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what month you are in. Cheap and bright sugar is or Blue Monday being more perseveringly kept than displayed as a leading article :' go in and buy a pound any other holiday in the London working-man's ca-it is kept ready weighed and papered-and on open- lendar. ing the packet at home, you will find the contents marrellously darker in colour than the sample exposed in the window. Call for a pound of butter at a provision

WANT OF LABOURERS IN AUSTRALIA. shop, you will always see a weight left in one of the ATTENTION has been lately drawn to the deficiency of brightly-polished scales. If it be necessary to change labourers, more especially shepherds, in the Australian it, the one required is always thrown in before the first colonies, and New South Wales in particular. Probably is removed. This is so invariably the case, as to excite the want has been immediately felt in consequence of a suspicion of unequal balance. It is, however, regarded the recent stoppage of the stream of convict exiles as one of the legitimate advantages of trade, arising out which long poured into these distant settlements. Be of the keenness of competition. Widely ramified, it de- this, however, as it may, the demand for labourers is at scends to the lowest. Cast an eye into the measures of present unusually great. the venders of nuts and gooseberries in the streets, you In lately conversing with a gentleman, a large stockwill see a false bottom placed so as to diminish the in. farmer from Australia, we found him speak with earnest terior capacity by one-fourth. We once asked an old solicitude on this subject. Things,' said he, ‘have woman, whose stand has been for years on the ap- taken a great change for the better with us. From our proaches to Blackfriars Bridge, whether she felt no vast pasturages we can produce any imaginable quancompunction for her daily frauds on the public. Sure,' tity of wool and tallow, articles always sure of a market; was the retort, doesn't everybody do it, and could I get but of what use are these great sheep-walks, unless we a living if I didn't do the same?'

can get shepherds ?' •What kind of men would best On passing the cab-stands, you may observe that the answer?' we inquired. The reply was -- Any man drivers seem more than usually alert during the hours of active habits and trustworthy character would anthat business men are making their way into town. swer: in fact, I have known first-rate shepherds who If you chance to turn your head, a dozen fingers are were once London cabmen: we don't expect professional held up to answer what is cousidered a call, and as shepherds who are well off at home to come out to us.' many voices cry out, “Keb, sir?' It is puzzling at times As corroborative of this general demand for labourers, to know how these men get a living, paying as they do this person brought under our notice the case of his relafourteen shillings a day to the owner of the vehicle. tion, Mr Boyd, who had chanced to visit Australia at the They like to see the day begin fine, and come on rainy time when sheep were at their lowest value, and had at ten or eleven in the forenoon, after people have been been tempted to embark largely in wool-growing. Finddrawn from their homes. On the approach of a shower, ing himself, however, greatly embarrassed for want of every cab is off the stand in an instant, as if by magic; assistance, he resorted to the novel and hazardous exand the waterman’ runs hither and thither hastily to periment of introducing natives from the not very discollect from each driver his lawful fee of one halfpenny tant islands in the Pacific. Having procured a vessel for every fare that leaves the stand. A shower clears for the purpose, he instructed its commander to call at the pavement rapidly : people who have no umbrellas as many inhabited islands as possible, so that he shelter themselves forthwith under awnings, covered might satisfy himself not only as to the people best passages, or gateways, and watch the falling drops with fitted for the wants of the colonists, but also as to the manifest impatience, or quiz any unfortunate wight number likely to be procured. • In due time,' to adopt forced to abide the storm. The Londoners astonish the language of the Times in its account of the expetheir country friends who venture to town, by recom- dition, the vessel returned with sixty-five of the natives mending an observance of a rule of town life, . Always of the New Hebrides group (distant about three weeks' take your umbrella when it is fine ; when it is wet, do sail from Sydney), of various ages, from fourteen to as you like.'

