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"The vicar of Suaux arrived; and on my preparing to ness of purpose, so as to have it ready for the early quit the room, Geneviève besought me not to abandon meeting of parliament. her. “Stay, madame, I beseech you! Leave me not to The great increase during the past year in the rate die alone! You may hear my confession.”
of mortality, and the impending visitation of the cholera, " I must leave you for a while, my poor child; but you have led the Commission to direct their attention, more may depend on my speedy return, and I hope not to come especially in this stage of the proceedings, to cleansing, alone."
draining, and paving, in conjunction with an efficient “ Geneviève! Geneviève! do you not hear my voice? water supply. Cholera, fever, or any other disease to (This was after an hour and a-half's absence, and the which large numbers of individuals are liable, must be patient, just after receiving absolution, had sunk into a either set at defiance, or rendered harmless. The Comnarcotic stupor.) Here is the Duke de Penthièvre. He mission, we find, recapitulate the instructions issued by is come to Clamont to see the wife of his beloved and the London Board of Health in 1831, on the best means only son.”
for checking the progress of the disease. “At that “Wife !” she articulated almost inaudibly. “ His time, however, to quote the words of the Report, ‘not wife!"
only had no knowledge been acquired by experience of * Perceiving that she was not yet insensible, and wish- the true character of this disease, but nothing was ing to impart a consolation which, even at that moment, known of the real condition of the classes which proved would, I knew, be precious to her, “ It is the Duke de to be its first and easy victims, nor of the state of the Penthièvre,” repeated I in her ear. “ He is by your localities in which they lived. The official inquiries side.”
which have since been made into the sanitary condition "She opened her eyes with difficulty, and her languid of the districts inhabited by the poorer classes, have glance resting on the order set in brilliants which sparkled disclosed a state of things which must expose, as is on the duke's breast, she smiled with ineffable sweetness, now universally admitted, the vast masses that are saying, “How have I-deserved? Pardon me, monseig- crowded into them to the ravages of every epidemic Deur-your son”. *These were the last words breathed by the expiring demic diseases in general, it is emphatically true of
that may chance to prevail; and if this be true of epiGeneviève.
the special disease under consideration.' “My son had chosen you for his wife in the presence We have then a statement showing that the breakof God! you have received the blessing of our universaling out and spread of the cholera occurred under similar Father-of our Father in heaven; and now I am come circumstances all over Europe. In the cities and towns to bless you, and to pray with you, my daughter!” attacked, it invariably made its first appearance near
* Before his prayer was ended, she had yielded up her the water side, by muddy shores, along rank ditches, spirit; and there she lay, with an aspect of such pure and or at the outlets of foul drains. Whether in Peterslovely serenity, that it seemed as if joy, rather than burg, Moscow, Dantzic, Berlin, Paris, or London, the Sorrow, had hovered over her departing moments.
first victims were always found in the localities above "Geneviève Galliot is inhumed in the vaults of the specified. Fever is seldom or never absent from such collegiate church of Dreux, by the side of Marie Therese places as these; and as we have frequently shown in Felicie d'Est de Modène, the mother of her beloved husband. I never go to Montflaux* without stopping at
our notices of the sanitary reports, there is scarcely a Dreux to offer up within the church of St Stephen
town in this country in which these pestilential hot
beds of fever are not to be met with : dirt, damp, and prayer on her behalf. • M. de Lamballe had a long and serious illness, from disease of any kind. And it is a fact worthy of record,
darkness, are three mighty affluents of cholera, or of whence he came forth purified as gold from the heated that notwithstanding the humid atmosphere of Holland, furnace; and amid his deep afiliction he appeared calm the Dutch, owing to their general scrupulous cleanliand resigned.
