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forthwith transferred to her face, while putting back on the desire of returning, as it were, home, after finishher hair with the bristles, that she might see and coming the affairs of incubation. A remark often made,' prehend the scene more intensely.

says Mr Couch, 'appears to be correct—that the swallow Look at this lobster !' said Mr Magnus Smith im- tribe go away earliest in the warmest seasons; but periously.

whether there be any physiological reason for this, is a "Oh yes, sir; I know by the small coal it is all right. matter of doubt. The principal cause of their early Don't you remember yourself it was to be a little un', readiness for migration seems to be, that less interrupand cheap of course?'

tion has been thrown in the way of the formation of the "You hear, sir? Your lobster indeed!'

nest, and there has been a greater abundance of insect . And the bread and butter?' said Mr Thompson; food for the support of the young, which has accelerated answer, girl !!

their growth. In an unfavourablc season in these reOh my!-oh gemini !-oh gracious!' cried Jemima, spects, or when other causes have occurred to retard as she looked over the table, and even peeped under the the maturity of the brood, the birds have not only been tablecloth for the missing viands. Well, to think of kept later, but in many instances the migratory instinct that! If somebody hasn't been agoing and sweeping has grown sufficiently strong to overcome the force of away the bath-brick and carrot clean off the dresser!' parental affection, and the brood has been left to perish

* Bath - brick and carrot!' growled Mr Thompson. in the nest. To attend on a helpless young one, a single Did you not receive my orders, stupid ?'

swift has been known to remain for a fortnight after the Oh yes, sir; and you know yourself it was to be only departure of its race ; and it is a frequent occurrence for a little butter, as the good lady was particular in the the swallow to leave its late brood to perish in the nest.' article, and would see about it herself in the morning. After many particulars of the migration of the swalBut that missus is always a ruining me!'

lows and swifts, Mr Couch adds some remarks on a 'That missus! Who is your missus ? Isn't it this subject which we believe to be as yet veiled in mys-person ?' said Mrs Magnus Smith.

tery. "The invariable direction,' he says, “in which Oh no, mum; that's the good lady.'

migration is prosecuted, is not the least interesting por• Then who is this-individual ?' said Mrs Thompson. tion of the proceeding : for though it is known to us That's the other good lady.'

that southern climates possess the warmest temperature, * And who, in the name of wonder, then, is your and the most nutritious and stimulating food, at the missus ?'

time when the summer haunts of migrants are becomHere I am, ladies and gentlemen,' said Mrs Plumley, ing deficient in these particulars, still it cannot be supsailing into the room with her husband ; and sorry posed that a bird is in possession of this speculative and ashamed we are of all the trouble you have had knowledge; or, possessing it, that, without compass or But the truth is, Mr Plumley let the room to one party, guide, it should unerringly pursue the route that leads and I to another; and all because we were not on speak to it. Yet they rarely deviate to any great extent in ing terms!'

the journey, uninfluenced by mountains or oceans that The explanations that ensued may be imagined. Mr intervene ; and even the young cuckoo, new from the and Mrs Magnus Smith consented to be put into the nest of a foster-parent who is itself indisposed to the drawing-room floor for that night; and liked it so well, effort, and destitute of any guiding influence besides its that on the Plumleys making a slight reduction in the own instinctive feeling, quits the land of its birth, and price, they took the apartments permanently. These fails not to reach the country of its search. good people took special care to be on speaking terms for • Inscrutable as this directing skill appears to our the rest of their lives; and Mrs Plumley entered into a duller perceptions, it is not only constant in its manitreaty with Jemima, whereby the latter agreed to eva festation among our little summer insect-hunters, but it cuate the dresser, in consideration of the former ceding is also possessed by birds whose opportunities of using up for ever to her hieroglyphics the lid of her box.