twenty-five; while the general accounts given of the But all this while the season is getting on: the lanıps cruise were such as to warrant an expectation of satisare no longer lighted at four in the afternoon; the factory and extensive results. Mr Boyd's wish was, smoke seems less dense, and patches of blue sky are that in the first instance only fifty should be engaged ; occasionally visible; thick and heavy overcoats have but so eager were these people to be taken on board, gradually retreated in favour of the light wrapper or that it was only through the authority of their chiefs * Taglioni, and the latter will soon follow, as the sun that the number could be limited; the explanation of acquires power; women come out in shawls and man- this desire for removal being, that the inhabitants of all tillas instead of furs and cloaks ; enterprising painters the Coral Islands are in a condition, during upwards of have begun to decorate' house fronts in the suburban eight months of the year, little short of starvation. roads; grass plots and box edgings in the little front with respect to the habits of the people, and their fitgardens are clipped ; early flowers peep out, and newly. ness for the occupations of civilised life, it is stated that gravelled paths give a cheerful aspect to the diminutive although cannibalism and infanticide prevail amongst enclosures ; a tinge of green appears on the bare them to a fearful extent, they manifest in their interbranches of the trees that border the road, and the ivy, course with strangers a very great degree of tractability that thrives in spite of the smoke, wears a brighter hue, and intelligence; and hence it is considered that their refreshing to the eye after the dreary months of winter. vices may be attributed rather to the influence of the By and by, the lilac and laburnum are in full bloom, and sufferings to which they are periodically exposed, than You may almost cheat yourself with the fancy that the to any ineradicable peculiarity. The expense of introfirst mile of road is a country walk. But it is singular ducing them is about L.8 per man, and Mr Boyd's into note the change on nearing the more densely-popu- tention is to employ them as shepherds. At the same lated districts. It was a fine day when you started time, from the description given of them, it would seem casual acquaintances said so. A mile farther on, where that they might easily be instructed for other services. everything is deadened by a damp haze, it is also a 'fine Regarding the conduct of the party during their three day' and as you go on, and find mud and murkiness, weeks' voyage, the master of the vessel reports as folpeople still say a 'fine day. Anything short of down lows:right rain is a fine day in London.

“ My first care on getting to sea was to limit the Steamboats that had been laid up for the winter are quantity of food for each person, particularly salt meat; now swarming on the river, in all the pride of new to have the hold well aired and constantly cleaned, &c.; paint; and for a halfpenny, we may often enjoy the and so successful have I been in my endeavours to prebreeze for a mile or so on our way to office. Pleasure serve all in a healthy state, that I landed them all at vans, too, filled with glad parties for Hampton Court, Twofold Bay, with only one slight case of dysentery have resume their trips, most numerous on a Monday-Saint | ing occurred during the passage. And I cannot refrain

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from mentioning the grateful attachment they have all supply is only limited by the scarcity of labour and the shown to me, as it exhibits a trait in their characters small demand. With an abundant supply of labour, the rarely found amongst savages, and one which will con- capacity of the colony for production is almost without tribute in no small degree to render them manageable limit. during their residence in the colony ; but on this score ‘Such is the scarcity of labour at the present time, I have no doubt: as short as the time is that they have and such are the apprehensions in consequence felt, that been with me in the Velocity, they have already learned many influential men have memorialised the governto make themselves useful, and the alacrity with which ment for the renewal of transportation to New South they endeavoured to obey any order I gave, fully proves Wales. I may observe, however, that this step has been their inclination to work."

strongly reprobated by a large majority of the commu* With reference to the numbers to be procured, he nity. The pressure of high wages is so great, however, adds—“I have no hesitation in assuring you, that from that the emancipists and ticket-of-leave holders from the various groups in the vicinity of New Holland, this Van Diemen's Land are brought here by societies formed vast island, now nearly uninhabited, may be supplied with that object. These importations are loudly dewith an almost unlimited number ; for as the miseries nounced by the townspeople, who are great sufferers by of an over-population are removed by emigration, the the increase of robberies thereby occasioned—the police crime of infanticide will cease, and the desolating effects being sadly deficient in numbers and honesty. There of perpetual warfare—not only carried on for the pur- is no doubt that the influx of these Vandemonians has pose of eating the slain enemies, but also in the hope eased the labour market greatly, as the men are geneof plundering the enemy's country of the fruit and roots rally expert in shearing, splitting, and farm-work, and, produced in it-will end when the principal cause is if they turn out well, are more useful, and are under bet. removed.”

ter control, than free emigrants, who give themselves all Perhaps the chief danger to be apprehended is the sorts of airs, and are never satisfied. The most useful common one in all these cases, of the temptation of in- man, and by far the hardest worker we have yet had in toxicating drinks. It must also be remarked that the our employment, is an emancipated convict. But on number imported by Mr Boyd consists entirely of males ; | the other hand, the greatest rogue that my brother was and that if this practice be persevered in, there can be ever troubled with was also one. no doubt of a repetition of the evils which not many * The majority of the colonists are very strongly opyears back were denounced in the first attempts at posed to the introduction of these Pentonville exiles Coolie emigration to the Mauritius.'