*Two years later, he was induced to marry Mademoiselle ness, were remarkably exempt from cholera. de Savoie - Carignan. Inauspicious marriage ! Never
It is now pretty satisfactorily ascertained that cholera shall I forget his pallid countenance in the chapel of the from one person to another by mere contact signally
is not contagious; attempts made to communicate it Hôtel de Toulouse, where he was surrounded by brilliant failed. A knowledge of this fact must tend very malights, and fragrant flowers, and glowing draperies; while his young and beautiful bride looked dismayed at the terially to establish confidence, and prevent that nemournful aspect of her betrothed. He scarcely looked glect of persons attacked by the disease, many painful more deathlike after his decease, which occurred within occasion. Something appears to depend on geographi
cases of which were brought under notice on a former a brief period after his second marriage. “The Princess de Lamballe was beauty, amiability, and cal position: the cholera
committed great ravages in virtue personified; but her fate in marriage was by no
Paris and London, while Lyons and Birmingham escaped means a happy one; and it need not be told here how cleanliness, but it lies high,* on a dry, absorbent, red
unharmed. The latter town is not remarkable for fearfully tragic was her end.'
sandstone. Among other physical conditions which
promote epidemics, are instanced impure air, unsuitable THE NEW SANITARY COMMISSION. food, and deficient clothing; the Commission consider IF an excuse were required for recurring once more to the second of these conditions more likely to be a prethe sanitary question, it might be found in the fact, that disposing cause than real want of means— amidst a society is too apt to be forgetful of matters even of population in which upwards of L.24,000,000 per anvital importance, when not brought repeatedly under num, or more than five times the amount of the poors' notice. To some readers the subject will have become rates, is spent in ardent spirits alone, and nearly an wearisome, if not repulsive; but as there appears now equal amount in tobacco and fermented liquors.... The to be a real desire to go to work in earnest upon
want of sufficient and proper food,' continues the Report, remedial measures, we can do no less on our part than by diminishing the vital energy, and thereby the direct attention to them.
power of resisting external noxious influences, renders The new Commission appointed by her majesty in the body the easy prey of whatever causes of disease September last have just published their first Report. It relates exclusively to London, their duty being 'to * Birmingham, being between 300 and 400 feet above the level inquire whether any, and what several means may be of the sea, may be considered as singular in this respect among requisite for the improvement of the health of the from cholera in 1831, and the small
amount of fever
at all times, Metropolis ;' and they have pushed forward this por- for which this town is remarkable, are in a greater measure owing tion of their task with much spirit and comprehensive to the number of separate dwellings
used by the middle and lower may surround it. In the present state of most towns proportional to the house, of from three to six inches, and cities, the number of persons whose constitution is keeps perfectly clear. Even three-inch drains convey enfeebled by want of food, compared with the number away the refuse from middle-sized houses, and keep whose vital energy is depressed by want of pure air, is perfectly clear, whilst the layer permeable brick drains, found to be an exceedingly small minority. We have which are usually charged three times the price, are little power to deal with the former class of predispos- choked up.' ing causes; but we have complete power, by arrange- It is impossible that there can be effectual drainage ments which are known, and which involve large and without a constant and abundant supply of water; in manifold economies, to remove from the Metropolis, and some instances the construction of drains has only made from every lane, court, and alley of every town, the the atmosphere of houses more poisonous than it was sources that poison the air. Here, then, is the true before. According to the inspector of sewers, there is field for exertion.'
classes, and the great quantity of ground which the town conse* One of the baronial residences of the De Créquy family. quently covers.-ED.