it are only occasional. Domestic pigeons have been

taken to remote distances from their home, and that, JONATHAN COUCH ON INSTINCT.*

too, by a mode of conveyance which must effectually

shut out all possibility of recognition of the local Mr Couch is a naturalist, well known amongst men of bearings of the direction ; and yet they have returned his own order, but hitherto not known in the field of thither with a rapidity of flight which marked a congeneral literature. He has here produced a volume of scious security of finding it. I have known some of the anecdote and speculation about animals—better in the most timid and secluded of our birds, as the wheatear anecdote than in the speculation, yet not without some and dipper, to be taken from their nests, and conveyed good ideas in the latter department, mingled, however, to a distance, under circumstances which must have with a good deal of what appears to us very inconclu- impressed them with feelings of terror, and in which all sive matter. He inclines to the modern views of animal traces of the direction must have been lost; and yet, on psychology, and regarding man as possessing similar being set free, they were soon at the nook from which qualities to those of the inferior tribes, with the super. they had been taken. Even the common hen, which addition of an internal consciousness making him re- has been carried in a covered basket through a district sponsible for the rectitude of his actions, counsels that intersected by a confusion of hills and valleys, in a few we should study the science of mind through what he hours was seen again scraping for grain on her old rather happily calls Comparative Metaphysics. It is a dunghill. great hint to throw out; but when and whence is to • The only explanation, in these cases, must be sought come the John Hunter who shall realise the idea ? in the existence of perceptions to which the human race

Feeling it to be vain to attempt to follow Mr Couch is a stranger; their possession of which is proved by the through the loose texture of his speculations, we shall exquisite and ready susceptibility of most animals to take him up in one of the branches of animal economy, changes of weather, long before the occurrence of any. which he illustrates by facts. We pitch upon the thing which our observation can appreciate, or which chapter on animal migrations, because it is the subject can be indicated by instruments. While the atmosphere which has been least treated of in these pages.

seems to promise a continuance of fair and calm weaThe principal migrators are birds. The object in ther, and the wind maintains the same direction, the coming northward evidently is to obtain a moderate hog may be seen conveying in its mouth a wisp of temperature for the business of bringing forth a family; straw; and in a few hours a violent wind fulfils the the going southward seems to depend less on an anxiety omen. The cat washes, and some wild animals shift to escape the rigours of the winter season, than simply their quarters, in compliance with similar indications ;

and even fish, at considerable depths in the sea, display * Illustrations of Instinct, deduced from the Habits of British in their motions and appetite sensibility to the comAnimals. By Jonathan Couch, F.L.S. London: Van Voorst. 1847. ing change. The latter circumstance especially, which


is well known to fishermen, is a proof that mere change day, and the whole run is two hundred feet in length. of temperature or moisture is not sufficient to explain In the course of this passage, advantage is taken of any the phenomenon.'

obstructions which occur, as if conscious of the probaAnimals much below birds perform occasional migra- bility of pursuit; and the run is made to pass among tions, attended by extraordinary circumstances. We the roots of dwarf furze, and even under a large stone, are told, for instance, of streams of butterflies and dra- while, at irregular distances, openings are made to allow gon-flies, which go on without intermission days, of excursions on the surface, and the free admission of no one being able to comprehend whence they have air. There are many lateral branches from the princome or whither they are going. The flight of the cipal passage ; but none of them extend to any great dislocust is a too well-known phenomenon. Mr Couch tance: for it seems wisely to avoid forming such a quotes a curious account of a procession of caterpillars labyrinth as might confound itself in its daily course, or (bombyces) observed by Mr Davis. “They were cross- in its efforts to escape from an enemy, to whose depreing the road in single file, each so close to its predecessor, dations it is exposed even in its retreat. Its time of as to convey the idea that they were united together, labour is chiefly at an early hour in the morning; but moving like a living cord in a continuous living line. if everything be still, it may be seen at work at other At about fifty from the end of the line, I ejected one