(Penton Villains, or Patent Villains, as they are called). In this latter remark we cordially agree, and trust Several of them have already figured at the police that Mr Boyd will find it to his interest, as it is cer- courts. In the early days, the importation of these tainly his duty, to maintain something like an equality very doubtful characters would have raised a clamour of the sexes in his importations. By the last accounts, through the whole length and breadth of our virtuous the New Hebrideans employed by Mr Boyd on the and unpolluted colony; but the fear of contamination, Murray River were so well satisfied with their treat- once so strongly urged, has given way before the presment, and so zealously and conscientiously have they sure of high wages, and the self-interest of individuals ; worked for their employer, that it has been deemed ex- and the introduction of any sort of labour, whether pedient to return three of them, that they may make a penitent villains, or double distilled rogues from Van correct report to their fellow-islanders, and induce a Diemen's Land, is not only reluctantly submitted to, more general emigration. All are represented to be an but openly encouraged. The last batch of Pentonvilles intelligent body of men; and, what is rather remarkable, included two lawyers, a clergyman of the Scotch church, possessing great powers of calculation by a system of and a lieutenant in the army. The most amusing decimals.

stories are related of these gentlemen. One left his llowever advantageous and humane it may be to re- card at all the mercantile houses in town, with an intimove from their famished homes these poor islanders, mation that he would accept a situation as managing it is surely in every respect a more incumbent duty to clerk, with a salary to commence at L.300 the first remember that there is famine among ourselves, and year, to be increased subsequently. Another wished to that we could very well spare many who cannot earn engage as a private tutor. Some one suggested that he their bread at home. But the colonists cannot be ex. would do well to take a situation in the bush, to serve pected to be the importers of our spare citizens, at the out stores, and to combine teaching with other duties. great distance at which they are situated from us. Emi. His indignant reply was, as he turned upon his heel, gration on a considerable scale, and under proper pre- that " that was an amalgamation of professions of which cautions, would require to be carried on by the govern- he did not at all approve." A third advertised for board ment as a public duty. We subjoin on the subject an and residence with a genteel family! But almost all of extract from a private letter, dated Melbourne, May 2, them hold themselves in the highest estimation, and 1847, which a correspondent hands us for insertion :- scorn any but the highest rate of wages. Meanwhile

* In late English papers I have read most harrowing house robberies are becoming of nightly occurrence, details of the sufferings and positive state of starvation and the streets may scarcely be pronounced safe after of large masses of the Irish people; and I believe the dark. The town presents the finest field imaginable poor-rates are pressing heavily upon the middle and for burglary, and the bush an equally good one for cattlelower classes in England. At the same time a com- stealing-accordingly, while one branch of the profesplete check is put to the advance and prosperity of the sion cleared out the country-house of a magistrate, the whole of the Australian colonies from a deficiency of country thieves, not to be outdone, swept above two labour, which has already existed some years, retarding hundred head of cattle off a run, brought them into the their progress, and has now reached a point which will public market, and sold them by auction. Whilst the shortly put a complete stop to their advance. It is dis- lead is taken with such spirit, of course there are numetressing to reflect that, whilst such misery exists in the rous humble imitators. United Kingdom, thousands upon thousands of oxen and “Shepherds' wages are from L.26 to L.30, according sheep, scarcely surpassed in quality in any part of the to the experience of the men; farm servants, L.30; feglobe, are being slaughtered with us to supply the soap- male house-servants, L.22 to L.25; married couples, boiler and the steam-engine-being melted down for the L.45 to L.55 ; and I have known boys of twelve years tallow alone. We have already, I may say, a redun- of age to get L.16. These wages are of course accomdancy of food: meat is from three-halfpence to two- panied with ample rations. I find our servants to be pence per pound, and must soon come lower still, unless very wasteful ; they have such an abundance of good the population be materially increased, or an outlet food at their command, that they become careless and found for fat stock by an extensive system of salting dainty, and throw to their dogs as much meat and for exportation. Of bread, and other sorts of food, the bread as would support at least one person.

