan police force, 2111 of these children, or that we have ascertained is, that much of the prevalent persons under twenty years of age, were committed for delinquency is traceable to neglect and the formation trial during the last year (1847). And is this mass of of habits adverse to an honest course of life. But un- destitution and crime, the large amount of which canfortunately the discovery of this fact seems scarcely to not be gathered from official returns, to be left uncared bring us any nearer to a practical remedy. The question for, in all its present and future results, because of this of juvenile reclamation is inextricably involved with objection? Granting that there is a shadow of injustice other questions; it is only a department in one vast in thus assisting vice instead of virtue, it must be recolsubject — the social condition of the empire-and re- lected that much of this vice-we might almost say all quires to be considered in connection with pauperism, of it-has arisen out of circumstances over which the defective national education, want of moral training and sufferer had little or no power of election; and that religious instruction, and intemperance with all the there must, and always will, exist a distinction, even woes it engenders.
though unrecognised by any mere formula of law, beWe cannot, of course, in these limited pages grapple tween that morality which has grown up out of governeffectually with this enormously-complicated question; ment supervision and assistance, and that which has but a few off-hand observations we are permitted to grown up pure and uncontaminated in the moral nature make may enable others to follow out the subject in all of the being. The ethics of society most justly recog. its bearings. First, as to the actual increase of juvenile nise this distinction, and always will. depravity. All statistical inquirers into the subject It has been suggested that the half-disowned pupils make it evident that youthful offenders are increasing of the Ragged Schools in the metropolis would very in relation to the amount of population. The number properly be disposed of by a process of emigration and of criminals under twenty years of age committed to apprenticeship in the colonies. Still, with the widest prison in 1835 was 6803, or 1 in 449 of the popula- and best-adjusted systems of emigration to any or to tion, between ten and twenty years of age; while the whole of our vast colonial empire, the causes of in 1844 they amounted to 11,348, or 1 in 304 upon juvenile crime in the mother country remain unremethe population of the same age. It is not till within died; and whilst these exist, or even whilst undergoing the last ten years that the returns have specified a slowly-corrective process, much crime will necessarily the ages of prisoners; but we may judge of the pro- arise, of too flagrant a character to allow of summary portion between crime and age by the two statements, dismissal, or the palliative remedy of the mere Ragged that in the five years preceding 1810, the average an- School. For this there must exist discipline and correc. nual number of commitments in England and Wales tion; and it remains now for us to see whether or not a was 4792, and the convictions 2840, while the popu- system of Penal Schools, efficiently carried out, would lation of the age of ten years and upwards amounted to not effect more than the discipline of prisons, however 7,302,600; whereas in the five years preceding 1845, ably carried out. the average annual number of commitments was 28,477, Looking at the great science of education, at its conand the convictions 20,590; and the population ten years dition empirically, and by the light shed on it by minds old and upwards had increased to 12,093,000; so that like those of M. Willm, the Swiss Vhirli, and by the in a period of forty years' population, ten years old and advanced philosophic speculations of M. Comte, and our upwards has increased 65 per cent., while the propor- own logician John Stuart Mill, we judge it in the new tionate commitments for crime have been augmented aspect of a science already based on certain fundamental 494 per cent., and the convictions 625 per cent. It is inductions, and that a train of causes, methodically fol. matter for regret that there should be a shadow of lowing one another, is necessary to the development of doubt as to the inferences here made, arising from the these fundamental truths or qualities on which can circumstance, that latterly there has been greater vigi- alone rest any beneficial results, mental or moral. Now lance in capturing and bringing offenders to justice look at the previous mental and physical condition of a than formerly. But with every allowance for this juvenile offender, and see whether incarceration in a possible ground of fallacy, it may be pretty safely jail for three or twelve months, under industrial disadmitted that juvenile crime is on the increase, all cipline, can beneficially alter all the foregone train of repressive influences notwithstanding.