The slightest sound or movement of an apfrom his station : the caterpillar immediately before him proaching foot stops the work, and no further lifting of suddenly stood still; then the next, and then the next, the earth will be attempted that day. These runs are and so on to the leader. The same result took place at mostly made towards the end of autumn; are this creathe other extremity. After a pause of a few moments, ture's hunting-grounds for food ; are abandoned when the first after the break in the line attempted to recover the soil has been thoroughly searched through and the communication. This was a work of time and diffi- through ; and though they are formed with so much toil culty, but the moment it was accomplished by his touch- as to make it desirable not to desert them while there ing the one before him, this one communicated the fact is anything to be done there, yet in a month or two the to the next in advance, and so on till the information animal quits them for new ground, perhaps at a great reached the leader, when the whole line was again put distance, where the hunting promises better success. in motion. On counting the number of caterpillars, I *A favourite spot for its winter-quarters, and one it found them to be one hundred and fifty-four, and the prefers at other seasons, is in enclosed fields, under the length of the line twenty-seven feet. I next took the shelter of a hedge of high-piled earth, along the middle one which I had abstracted from the line, and which of whose base the run is carried, and in whose mass of remained coiled up, across the line. He immediately mould it finds security from cold and from its natural unrolled himself, and made every attempt to get admit- enemies. The heaps it throws up are cast on the sides, ted into the procession. After many endeavours, he and at intervals a lateral passage is driven into the succeeded, and crawled in, the one below falling into the field, to which, when the inducement is powerful, it rear of the interloper. I subsequently took out two transfers its principal operations; and there encounters caterpillars, about fifty from the head of the procession. its greatest hazards from the traps of the mole-catcher, By my watch, I found the intelligence was conveyed to and the pursuit of the weasel and the rat, with whom the leader in thirty seconds, each caterpillar stopping it fights furiously, but without success. When undisat the signal of the one in his rear. The same effect turbed, the mole often shifts its quarters ; and in was observable behind the break, each stopping at a sig. making a new selection, its choice seems to be much nal from the one in advance. The leader of the second | influenced by caprice. It makes these changes espedivision then attempted to recover the lost connection. cially in the months of July and August; but I have That they are unprovided with the senses of sight and known it to take excursions of removal to such distances, smell, appeared evident, since the leader turned right that no mark of its presence could be detected in the and left, and often in a wrong direction, when within month of January, if an open and moist season. А half an inch of the one immediately before him : when large part of such a journey must be along the surface ; he at last touched the object of his search, the fact was and it is probable that, at all times, this is its mode of communicated again by signal; and in thirty seconds, emigration to distant places. In summer, much of its the whole line was in rapid march, leaving the two un- time is thus passed in migrations from one field to anfortunates behind, which remained perfectly quiet, with other, because the hardness of the ground renders it out making any attempt to unrol themselves.'

difficult to throw up the soil, and follow up the worms, Mr Couch devotes several chapters to the habits of which have sunk deeper down into the soil

. It shows birds, as illustrating a combination of instinct and rea- the same love of change in moist weather, when the son; but they are of too desultory a nature to admit of ground is more workable. extracts. The following regarding the mole is more • If not to its mind, the mole repeatedly changes its concentrated, and also more original :— The habits of quarters; and though shut up in darkness, it reluctantly the mole will vary with the soil, and particularly with continues on the northern declivity of a hill, where it the structure of the ground, as it is rich and deep, or has little light, and less heat, unless its other advanshallow, level, rocky, uneven, or intersected with raised tages are unusually great. Its migration from one dismounds or hedges of earth, five or six feet high, and of trict to another exposes it to great danger, as it is slow the same thickness, such as divide fields in the west of to escape, and little prepared to defend itself. England. The presence of this animal is known by the * The run is differently formed in spring, in conseheaps of fine earth, or hills, thrown up during its sub- quence of a difference of object. Where fields are not terraneous operations. In deep ground, little of its la large, the hedge is still the selected spot; on which bours can be traced, except when thus marked; but in account its nest is not often discovered. Mr Bell has a thin soil, or in hard ground, a ridge is often driven given a sketch of the skilful arrangements made for its along, which is distinctly raised above the ordinary level safety at this time, but in districts where the hedge is of the surface ; and the mole-hill is only elevated where chosen for defence, no other departure from its usual the earth is so fine and friable, that the removal of some form is made than an enlargement of the space, and a part of it is necessary to give the creature a clear course more comfortable lining. Fourteen young ones have in its runs backward and forward. The creep or run been discovered in one nest; but though the mole is not is in a zig-zag direction; and when the neighbourhood is a social animal, it is hard to believe that they could very productive of its prey, exceedingly so, as if the have been littered by one mother. animal were unwilling to pass out of so fertile a district. • The mole may sleep more in winter than in other But for the most part it takes a straightforward course; seasons, but it is not its habit to become torpid at this and in the open space of a down, it passes through more time. In frost and snow, fine earth is often seen freshly than fifty paces of distance without lifting a heap, with turned up, as evidence of its activity ; but as it is a a progress amounting to two or three human paces in a creature of great voracity, and cannot endure long fast