We pronounce no opinion on the credibility of the have been the arms of that king of Bohemia who was above, further than that we received it from a respecto conquered on the field of Creçy by Edward the Black able quarter ; and this suggests to us the repetition of Prince, and were therefore adopted by him; other hea former advice to colonists, as to the proper steps to raldic writers assert that they were borne by the be taken for making their wants properly known at Princes of Wales who first paid tribute to the crown of home. They must not trust to the people of England England, though still independent princes. However hearing anything of them through the colonial papers; they may have originated, these mottoes have been for these papers are seen only by a few persons. used successively by the monarchs of England and their Neither ought they to trust to a mere statement of eldest sons from that time down to the present day; their grievances to the colonial office. They should excepting that William III. took for his, • Je maindraw up a memorial, duly authorised, and have it pub- taindray!'— I will maintain !' and Queen Anne for lished in the principal newspapers of Great Britain, so hers, 'Semper eadem!'- Always the same!' a sort of as to bring it directly under the eyes, and within the admission, on their parts, that their right to the throne sympathies, of their fellow-subjects. It is not too late of England was not indisputable. to adopt this practical measure as respects the demand The kings of France have for their arms three fleurs for labourers.

de lis, or lilies, which were sent, says an old tradition, * by an angel from Heaven; and the flowers being in

manner of spears, were given to the king of France in MOTTO ES.

sign of everlasting trouble, that he and his successors PROVERBS are a condensation of common experiences all way with battle and swords should be punished.' adapted to universal comprehension ; mottoes are a With such a prophecy hanging over them, and such a concentration of individual thought or feeling in one retrospect as the Revolution, the house of Bourbon do point; and consequently both mottoes and proverbs well to take • Espérance!'— Hope!' for their motto. are worthy the attention of the student of human na- It is a gratifying fact, that when mottoes fell into ture, as indicating much more than they express. A disuse as war-cries, they were adopted for another and * motto,' the Italian for • word,' though now understood far more interesting purpose. Printing was just into be a short phrase full of meaning, was at first an vented, and rose, if not rapidly, at least certainly, to be expressive exclamation, accompanying those heraldic the most important art that the mind of man could devices used by our ancestors as emblems of their piety, devise, or his hand could practise. Learning, hitherto their anger, or their love; or to commemorate any ex- confined to the college or the cloister, was now diffused traordinary adventure into which those passions had among mankind, visiting the court, the camp, and the led them. Most of such mottoes were in Latin or city, and humanising all who owned her influence. French, because those languages were almost exclu- Printed books superseded the rare and costly manusively used by the two learned and warlike orders who scripts heretofore in use, and found such eager and ruled over society in what we now call the dark ages. numerous purchasers, that spurious and imperfect ediShortly, the motto of the baron or knight who led his tions of the more celebrated works began to be circuvassals to the crusade, or to the still more reprehensible | lated. To remedy this evil, and to give security and attack on his next neighbour, became their slogan, war- protection to those printers whose publications comcry, or watchword; and, when well chosen, often con. bined great literary merit with rare typographical extributed to success in battle. What power and extent cellence, princes and potentates granted them permis. of territory were acquired by the Dukes of Normandy sion to use on the title-page some symbol and motto, to while they led on their followers, shouting their famous counterfeit which was legally as well as morally criminal. war-cry, Dieu aide!' -'God helps us !' which, to Thus Aldus Manutius, who established the famous Al. believe, was better for a man in the fierce struggle dine press at Venice, and was the inventor of the type with his fellow-man, than breastplate, or helmet, or called Italic, adopted for his sign on his title-pages a two-edged blade. In fact, so much did these war-cries dolphin and anchor. Henry Stephens, the founder of foster the spirit of partisanship, that it became neces- the celebrated family of printers of that name, when sary in our own island, when the wars of the 'Roses' established at Paris, took for his symbol an olive-tree, were terminated by the marriage of Henry VII. to which long continued to be used by his sons, particularly Elizabeth of York, to pass an especial act of parlia- by Robert, the most eminent of them, who was equally ment for their suppression, making it penal for nobles noted for virtue, learning, and skill in his occupation. or their followers to use any cry but that of St It is of him that an anecdote is recorded, worthy to be George for England!' or. The King!'