causes mental, moral, and physical. If, with respect to The greatest difficulty in dealing with the subjects of the training in Normal Schools, where we have the projuvenile delinquency and juvenile destitution, is that bability of acting upon entirely moral agents, three so often started by writers and thinkers, to the effect years is found the lowest average which can be allotted that if delinquency and destitution be remedied and for any beneficial process of training, when the great removed by the especial guardianship of the state, philosophic teachers of Switzerland prefer a longer disa premium is put on both evils, and the exertions of ciplining period than even this, we cannot expect effechonest labour and a course of virtuous action stand tive action to be made upon the criminal condition, at a discount; that, in fact, to be fed, clothed, pro- unless through a process efficient, systematic, and sufitected, removed to a distance where labour is highly ciently prolonged. Prison discipline does not include paid, dishonesty and immorality make the surest road. such a process : it must arise from other methods. It is much to be feared that philanthropists generally From what we have seen of the reformatory school at do not sufficiently estimate these reactive influences. Horn, near Hamburg, and that at Mettray in France, Ragged or Industrial Schools, for example, have been as well as from all evidence bearing on the subject, we advocated for their power of clearing away the juvenile feel assured that Penal Schools, conducted with strict lazzaroni of the streets. But at the very first, we ex: reference to moral and religious culture, and with a pressed a fear that the temptations of food, shelter, and discipline involving out-door labour in fields and gareducation for nothing in these seminaries might have dens, may be rendered the true means of reducing juvea corrupting tendency; and experience shows us that, nile crime to a minimum. We are glad to observe that
the draft report on the principles of punishment, pre- usefulness, would all give a variety and stimulus to sented to the Parliamentary Committee on the Criminal industry, and materially carry forward the higher Law by the recorder of Birmingham, suggests the adop- points of mental education. This education, based on tion of Penal Schools in this country. The number sound moral and religious principles, enlarged and fitted of convicted juvenile offenders being, in 1845, 8532 not to the social condition, the foregone crime, the males, and 1422 females-total, 9954—it was proposed actual destitution, but to the elements that constitute by the late inspector of prisons, the Rev. Whitworth the individual, would go much towards producing excelRussell
, to divide England and Wales into thirteen dis- lence out of criminality, correcting social divergences, tricts, to each of which should be allotted a Penal and bringing them within the province of that order so School. We would, however, suggest that an exact necessary to the wellbeing of communities, and convertapportionment of schools to districts is not in all cases ing what was obnoxious, costly, and destructive to the desirable. The schools, accommodated in humble and state, into the main principle of its order, its strength, temporary buildings, may be rendered moveable from its progress. place to place, with a view to operating on patches of Properly conducted, there can be little doubt that the land requiring to be reclaimed. By such means, great reformatory schools we have been speaking of would tracts of bleak moss may be brought into profitable furnish forth the healthful materials of a useful species cultivation, and at such a small expense as would induce of emigration. And this brings us to say that no nalandholders to enter into arrangements for leases on tion, government, or people, have any right whatsoever, favourable terms. Energetically carried out, what an morally considered, to transport the criminal to other amount of national good might spring from school countries—to flood other lands with evils it has found organisations of this nature!