ing, like many wild animals of that character, it is not easy to say how its wants are at this time supplied. A dead or living bird, numbed with the cold, is always a welcome morsel; but its track has not been seen in the snow in pursuit of it. It perceives the earliest approach of a thaw; and after long seclusion, a heap may be seen protruding through the thin covering of snow, as evidence of its sensibility to change of temperature-a circumstance more easily understood when we recollect that it is the radiation of heat from the inner parts of the earth which exercises the first influence in the change; and that it is because the air abstracts this heat more rapidly than the earth supplies it, that frost and snow are produced and continued. When, from changes in the atmosphere, this rapid abstraction ceases, the heat below becomes more sensibly felt; and this is first visible at the surface of the soil.

“A good supply of drink is essential to the mole's existence; and its healthy condition is marked by a softness and moisture about the snout, where its most perfect organ of sensation is placed. The flexibility of that organ, and its command over it, are indeed exquisite; but it is not used in the operations of excavation and lifting. This is the work of the feet, neck, and the hinder part of the shoulder; and in these parts the mole is perhaps the strongest quadruped in existence, in proportion to its size. The heaps it throws up are not made simply by lifting; for the superfluous earth is collected at easy distances, and thrust along, until so much is accumulated, as compels it to convey it out of the way, and then its work in tunnelling goes on again.

"The mole has more enemies than it is supposed to have ; for though its disappearance from a district is sometimes due to emigration, there must be other causes at work to account for their extirpation in particular localities. They may destroy each other in their burrows, for they are exceedingly quarrelsome; the fox and weasel, too, are formidable foes; but the ceaseless war waged against them by man, the least excusable enemy they have, is the most destructive. Admitting that mole-heaps, and loosening of the soil by the runs made through a field, are inconveniences, and even injurious, and that it is unsightly to see a gentleman's lawn disfigured with these tumuli, such annoyances may be either removed or turned to advantage; and it must not be forgotten that their destruction of more injuriou creatures is considerable. If it is desirable to expel them from their haunts, it may be done effectually without destroying them: for their extirpation is sure to be followed by a fresh invasion.'

While we do not think that the reasoning in this volume will greatly advance philosophical zoology, we feel tolerably sure that the volume itself will be found readable, entertaining, and, in a modified sense, instructive.

Few were the guests that brought the hostel gain,
But cheese and butter were not made in vain;
And Molly's clouted cream was known, I wis,
To fame as far as the metropolis.
'Twas true, though trite, things might have been much worse
Old Molly might have had a lighter purse;
She might have had a heavier too, but that
She had a mind for charity and chat.
Oft to her porch the wandering beggar came,
With all the news that he could find or frame,
The vagrant gossip of the town and dale,
To charm old Molly for a draught of ale.
And oft his mite, the little that he can,
Brings to the hostel the poor quarryman ;
And finds a large return in warmth and ease,
Kind words, good home-brewed ale, bacon and cheese,
Beans, peas, what not-from Molly's ample stores ;
And oft the wind-worn seaman from the shores,
And oft the swarthy miner from the caves,
Old Molly hailed-but never harboured knaves.
In chilling winter, when the wind blows fierce,
And the fell frost's sharp deadly arrows pierce,
How pleasant by the alewife's fire to sit
Warm, snug, and merry! while the gay beams flit
O'er her oak chest, like polished mirror bright,
Her red brick floor, where scarce a soil doth light,
Her milk-white tables, platters ranged with care,
Her folio Bible and her brass-clasped prayer;
Her antiquated prints upon the wall,
Prized as if Raphael had wrought them all,
Her corner cupboard with odd china stores,
(Seldom that precious hoard unclosed its doors);
Her mighty ‘press,' where hung, all on a row,
Her family heir-looms, dresses kept for show.