nearly always a current of air setting from the sewer The Commission lay great stress upon the fact, that into the drain, so that they become as retorts with cholera invariably follows the track of typhus. The necks carried into the houses for the conveyance of the habitat of the latter is unfortunately but too well known: gases there.' A recent case of death in Langley Court, it is in the unpaved, undrained streets and alleys, satu- Long Acre, is clearly traced to impure air generated in rated with the fetor of cesspools, shocking the senses a foul sewer. This sewer was five feet six inches high, with filth and squalor. Incredible as it may seem, we and three feet wide. The filth had accumulated in it learn from the Report that little or nothing has been to a depth of three feet, and remained stagnant-an done towards abating the evils signalised. Even where instance of useless and wasteful expenditure, combined drains and sewers have been made, the condition of with entire inefficiency. A six-inch tubular drain the neighbourhood has been altogether unimproved, would, without stoppage, have carried off the whole from imperfect discharge of the sewers, and want of a drainage of the court, while the saving in expense would proper supply of water. The evils of a deficient supply have been L.5, 178. 6d. per house. Mr Phillips, the of the indispensable element are forcibly urged. Some witness examined on this point, observes— The sewers districts, it is stated, are not only not improved, but of this sort are only elongated cesspools ; and not only are in a worse condition than in 1832 ; fever, according is almost every house infested with one or more cess. to the evidence, is never absent from them ; in fact, pools, somewhere within or about the premises, but prothe fever generated daily and hourly in these wretched bably the inhabitants, and the public generally, are not localities is proved, in some instances, to be more fatal aware of the existence of such enormous cesspools under than cholera. On a comparison of three of the me- the streets. If the whole of the sewers of this descriptropolitan districts, taking 1838, the first year of the tion could be uncovered and seen, their horrible condiregistration—' in the first case the deaths from fever tion, I feel assured, would almost stagger belief that were more than double the deaths from cholera; in the such a state of things could be, and that the authorities second case more than treble; and in the latter case having control over them could allow them to continue they were nearly five times the number. ... The so even for a single day longer. Other witnesses speak whole difference between the mortality produced by of huge sewers being constructed for mere driblets of cholera and that produced by fever is under eight per water ; nearly the whole sewage of London, in fact, is cent.' For several years, the rate of death from fever a subterranean monument of 'vested’ shortsightedness has been steadily progressive in the Metropolis ; in and ignorance. The surveyor for the Tower Hamlets 1846 it was double that of the preceding year, and in states that no provision was made in his division for the year just expired it has been still more in excess. the draining of courts, no estimates contemplated for
The Commission suggest alleviative measures, which this object, or the draining of private houses, no consiapply equally to the prevalent unhealthiness and to deration of future utility or water supply ; and yet the cholera. In case of an attack of the latter disease, they Commission of Sewers for that district were about to discountenance removal to an hospital, and 'recommend apply to parliament for an extension of powers and that the best provision practicable should be made for privileges. From the evidence adduced, the Sanitary rendering effectual assistance to the individuals who Commission have confident assurances that cesspools may need it at their own houses. This,' they continue, may be abolished, and a complete system of house drain.
in our opinion, would be best effected by the selection age maintained in houses of the poorer class for a rate of proper persons, who may be instructed as nurses, and of twopence-halfpenny per week, including a constant engaged to devote their whole time to attendance on supply of water carried into each house.' the sick at their own habitations, under the directions Without a complete system of levelling, it is obvious of the medical officer. Prompt assistance might thus that a perfect system of sewage cannot be combined. be given to the patient, without subjecting him to any The Commission believed that complete levels might risk from bodily fatigue, and without anything being be obtained from the existing materials, the bit-by-bit done calculated to excite apprehension or alarm.' surveys of each district ; but the ordnance officer ap
A perfect system of draining and cleansing is insisted plied to on the subject denounced the whole as utterly on as the only effectual preventive means. Let this be worthless-affording another proof that nothing useful well and thoroughly carried into effect; and although it or effectual in regard to so great a work can be accomis not contended that disease will become altogether plished, unless combined under one vigorous system of innocuous, yet there will be no longer ground of re- management. In summing up, the Commission state proach for neglect of duty.