obnoxious in its own-until it has first applied the corThe establishment of Penal Schools will be mate- rective process to the best and fullest of its ability, rially facilitated by a knowledge of the fact, that and done all within its provisional power to mitigate they will save money to the country, and be partly those evils bred and brought into action through the self-supporting; perhaps they may, in the end, be made force of its own social mistakes. The point is, we entirely to support themselves, which will be a triumph think, fully proved by less than half the evils which of no ordinary kind. It has been found that at Stretton- have arisen out of the whole course of our transportation upon-Dunsmore the cost of reforming a boy is, on an system. It has wholly failed on every point except one average, about L.26 ; while the average cost of trans--that of making crime still more monstrous, and in porting boys is L.33, 169. 10d. a-head. The charge for brutifying human nature to the fullest possible degree. reforming is therefore less than for punishing youths. This great fact is fully proved by the whole mass of The success attendant upon many of the Agricultural our parliamentary evidence on this subject. Now, if, Industrial Schools established under the authority of therefore, this be admitted, the matter stands thus : the Poor-Law Commissioners, proves that land so oc- punishment must be a fully corrective process ; this cupied and cultivated can be made to produce a nett process can only be efficiently carried out under the profit beyond cost. Of this fact the Bridgenorth Union immediate control of a home government; and that School in Shropshire affords a remarkable example, such corrective ends involve a higher one-namely, that under able supervision, the labour of children that of carrying out future colonisation under the best may be made most profitable. The accounts of one social condition we have the power to command. Thereyear—that of 1846—were such as left a clear balance fore as regards juvenile offenders, a system of Penal of above L.70, after every expense attendant on the Schools, or national asylums, is a necessity, if we are to farm, including the rent and taxes paid for the ground, carry out any advanced process with respect to their had been defrayed. It appears from this that the actual condition. In a word, by gymnasia of this humble but profit of such an establishment may be calculated at important class, we might bring into use much mental the rate of about L.15 per acre, or at about L.3 per and physical energy, now going to worse than waste, head on the boys above ten years of age employed in greatly to the benefit of the mother country, the coloits cultivation. True that this establishment is under nies, and the unfortunate individuals who have a claim the control and inspection of one of the ablest agricul- on public feeling. turists of the day, but there is scarcely now a county in England that could not produce a nucleus of scientific
THE BENGALEE DOCTOR. agriculturists, willing and able to form working committees to the Penal School of their districts. Further, [The following sketch has been handed to us by a corresponan establishment of this nature, consisting, we will say,
dent.] of 1000 to 1500 children, of relative proportions of sex, Not long since, an article appeared in your Journal would be so subdivided into homes under distinct ma- styled the Old Baboo ;' and truly it seemed to me (an nagement, as is the case at Mettray, and with a certain Anglo-Indian) an interesting and well-drawn sketch. allotment of land, as to afford all the benefits found to Some of the Bengalee Baboos, such as Rammohun-Roy, arise from the cultivation of small farms; whilst the and Dwarkanauth-Tagore, of late years have played a aggregate produce of the whole, the rotation of crops, conspicuous part in the society of India, as well as in the draining, the levelling-in a word, all the higher the mercantile world; it was therefore but a mark of scientific operations, as well as the breeding and amount justice to the Bengalee Baboo to preserve his memory of stock-being under the control of the Directory Board, from oblivion. In the present day, in which the march there would be added to these lesser ones all the great of intellect is changing all things, the Hindoo character general benefits found to arise from farming on a large by education, intercourse with Europeans, &c. &c. is scale. In fact such establishments might be made the undergoing a complete metamorphosis; and a Bengalee great practical agricultural schools of the districts. To Baboo of the true old school will no doubt, before long, such places improved agricultural machinery might be become quite extinct; and so I think it may chance to sent for trial, and the amount of labour at command be with the Bengalee Doctor, a worthy whose memory would permit of a garden-like culture highly desirable, I would wish to embalm also in the pages of your whence the methods pursued are advanced experimental Journal, if you should deem him worthy of a corner. ones, and where it is desirable to test the full capa- First, then, let me speak in general terms. A Benbilities of the soil, and bring into practice Liebig’s galee doctor is not a creature like our medical menmagnificent axiom, ' Cultivation is the economy of force.' highly educated, nurtured in colleges and dissecting
In combination with agriculture, as the chief occupa- rooms, and sent into the world to heal his fellow-men. tion of the inmates of such establishments, especially in A Bengalee doctor enjoys few of these advantages. reference to physical training, other trades would be Some can read and write, and have a considerable followed. Tailoring, carpenting, shoemaking, black- degree of intelligence and suavity of manner; but smiths' and painters' work, in their points of necessary | hardly one has anything like a learned education,