"Newfangled ways'old Molly hated quite,
As any Chinaman or Muscovite ;
As unknown seas, to her were books and schools-
Nature and Gospel furnished all her rules ;
These guided safely to the port where meet
The lowly pinnace and the stately fleet,
The nameless bark, the ship with colours spread,
Voyaging to the regions of the dead.
And now old Molly nears that silent strand,
The oar grows powerless in her aged hand;
"Tis dropped! Oh now farewell Life's troubled sea;
Welcome fair harbour of Eternity !
*Fetch me no doctor!' cries the stern old dame;

I've lived without, and I will die the same:
To parson John's the road's a long ten mile,
Read me a chapter, it will serve the while.




Far from the town, where Tamar's waters flow,
An alehouse stood, a hundred years or so;
Quaint was the porch, with ivy clothed about,
And many a comely fowl marched in and out,
Graceful, and plump, and smooth, of glowing hue,
The pride of Molly, and her profit too ;
Nor less her pigs, that were so white and clean-
Pigs so precisely trained were never seen.
She was a matchless housewife-sooth to say,
A better never met the face of day.
Full fifty years she kept this hostelry,
Hiding itself in orchard greenery ;
And graced with flowers, in rustic garden set,
And shaded pasture-slopes that round it met:
Here the frog leaps, and here the robin sings,
And here the new-fledged linnet tries its wings;
Here Molly's cows regaled on scented clover,
Till night and Kitty called them under cover.
Well they knew Kitty-thrifty and fair was she,
And second mistress of the hostelry.

*Kitty, give thou a horn of ale to the poor
Miners and quarrymen when I'm no more:
They'll often miss me, as they pass this way.
I was not flint to them that could not pay,
Beggar or worker-well thou knowest that-
If folk were honest, and observed the mat:
For when I found a poor soul bardly driven,
I lent my mite; and scored it up to Heaven.
And Heaven will pay me truly, there's no fear;
I wish it were much more in my arrear.
Bless God! though I've worked hard, I shall die free
Of the poorhouse, in my own old hostelry.
In thrift and toil I have not been forsaken,
I've had my independent bread and bacon ;
Work thou for thine, there thy plain duty lies,
And read the Gospel, girl, and dry thine eyes,
I cannot read, thou know'st, a single word,
But yet I hope old Molly's prayers are heard ;
And all is well for me, and Heaven is near,
And I can live or die without a fear.
“'Tis midnight now, the moon is in the sky,
Draw back, and let me see it where I lie :
Ay-there it shines-down over moor and mead,
On tree, and bush, and bank, and flower, and weed.
It shineth down where I have lived so long,
Where to my sight a score of memories throng:
There, by that blasted oak, I often played,
With my young brothers when a little muid:
The tree was then as young and fresh as 1:
And yonder, Kitty, all my kindred lie ;

The old deserted grave-yard is their bed-

of Ferrara-one of the most illustrious towns that Sore I can see the turf o'er Peter's head :

cherished printing in its infancy. Among the manuThere lay me with him, girl, when I am dead.

scripts are fragments of some cantos of the Orlando Poor Dick, my bird, I give into thy care,

Furioso,' covered with corrections, showing how Ariosto And I have left thee something for his fare

revised and polished his poem. The manuscript of And for thy comfort. Dost thou weep for that?

the ‘Scholastica,' one of his comedies, is very little corDeath-tears soon dry, girl-Kitty, mind th cat!

rected; but this piece was incomplete when he died, Now, Lord, I am ready; take me to thy rest :

and his brother Gabriele finished it. The manuscript Near ninety years on earth I've been a guest ;

of his satires is in good preservation, and curious for Now I come home to the House prepared by the

the different corrections in the poet's own hand. Set wide the gates, dear Lord, and welcome me.'