that, for the prevention of disease, and the saving of The modes of drainage are next discussed, together health and life, by early carrying out efficient works with the relative advantages and expense of various of drainage, and diminishing the mass of atmospheric forms and dimensions of sewers. The folly of making impurities by which the public health is depressed, sewers without house-drains leading into them, forms and for the prevention of expenditure upon inefficient an especial subject of notice, combined with an exposure works, we feel it our duty to recommend an immediate of the present utterly inefficient mode of constructing exercise of the powers of the crown; and that the these drains. Instead of being square, and made of several commissions appointed under its authority common bricks, they are to be of glazed earthenware cir- in the Metropolis be recalled with the least possible cular tubes, which are not only cheaper, but much more delay; that the law of sewers, now administered by effectual for the purpose. Thus,' says the Report, numerous persons in these separate districts, be con' whilst a twelve-inch drain, which is required by the fided to one body of commissioners for the whole of the Kent and Surrey, and the Tower Hamlets, and the Metropolis.' City Commissioners, accumulates deposit, and generates This recommendation has already produced some good noxious gases, a tubular earthenware drain, of nine effects : the Heptarchy of Sewage Commissions, as times less capacity, or of four inches in diameter, or they were called, for the Metropolis, have been superseded by writs issued by the Lord Chancellor; and the and there a little red soil, scorched and sterile, peeped whole management of the work of drainage, &c. is con- from between masses of rock upon which the traces of fided to a new Commission, composed of twenty-two fire yet existed. Its shores on one side were frightful to gentlemen of known ability and earnestness in the approach : horrid precipices of black lava seemed to cause of sanitary reform. London, which should be a fringe the island with mourning, and threaten intrumodel to the whole kingdom, has, generally speaking, sion with death, while at their base were deep chasms, been slow to bestir itself in questions of immediate eaten out by the insatiable wave. Farther on, the vital importance. The inhabitants of the great city wildest confusion of rocks, whose jagged summits added will often contend stoutly for the perpetuation of old to the desolation of the spot, was occasionally reabuses or worn-out prejudices; let them now show lieved by small patches of a glittering, naked beach,
equal spirit in promoting the views of the new Com- white like snow, composed of fragile coral, and frailer || mission, and the Metropolis will become a centre from shells ground to dust against the iron bulwarks of
which the most beneficial influences will extend over the island. - The other side of the island was more the whole country, The point of the wedge is now hospitable, possessing a less frowning coast, a good bay, fairly inserted, and it is to be hoped that the work and a tamer sea-shore. Inland, a few acres of plain will go steadily on to a successful accomplishment. stretched away between the gloomy-looking hills; but
The inquiry, which is still going on, has brought to even these were either wholly barren, or scantily covered light many abuses under the old system of manage with a weak growth of innutritious plants, such as ment. Among others that have come to our know- grass, ferns, purslain, a few thistles, and a convolvulus. ledge, we may mention a case of a sewer paved with Not a shrub was there on the whole island; and the granite. The employment of so expensive a material only spot refreshing to the eye wearied with so long a naturally led to investigation, when it was ascertained glance at desolation, was a tall mountain called the that the chief promoter of the measure--a person occu- Green Mountain, whose verdant sides gave the propying an official situation in the city-traded in the mise, which they did not fulfil in reality, of supplying article, and had supplied the granite. Not least among something that might support the outcast during his the benefits of the new system will be the prevention stay there. The spot was, on the whole, somewhat like of wasteful expenditure. The Report, which, as we a vast cinder, spotted here and there indeed with green, have shown, is entirely to the purpose, has the further but otherwise as dry and burnt as if it had just been merit of being short we commend it to the careful vomited from the depths of some vast volcano. Yet the attention of municipal authorities all over the country. place was the habitation of a legion of wild goats, and
populous nations of rats and mice over-scampered it;
and one or two tribes of melancholy insects awoke with HISTORY OF A DESERTED SAILOR.
its morning sun, and went to sleep at an early hour in Ox the morning of Saturday, the 5th of May, upwards the afternoon. Its shores, fierce looking though they of a century ago, a ship belonging to the Dutch squa- were, were more lively : flocks of boobies' strutted
dron came in sight of Ascension Island. Anchoring at along its glittering sands all the impertinent inde| some distance off shore, she put off a boat, which, under pendence consequent upon unacquaintance with man
the efforts of an active crew, made rapidly for the kind; a vast turtle or two, six or seven hundred pounders island. The boat contained, besides the crew, an indi- now and then, crawled from the blue waters, and after vidual heavily manacled, and a guard. The prisoner, taking a short walk for the benefit of their health, seated at the stern between the two soldiers who crawled in again, walking over possibly hundreds of guarded him, sat with his head buried in his hands; enraged crabs on their way back; and the waters thembut gave no further sign of emotion until he was dis- selves were livelier still, for they abounded in eels, old turbed from his position by the sound of the boat wives, and rock-cod. The extreme length of the island grinding on the white shore of Ascension: when, with was a little more than seven miles, its extreme breadth an agonised look at his comrades, and at the vessel, he about six, and its general form was oval.