coupled with that of Charles V. picking up the pencil The motto of the royal arms of England, ' Dieu et of Titian, for it took place about the same period, and mon droit !' has a disputed origin; some writers attri- is as honourable to Francis I. as is the better-known bute it to Richard I., who adopted it to imply that he condescension of his famous rival. Everybody knows held his crown from no other sovereign, but only by that Charles patronised Titian; that our Henry VIII., Divine permission and hereditary right; others affirm rude and brutal as he was, protected Holbein ; and that that it was first used by Edward III. when he laid | Leonardo da Vinci died in the arms of Francis : few claim to the French crown in right of his mother know that the same Francis, going, as was his custom, Isabella. Certainly it is from his reign that we date to the printing-office of Stephens, found him engaged the existence of the Order of the Garter, with its fa- | in reading a proof. The courtiers in his train would mous motto, · Honi soit qui mal y pense !'- literally, have required the instant attendance of the printer; but * Evil be to him who thinks evil of it!' as well as the Francis, ever high-minded and chivalrous, would not adoption of mottoes on seals. One of the earliest im- allow the interruption, but waited until he had finished pressions of a seal with a motto is one affixed to a deed -a small enough condescension, it may perhaps be executed by an ancestor of the Byron family, dated in thought, but a great one in the then state of society. the twentieth year of Edward III. ; it is, ' Crede Be. For this monarch, who was a judicious promoter of ronti!' The present motto of the family is, 'Crede learning and the fine arts, books were first ornamentByron!'— Believe or trust in Byron ! From this ally bound, having the edges of the leaves gilt, and the period the use of seals was rapidly extended ; and not arms and motto of the owner impressed on the covers. only were large sums of money given for gems, for the One of the earliest printers, of much celebrity in purpose of converting them into seals, but the newly- England, was Henry Day, who enjoyed the favour of awakened arts of design and engraving were eagerly Queen Elizabeth. Upwards of two hundred works issued employed to make them at once ornamental and ex- from his press, all distinguished by his symbol—the pressive.

rising sun, with a boy awaking his companion, with the The three feathers of the Prince of Wales, with the words, 'Arise, for it is day!' in allusion to the dawning German motto, “Ich dien !'—'I serve!' are supposed to day of Protestant reformation, which was much pro

ART OF MAKING MEN HAPPY.

moted by the dissemination of tracts, now first printed he was plain John Scott, he went to London in search and published. Day was the inventor of the Saxon of fortune, in one of the stage-coaches known to our letter. Christopher Plantin, of Antwerp, adopted for fathers, but of which our children will have no recol. his emblem and motto a hand and pair of compasses, lection: the motto on the doors of the vehicle was, with ' Labore et constantia !'— By labour and perseve. Bis dat, qui cito dat!' on whose meaning, • Twice rance!' And by rigid adherence to this motto, he be- done, if done quickly!' he ruminated all the journey. came rich and eminent: who indeed, let his station in To everything that occurred, whether serious or ludi. life be what it may, can fail to improve it by acting in crous, he applied it; it remained fixed in his mind like manner? Juan de la Cuesta of Madrid, the printer through life ; and when he himself relates the anecdote, and publisher of the first edition of Don Quixote, took after having attained the highest honours of his profor his device a stork, surrounded by the words, ' Post fession, and realising a splendid fortune, he doubts, tenebras, spero lucem!'- After the darkness, I expect very characteristically, and very justly also, whether light!' He was the intimate friend of Cervantes, and it would not have been wiser on his part to have more was well acquainted with all his struggles and diffi- frequently made it the rule of his own conduct. culties, so that we, who now know how much sorrow In closing the subject of mottoes, let us refer to that and suffering made up the story of his life, ought to engraved on a sun-dial in the Jardin des Plantes at appreciate the touching appeal thus made to the heart Paris: ‘Horas non numero nisi serenas!'— I count none of posterity. From his gloomy confinement in the nar- but sunny hours!' the only course for a sun-dial, but row dungeon where he passed so long a period, through neither the only nor the wisest one for man. They the jealousy of the litigious Mancheyans, this inimit- have little true knowledge who have never felt that the able but persecuted man looked forward to a period darkness which alternates with the daylight has benewhen the light of fame should surround him. Nor was fits as great, if not as glorious—that the storm which he mistaken. Some fame was his in life; but, as too sweeps over, and even threatens to destroy us, may, in often happens, it was not until the darkness of death fact, save us from unseen or specious danger. In the had settled on his eyes that his great merit was fully human heart, as in the bosom of the earth, there are acknowledged. Let us hope that the hopefulness so seeds which can only germinate in the winter of adstrongly expressed in his motto never deserted him, but versity, which yet may have an after-growth of beauty that he felt the full force of the fine Spanish proverb and utility sufficient to repay the patience which has that he puts, on the occasion of some disaster, into the endured trustingly, and counted carefully, the dark mouth of Don Quixote, 'There is yet sunshine on the and chilly hours. wall.'