Another valuable manuscript is the Gerusalemme,'

corrected by Tasso's own hand during his captivity. The strife is o'er, the beams of morning fall

The words Laus Deo are written by the unfortunate On that stern image, stern, yet sweet withal; Stooping decrepitude, old age's dower,

poet at the end of this almost sacred manuscript. There Hath fled, and left the impress of high power ;

are a great many suppressed passages in it, and several But what or whence no mortal tongue may say,

successive pages are sometimes crossed out. The other Save 'tis the seal of Heaven, though set in clay.

manuscripts of Tasso include nine letters, dated from

the hospital of St Anne; and some verses expressive Bring the rude coffin, while the country poor Stand in mute grief about the hostel door.

of sorrow, desolation, and anguish, written from his True mourners they; and Kitty, faithful soul,

prison to the magnanimous Duke Alfonso. Here is Gives each, for Molly's sake, a funeral dole ;

also the manuscript of Guarini’s ‘Pastor Fido,' exhibitAnd, sighing at her heart, tends pigs and fowls,

ing some few corrections, chiefly grammatical, by And bird and beast-and when the screeching owls

Leonardo Salviati. From Valery's Travels in Italy' Raise their wild night-cries, she, with shuddering speed,

we learn that the ancient choir-book of the Carthu. Binds bolt and bar, and sits her down to read,

sians is now in the library, forming eighteen atlas Lonely and sad, beside the hostel fire,

volumes, covered with brilliant miniatures, the work of Still anxious that the flames should kindle higher;

Cosmè's school. Equally magnificent is an atlas Bible, For every shadow wears a ghostly gloom,

apparently by the same artists. One of the chief And seems a wanderer from the awful tomb.

rarities is the • Musculorum Humani Corporis Pictura Now goes the alewife to her earth-wrapped kin,

Dissectio,' by the great Ferrarese anatomist of the sixUnclose the turf, and lay her gently in ;

teenth century, Giambattista Canani, who had some No glittering plate her humble name retains,

faint idea of the circulation of the blood-an undated No floating pall o'ershades her pale remains:

edition, without imprint, but probably of 1541, illusShe needs them not-in pious actions drest,

trated with plates engraved by the celebrated Geronimo Death's simplest majesty becomes her best ;

Carpi. Her rustic sense would have despised the rest.

Cosmo de Medici founded at Florence, in 1560, one of the most complete libraries in Europe. “From the

intercourse that in his time subsisted between Florence FOREIGN PUBLIC LIBRARIES.

and Constantinople, and the long visits made by the Is all ages and countries, a public library is an institu- Greek prelates and scholars to Italy, the venerable tion most valuable; but it was particularly so before the Cosmo had the best opportunity of obtaining the introduction of printing, when the price of books ren- choicest treasures of ancient learning; and the destrucdered it impossible for any but the wealthy to possess tion of Constantinople may be said to have transferred them. In early times, such collections shared in the to Italy all that remained of eastern science. After the casualties that befell all kinds of property. The fate of death of Cosmo, his son Piero pursued with steady the early libraries of Egypt is well known; and also that perseverance the same object, and made important Rome was enriched with the literary spoils of Greece. additions to the various collections which Cosmo had But to come down to existing stores, we find that in the begun, particularly to that of his own family. But middle ages every large church had its library. That although the ancestors of Lorenzo de Medici laid the of the Vatican, founded by Pope Nicholas in 1450, was foundation of the immense collection of manuscripts destroyed by the Constable Bourbon in the sacking of since denominated the Laurentian Library, he may him. Rome, but was restored by Pope Sixtus V. in 1588, and self claim the honour of having raised the superstruchas been considerably enriched with the spoils of that of ture. If there was any pursuit in which he engaged Heidelberg, plundered by Count Tilly in 1622. It now more ardently, and persevered more diligently than the comprises 100,000 printed volumes, and 40,000 manu- rest, it was that of enlarging his collection of books and scripts. The pope has recently issued an order for the antiquities. “His messengers," writes Niccolo Leonipublic to have access to one department of it, consisting ceno," are dispersed throughout every part of the of 35,000 printed volumes, among which are many rare earth, for the purpose of collecting books on every and some unique works, a great number containing