silently rose, and in company with his guard, left the Such were the miserable and most unpromising cir! boat, and stepped on to the beach of his prison. Acumstances under which this unhappy man was left to
sailor's chest, some bedding, and sundry other articles, take his chance of perishing utterly, or the more rewere taken from the boat; the prisoner's chains mote one of being discovered and rescued by some were removed in silence, and the crew and guard re- passing vessel. As his journal, which he regularly embarked, leaving him alone on the beach; and nothing kept from the first day of his landing, has been premoved by his now frantic intreaties to them to return served, we are able to proceed with the rest of his hisand take him with them, they pulled hard to the ship, tory. After recovering in some measure from the apparently anxious to take leave of a scene so painful. shock of being left alone, and after watching with an Arriving on board, the anchor was presently heaved, aching heart the ship's snowy topsail sink beneath the all sail set, and the vessel stood out to sea, leaving waves of the horizon, he addressed himself to his first the unhappy man sunk on the sand in the most abject labour, which was the construction of a tent. The
despair. Before noon, she was out of sight; and in spot he selected for its site was sufficiently gloomy, for i every direction nothing was visible but the blue and it was beneath one of the dismal overhanging black
desolate waters tossing up their heads to the sky. rocks of which mention has been made ; but it assisted The nature of the crime which was visited by this to cover his tent from the weather, and it was close to dreadful punishment we are not permitted to divulge; the beach upon which he, and all he possessed, had been but that it was of great heinousness, may be gathered left. By the close of the first long and weary day, a from his own confessions. Some mercy mingled with temporary tent was raised, into which he brought his the sentence, as was manifest in the numerous lit- chest, bedding, and all his other chattels; and here, tle articles which were left for him on the shore. heavy and sick of heart, he spent the first night. Among these was a limited supply of provisions, con- Rising early the following morning, after partaking sisting of a little rice, onions, peas, and meal. He had of his lonely meal, he set forth to explore the island. also a cask of water, two buckets, an old fryingpan, It was the Sabbath, and around was more than the and a fowlingpiece, but no ammunition. Some paper, stillness of that sacred day—it was the silence of the a Bible, a few clothes, and some unimportant sundries, grave. No .church-going bell,' no faint notes of a vilcompleted the list of his possessions.
lage hymn, no quiet tumult of a departing congregaThe island itself was of a nature so savage and re- tiori, came to the outcast's ear-the wind was asleep, the pulsive, as was well calculated to impress with horror waters were at peace; but in his heart there was no and despair the stoutest heart condemned to so vast a peace, and he himself was alone unquiet amid surrounddungeon. Being of volcanic origin, its surface was ing quietude. He searched in vain for some green strewed with broken rocks, ashes, and pumice; here thing which might promise him food; he then returned
to his tent, and, to beguile the dull hours, set about ing his stock, without the means or the prospect of some alterations in its arrangements; he also covered it being able to replenish it. He explored the island in with a tarpaulin, which he fastened down with stones, a new direction, looking narrowly into every cranny thus securing himself from rain. Towards evening, the of the rock, and searching every spot covered with solitude of the beach was broken by bustling flocks a little fresher-looking herbage than the rest; but no of boobies ; on approaching them, lie found them so bubbling waters appeared. Bethinking him, then, of tame, as to permit him easily to seize several, which he his fishing-tackle, he repaired to the rocks to try his afterwards killed, skinned, and salted, laying them fortune in a fresh direction ; he spent several hours in in the sun to dry. His eyes were ceaselessly di- this employment in vain, which was somewhat remarkrected to the horizon; but viewed from whatever emi-able, as the waters were unusually prolific of fish. nence, it revealed nothing but the same hopeless, Meanwhile a sad accident had occurred. Turning unbroken blue line. Hoping it might catch the notice homewards, what was his surprise to behold a dense of some distant vessel which might escape his eyes volume of smoke rising up to the skies in the direction while searching for food, he made a white flag with a of his tent! 