From the mottoes of printers to those of men of letters the transition is easy. That adopted by the celebrated

There is an in making a man happy which very few Erasmus, ' Festina lente!’— Hasten slowly!' was consi, understand. It is not always by putting the hand in the dered by him to convey so much meaning, that he wished pocket that we remove afflictions ; there must be someit might be carved in stone on public buildings, as well thing more. There must be advice, and labour, and actias printed in books. Less paradoxical is that used by vity; we must bestir ourselves, leave our arm-chairs, throw an ingenious countryman of Erasmus, Tulp, or Tul. off our slippers, and go abroad, if we would effectually pius, a physician of Rotterdam, who, besides being emi- serve our fellow-creatures. When to this active and effec nent in his profession, encouraged his fellow-citizens tual benevolence the more prompt efficacy of money is to resist the attacks of Louis Quatorze on their freedom. added, how great and how lasting may not the good be ! He took for his symbol a lamp burning, with the Few, however, possess this quality of philanthropy; for it motto, ' Aliis inserviendo consumor!'- I consume my of St Albans.

costs less to give a guinea than to give an hour.-Five Nights self for the advantage of others !' And if, among the many occupations pursued by men of talent for the benefit of their fellow-men, there be one more self-sacri.

THE OLD BACHELOR'S BRIDE. ficing, more truly useful than another, it is that of the LITTLE Bessy-pretty Bessy-vainly I have tried, clever and conscientious practitioner of medicine—he From 'midst the idle, fluttering throngs, to find a fitting bride ; who wounds to heal' when it is necessary, but who And now a steady bachelor of two score years and one,

I'm almost in despair that I--must end my days alone; also knows how to administer the balm of sympathy to So I will train a wife to suit my wishes, or I'u none ! the worn and sinking sufferer.

Little Bessy-pretty Besky—thou shalt be my wife The virtuous and learned Selden wrote in all his When fifteen years are added to thy present three years' life; books, · Freedom above everything!' Yet this freedom, In modest, meek humility, a model for thy sex80 highly valued, was sacrificed by him to his still A temper cheerful, tranquil, kind, which nothing e'er can vex

Refined and courtly bearing too, with learning quite complex! greater love of truth and consistency. During his illegal imprisonment by James I., being debarred the Little Bessy-pretty Bessy-life is full of care,

And I must not expect to be exempted from my share; use of his books and papers, he declared that his mind But music hath the magic power of dissipating gloom, had been undefiled by any wish to purchase liberty And soft old songs you'll carol forth in our warm, cosy room, by a compromise of his opinions: in fact, he had the Amid the perfumed wreathing clouds of my dear meerschaum's best freedom-that of the mind. Dr Robertson, the famous historian, commenced at fourteen to take notes of Little Bessy-pretty Bessy--thy white fingers trim

Must mould confections to the taste of epicurean whim; what he read, and he wrote in all the books so used for

No Berlin wool, no silken twist, with beads of gold or steel, this purpose, Vita sine litteris mors !'-Life without shalt thou weave into mystic gems from many a shining creel; learning is death !'-and to the spirit of this motto he No-rather would I list the hum of thrifty spinning-wheel. adhered throughout life. He devoted himself to study,' Little Bessy-pretty Bessy-thou must stay at home; says Lord Brougham in his Lives of Men of Letters, All gossip parlance hating, nor ever wish to roam ; 'examining and revolving the facts of history, contem- Simplicity's adornment thy attiring must display, plating ethical and theological truths, amusing his And ready always to be seen from dawn to close of day. fancy with the strains of Greek and Roman poetry, or warming it at the fire of ancient eloquence, so congenia! Although I own my private doubts-I shan't meet many such :

Little Bessy-pretty Bessy--sure I ask not much ; to his mind, at once argumentative and rhetorical.' So, if you'll promise me to wed--a rich old man and kind, To choose a motto so early in life, to retain it so long, And to his failings and his age to be for ever blind and to act up to it with such persevering industry, I'll marry you in fifteen years—if then thou'rt to my mind! seems to indicate a firmness and consistency of character worthy of imitation. An amusing instance of the influence over Lord Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Als

fume.