mar- science, and he spares no expense in procuring them.” ginal notes by celebrated men. The hall of the Great He derived great assistance in his efforts from IlieroCouncil at Venice contains the library of St Mark, nymo Donato, Ermolao Barbaro, and Paolo Cortesi ; comprising 65,000 volumes, and about 5000 manuscripts. but his principal coadjutor was Politiano, to whom he Petrarch "laid its first foundations, as he expresses committed the care and arrangement of his collection, himself in a letter respecting the donation of manu- and who made excursions at intervals through Italy, to scripts that he sent to Venice, as an acknowledgment discover and purchase such remains of antiquity as for the hospitality he found there during the plague. suited the purposes of his patron. Two journeys, unOnly a very small number of his manuscripts are now dertaken at the instance of Lorenzo, into the east, by there; but the learned librarian, Morelli, has shown Giovanni Lascar, produced a great number of rare and that the Venetians do not deserve the reproach of valuable works. On his return from his second expehaving allowed Petrarch's library to remain forgotten dition, he brought with him about two hundred copies, in a small room where it perished, for he had only many of which he had procured from a monastery at given some few books. Twelve years after this do- Mount Athos; but this treasure did not arrive till after nation, Petrarch left at his death a very precious the death of Lorenzo.'* library ; but it was dispersed, as is evident from the In France, a hundred and ninety-five towns are promanuscripts preserved in the Vatican, the Laurentian, vided with excellent public libraries, containing altothe Ambrosian, and the Bibliothèque du Roi; and anot gether about 3,000,000 volumes, arranged in spacious one ever reached Venice. About 80,000 volumes and 900 manuscripts are contained in the beautiful library

* Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de Medici.


rooms, with salaried librarians, every accommodation stands. You must first write down the title in a large for readers, and every disposition to assist them. These register, and then, if it is not lent, and can be found, libraries are open to the use of all classes, even the you are supplied with it on the next library day. But most obscure applicants ; no introduction, no patronage it happens sometimes that you may wait for weeks in is required; the most valuable works, the most precious vain for a single book. The first time, the entry of the engravings, are confided to the inspection of any visitor. book has perhaps been overlooked, and you must write The five great public libraries of Paris contain alto- down the title again ; next time, you are told it is not gether about 1,378,000 volumes. The Bibliothèque de to be found, or the librarian to whose department it beRoi, or the King's Library, is the grand national one. longs is not in the way. Should you be prevented from It was founded by Francis I. in 1520. Henry II., in attending on a library day, you lose your claim to the 1559, issued an order requiring booksellers to present wished-for book, which has meanwhile been removed to the royal library a bound copy of all the works they from the table; so that you are obliged to go on a fourth published. Under the reigns of Francis II., Charles or fifth day to enter it again, and at last, on a sixth or IX., and Henry. III., it received but few additions. seventh, to read it. On the days appointed for reading, Henry IV. (1589) caused it to be removed to Paris. you may many a time knock in vain, because it may In 1595 the collection of Catherine de Medici, consist- happen to be one of the numberless festivals of the ing of 800 Latin manuscripts, was added; from this Russian church. The precautions, on the delivery of a time to 1721 the books were removed from one house book that is to be taken home, are so great, that one to another, in Paris, until, in the latter year, they were would think the library was merely intended for the finally deposited in their present abode, the Hôtel Ma- safe custody of books, and not for introducing them zarin, Rue Richelieu. The library consists of upwards among the people." Besides this imperial collection, of 800,000 printed volumes, 100,000 manuscripts, and Russia possesses forty-two other public libraries, some 1,000,000 of historical papers. At the public expense it of which contain 10,000 volumes. annually receives an addition of about 15,000 volumes The first circulating or lending library in Europe and pamphlets. It is calculated that it contains no less was established at Wetzlar, in Prussia, by Winkler, the than twenty miles of shelf. The public, without dis- | bookseller and printer, towards the close of the seventinction of rank or sex, have free access to this extensive teenth century. Lately, in the city of Breslau, the library; but it appears that they are privately watched, Prince-Archbishop has founded a library for the workto detect any who would mutilate or steal the books. ing classes, to whom the books are lent out gratis. The M. Van Praet told Sir Henry Ellis that the secret police number of volumes contributed to it amounts to nearly sit in the rooms; a system of surveillance which would | 2000. be deemed offensive by the readers in our English libra- In 1835, the Gottingen library contained, according ries.