'Deeply alarmed, and dreading the worst, portion of his linen; and fastening it to his almost use he flew with the utmost speed to the spot: he found less fowlingpiece, he planted it in the most conspicuous the presage too true : his tent was on fire! Hastily position he could descry. Sauntering afterwards along snatching up his buckets, he ran to the sea ; and thus, the beach, he had the good fortune to overtake a fine by considerable efforts, he was enabled to quench the turtle, which he killed by beating it on the head; and consuming element. It appears that the origin of the this supplied him with provision for a little time. As fire was attributable to his having carelessly left his the terrors of his lonely situation grew upon him, he tinder-box, with some lighted tinder in it, upon his began to fear lest the threatening overhanging rock, quilt. By this calamity he lost a shirt, a handkerchief, under which he had placed his tent, should suddenly and a part of his quilt; and his Bible was much singed. fail and overwhelm him: he therefore removed his Yet he felt thankful to God for what he had saved. He dwelling to a less alarming position. He was by this then knelt down, and earnestly intreated God to give time in a very miserable and disconsolate state of mind: him the patience of holy Job' under his accumulating often, after a long day's fruitless search for water and sufferings. The spirit of his journal at this time is food, returning home with torn feet and an aching one which betokens a degree of humble acceptance of heart, he would pray, with one of old, that he might his punishment, severe as it was, and of patient subdie. But he would by no means be accessory to his mission to the Supreme Will. Thus the month of May own death, as, in the constancy of hope, he still looked passed away--his provisions diminishing, his barrel of to his signal being seen, and himself delivered out of water failing, his hopes growing fainter, and the future
that terrible place.' Conceiving it singular that he full of the gloomiest anticipations, in consequence of had met as yet with no beasts upon the island, he the rapidly-increasing heat of the weather. searched carefully for footmarks on the beach and in- On the 1st of June, there is this touching entry in land; but without success; the unbroken surface de- the journal :-- It would be needless to write how often clared to him, again and again, that he was alone. The my eyes are cast upon the sea to look for shipping; contents of his water-cask also daily reminded him that, and every little atom in the sky I take for a sail; then unless he shortly succeeded in finding water, the most I look till my eyes dazzle, and immediately the object terrible fate awaited him. On one of his excursions he disappears. When I was put on shore, the captain met with a little purslain, which he boiled with the told me it was the time of year for shipping to pass boobies, and thus made a tolerably palatable dish for this way, which makes me look out the more diligently.' one in his condition. The few other herbs which that At the end of the first week in this month, he had but niggard desert afforded he was afraid to eat, nor were two quarts of water left in his cask, and this was so they sufficiently inviting to induce him to make the muddy, as only to be drinkable after straining through attempt. Every day saw him now anxious and care- a handkerchief. He then thought of digging for.water. worn leave his tent, bucket in hand, seeking for water; | After digging to the depth of seven feet, he found not and every day saw him return in the evening almost so much as a trace of moisture, and he desisted from fainting, and with an empty vessel. His supplies of his labour with feelings easier conceived than described. food also grew short; boobies became scarce turtle At this time deep considerations of his apparently were not seen. He then used to boil a little rice in a approaching death filled his mind, and he spent many little water, of which he made most of his meals. Many, hours in prayer and in solemn meditations upon å many times, and with a gaze made intense by the future state. On the morning of the 10th of June, struggle in his mind between hope and despair, were faint and sick with thirst, he drank his last portion of his eyes bent upon the lonely waters, but no ship water to the very dregs, and in the strength of it he appeared. It was fortunate that, as yet, his bodily went out on a fresh search for some of this precious health continued good. Thus were his days spent fluid. After four hours' tedious walking under a burnat this time: in the morning, the spring of hope poured ing sun, he at length became so weary and faint, as to its assuaging waters over his soul, and he set forth be unable to proceed any farther, and he lay down fully expecting success of some sort; in the evening, wishing he might die. His situation was that of the those waters were cut off, and he beguiled some of the fainting Hagar in the wilderness, and his deliverance tedium of the night by reading until his eyes were was to prove as signal. Rising at length