to its librarian Dr Benecke, 300,000 works. It is fairly All the great libraries in Russia originated in the entitled to be designated the most useful library in the plunder of those of Courland and Poland. In 1704, world. It is open every day in the year to students; Peter I. carried off from the town of Mittau 2500 and free admission, during certain hours, is allowed to volumes, which were the nucleus of the Imperial erery person who may wish to see or refer to any work. Library. In 1772, Catherine II. seized the collection of Books are lent out daily, without any pledge or remuthe Princes Radzivel at Nieswiecs, consisting of 17,000 neration, but they must be returned in a month. Bevolumes. In 1795, the Zaluski Library, estimated by sides an extensive collection of Spanish, French, Italian, the Russians themselves at 260,000 printed volumes, and Oriental works, here is a more complete collection and 11,000 manuscripts, was transplanted from Warsaw of books on English history and literature than one can to St Petersburg. After the taking of Warsaw in 1831, readily find in Great Britain. The Gottingen library the university of that city lost 200,000 volumes, the has likewise the recommendation of a scientific or Philomathic Society 20,000, the library of the Council classed catalogue, and an alphabetical one; both kept of State 36,000, and that of Prince Czartoryski at in a state of strict completeness by the immediate inPalawy 15,000. If we add to these the treasures of sertion of the new books. the suppressed convents, we shall find, without ex- The library at Munich contains 500,000 volumes, aggeration, a total of 700,000 volumes wliich have but of which one-fifth at the least are duplicates; and been removed to Russia. The Imperial Library at the entire length of its shelves is computed to be fifteen St Petersburg the richest of the Russian libraries, miles and a-half. and ranks as third among the collections of Europe. It Ten years ago, the university library at Vienna contains about 442,800 printed volumes, and 14,480 was reported to possess 100,000 volumes. The emmanuscripts. It is very rich in the literature of Cen- peror's fine private library, an heir-loom in the impetral Asia, and contains the works formerly belonging to rial family, is also accessible to the public; every perBaron Schilling; seventy-three manuscripts of Colonel son being admitted free, without any previous appliStuart, relating to all the most important parts of cation, and no instances having occurred of books being Sanscrit literature; and also forty-three Mongolian and purloined. Sumptuous and costly works are not put Thibetan works, collected at Pekin ; altogether forming into the hands of the idle and curious, but only into the finest collection of Oriental works in the world. those of the studious, who do not visit the library for This Imperial Library is open to the public three days in the sole purpose of looking at pictures. This library, the week, but is visited by comparatively few readers, which was begun by Maximilian I., contains above about eight hundred in the course of the year--an ex- | 300,000 volumes, all of which are admirably arranged tremely small number for a capital whose population is and catalogued. Besides a general alphabetic catanearly half a million, without counting the garrison or logue, wherein all new acquisitions are immediately strangers. The cause of the library being so little used inserted, there are ten class catalogues; namely, of by the people is thus explained by Mr Köhl:- On en- 12,000 volumes printed before the year 1500; of 6000 tering, visitors have to pass a whole cordon of police works on music; of all the Bibles; of Hebrew works; soldiers, the attendants on the library, who strip them of Sclavonic books; of Latin manuscripts; of 1000 of cloaks and greatcoats, which they return after strictly Oriental manuscripts, besides 800 Chinese and Indian searching the owners at their departure; and many a books; of 8000 autographs ; of the valuable prints and one feels so nettled, that he comes no more. On your maps; and a general classified catalogue of scientific first visit, you can merely admire the magnitude of the books. After seeing what industry and perseverance different rooms, the apparent order of the books, and have accomplished at Vienna, how can we be cajoled by their splendid bindings, attended by a subaltern officer, the lazy excuses made for the want of proper catalogues who relates wonderful things about these literary trea- at the British Museum Library! sures. To get a book to read in the library itself is all but impossible, though you can point out where it

* Russia in 1842.

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