from the weary, and then, as a diversion, he would set to mend- earth, he walked slowly over the rocks towards his ing his clothes. Finding no promise of native escu- tent, as he thought, to die. But not so: his eye was lents, he thought to increase his stock by planting led to a hollow place in a rock, toward which he eagerly a few of those he had with him. He therefore set some sprang. Who can paint his joy, or describe his grationions and peas in a patch of soil near his tent. Find tude, on finding that it contained a little silver rill of ing a number of nests of sea-fowl, many containing water, pure, cool, and fresh! The poor fellow cast him. 1 eggs, he plundered them, and made his principal food self on the earth, and drank most immoderately of the of their contents. He was for some time much at a delicious fluid. In the intoxication of his joy he sat loss for a light at night; at length he hit upon the ex- down by its side, and drank again and again of its lifepedient of melting down some of the turtles' fat; and giving draught. The treasures of the whole earth were thus, with a saucer for his lamp, and a bit of rag for poor and mean in comparison with that tiny streamlet. the wick, he had a tolerable light, which he used to Evening was closing in, and taking care to mark well its keep burning all night. Thus passed a fortnight of his position, he returned to his tent with a step more elastic life in this great prison.
than he had yet known, and a heart brimful of gratiAll his search for water had proved unavailing, and tude and joy. Thus one source of his deepest anxiety he was under the painful necessity of daily diminish- I was, for the time at least, diminished. He was now
able to use the water freely; but whether from pre- attempt at horticulture, and set out for the spot where vious excessive over-fatigue, or as the consequence of he had planted his peas and onions, near to the place a long disappointed hope, cannot be said, but it is evi- where he had first pitched his tent. He saw from a dent that now symptoms of delirium began to appear, little distance, to his joy, that some green plants apand of these he was himself conscious. Strange fancies peared on the spot, and on drawing near, he found that filled his mind at times, which disappeared at other a few had sprung up; but as if the withering hand was times. At this period there occurs the following re- upon him in all things, the rest had been utterly demark in his journal :
-It makes me very melancholy voured by vermin. For the period of three months to think that I have no hopes of getting off this un- there had not fallen a half hour's rain on the island. happy island.' The sharp volcanic rocks, which were At this period of his history, with his miseries increaslike so many broken glass bottles, cut his shoes to ing upon him, he thus writes :--My heart is so full, that pieces, and wounded his feet so severely, that he was my pen cannot utter it. I now and then find a little scarcely able to stand upright. Now also a terrible water, which the goats have left me. I always scoop it adventure befell him. Awaking from sleep, he heard a up to the last drop, and use it very sparingly.' On one dreadful noise around his tent. Listening more atten- of his visits to his old tent, while inside it, he was much tively, he recognised the voices of either men or evil alarmed at hearing a great noise, as if a hundred spirits in loud conversation close to him. This con- coppersmiths were at work.' His alarm continued until tinued all night, so that he awoke in the morning unre- he resolved to search for the cause of this commofreshed. The next day, and for several days subse- tion, and ascending a hill, he discovered its origin in the quently, he speaks of having been repeatedly accosted chattering of a vast flock of birds, which whirred into by an apparition, which assumed the form of one of his the air as soon as they perceived him. This little disold comrades. Greatly to his relief, it at length de- covery greatly relieved his mind, which, under the parted. Although it is manifest the unhappy man horrors of his situation, was become much enfeebled. firmly believed all these supernatural events, we are He measured the contents of his water-cask, and found safe in ascribing one and all to the inroads of delirium he had but six gallons left. He drank by measure, upon his understanding. Possibly, from the free use and eked out his allowance as much as he could, of water, these symptoms, which might have taken abstaining from boiling his food. The entries in his a part of their origin in the want of that fluid, dis- journal preserve a melancholy monotony_Went out appeared ; and the entries in the journal resume their to search for water, but in vain,' is the only memousual simple character. For some time past his supply randum for many days. How earnestly he now lifted of wood for fuel had failed him, and, as we have up his prayers and his eyes to the heavens, may well be before mentioned, that not so much as a shrub existed imagined ! But that saying was true of them which had in the island, he began to despair of again tasting its primary reference to another race, 'The heaven that cooked food, when one day, as he paced along the is over thy head shall be brass, and the earth that is beach, a good-sized tree was cast ashore. This he under thee shall be iron.' 'I looked up,' he writes, “to cut in half, and was thus resupplied with fire ma- the heavens all round me, to see if the sky was overcast, terials for a little time. Another difficulty then op- that I might have some hopes of rain; but all, to my posed him: he was quite unable to procure any fresh sorrow, was very clear. He was now frequently out food; and with a 'raging hunger' preying upon him, until evening looking for water, and many times was he wandered about the island seeking it in vain. As far from home as the shades of night approached. On if to heap misfortunes on his devoted head, the in- one of these occasions, the sun having set, he was comcreased power of the sun, the heat of which blis- pelled to sleep away from his cave: having lain down, tered his face, dried up his well. Previously to this his slumbers were soon disturbed by new tormentors ; he had filled his cask, and, for convenience' sake, had such a prodigious, number of rats surrounded him, removed most of his things to a cave near to the as put him in considerable jeopardy of being dewell. Thus were all his first anxieties renewed again, voured alive. He took good care after this to return while there remained to him less energy of body and to his cave before dark. Despair was now rapidly mind to struggle against them. One day as he wan- seizing his mind, resisted only by a few feeble strugdered along the shore, he was startled at the appear-gles of expiring hope: he had now 'given up all hopes ance of a rude cross in the distance. On approaching of finding any water,' and wandered on the strand lost it, he found it the grave-mark, as he conjectured, of in distraction. Here he espied a turtle, which he some one buried in that spot. This was the first token succeeded in killing; and he slaked his burning thirst he had perceived in the island of a previous visit by his with the greatest avidity in the creature's blood. At fellow-men; and while it kindled hope, it was also full a later period, he found some relief in drinking the of melancholy promptings upon his own condition. fluid contents of the eggs of the sea - fowl; but both He, too, appeared to be cast there as one dead, yet proved ill substitutes for water, and he was seized with with this difference - as one deserted in his death. an illness, which he ardently hoped might end his sufThis brings us to the close of another month. In spite ferings. His head swelled, he became dizzy, and was of the most diligent search, water was not to be found. frequently delirious: he could no longer walk, and could On the last day in June he writes with mournful only crawl from place to place. He often crawled up to brevity, 'There is now not one drop !'
a turtle, which, with his razor, he killed, and then the July opened upon this miserable man with all the poor fellow lay by its side quenching his thirst in its intense heat of the season in that latitude. In one of life - blood. And now approaches the close of this his water-seeking expeditions, he saw, for the first time, mournful history. Burnt up with thirst, he drank, in large flocks of goats, to the amount of several hundreds desperation, a quantity of salt water ; but this had He vainly endeavoured to pursue them; but they proved nearly proved immediately fatal to him. Now, in a far too swift for his decaying strength, and bounded few affecting words, he scrawls, “ I am so much decayed, away, leaving him in his desolation. Great flocks of that I am a perfect skeleton, and cannot write the parsea-fowl were often visible in the strand, in such num- ticulars, my hand shakes so. Further on—My wood bers, that, when they took wing at his approach, they is all gone! I hope the Lord will have mercy upon my appeared like a dense cloud, which, coming between soul.' The last entry is on the 14th of October, when him and the sun, completely intercepted the light the unhappy outcast records the short and simple words, Once he found a brush on the shore, and early in * All as before !' August he discovered other traces of the visits of pre- Thus perished the deserted sailor, after the endurance vious voyagers, finding in a rock — which, at a dis- of bodily and mental agonies, for upwards of five tance, looked something like a rude cottage some months, a part of which only would have sufficed to old nails, and pieces of broken glass bottles, and also a unseat the reason of many men. We believe the facts piece of a broken oar. He now called to mind his early here narrated may be considered genuine and authen