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORR, Eldon of a motto on the panels of a stage-coach, is

147 Strand, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Strect, related in Twiss's life of that eminent lawyer. When Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.

C. A. M. W.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE' CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

No. 213. NEW SERIES.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 29, 1848.

Price 1 d.

BY LEITCH RITCHIE.

in colouring. A single piece, before it is finished, emTHE SOCIAL INFLUENCE OF TEA.

ploys forty hands, from the pounder of the flint (usually

a blind or lame person), who earns half-a-crown Is a former paper, it was shown that the foundation a-month, up to the artist who sketches the design, of knowledge is simply Curiosity. I now venture, with while another fills in the colouring. perhaps a little more originality, to suggest that the Is it going too far to inquire whether tea may not moral reform and social improvement for which the have borne an important part in the formation of that present age is remarkable have had their basis in- gentleness and tractability of character which keeps TEA. The bulk of mankind, according to the testi- the Chinese calm and orderly even in the midst of polimony of all travellers, require something in the nature tical revolutions? Leave them alone to their ceaseless of a stimulant. Wherever this stimulant is tea, there industry, to present offerings to the manes of their is to be found, as will presently be shown, the spirit of grandfathers, to read and write ever new romances, and civilisation in full activity. Where it is wanting, or they care not a straw what dynasty occupies the throne. used in small quantity, barbarous manners are still Why, then, do we find any vestiges at all of barbarism predominant. I therefore propound that tea and the among the Chinese, the very meanest of whom are edudiscontinuance of barbarism are connected in the way cated, and may rise to the highest dignity of a subject? of cause and effect.

Because the poor have no tea. Tea is cheap in China, The original country of tea had arrived, at the date but still beyond the reach of the lowest classes, who when history began to be written in Europe, at a stage have recourse to decoctions of all sorts of plants, which of refinement which was unknown in the west for many spoil the taste of the water, without adding to its centuries after. When the wandering shepherds who virtue. Another reason is, that rice wine (if it should migrated from the table-land of Thibet, or the slopes of not rather be called rice beer), although a very weak the Himalaya, or, as other writers will have it, from beverage, is frequently drunk in such quantities as to the Tartarian mountains of the north-east, reached the intoxicate, and that, in the northern parts of the country banks of the great Chinese rivers, they were engaged more especially, the consumption of spirits and opium for a certain time in the slow struggles of barbarism. is very considerable. Opium-smoking, however, is by Even the luxury to which they were gradually led by no means an imported vice, as it is commonly imagined wealth and ease had something savage in its character. to be. The English found the people besotted with the One of their early princes, for instance (who flourished drug, which whitened the fields of the richest departat some trifling distance of time from the Mosaic ments of the country; and they supplied their craving, deluge), giving a great banquet, set his guests to swim just as they would have done had its object been cottons in a tank of rice wine, with the meats arranged within or woollens. In order to accomplish this, they were reach round the brink. But the great agent of refine- guilty of the political crime (for commerce may be said ment was in the midst of them, though unknown and to have no moral sense) of leaguing themselves with the unheeded at the time; and as the uses of the tea-plant masses and the functionaries against the autocratical were discovered, and its civilising juice disseminated government of Peking, whose powerless edicts had been throughout the land, the Chinese, from some hordes of fulminated against the native cultivation of the poppy, barbarians, became a great and polished nation. This when as yet the demons' of Europe had hardly entered revolution, be it observed, did not take place, as at a the field. later period in Europe, through the collision of races. The Japanese are perhaps still greater tea-drinkers The Chinese were shut up, with their tea, between the than the Chinese; and they afford a more striking desert and the ocean; and when visited at the end of instance than the latter of the union of this custom many centuries by Europeans, who crossed the deep, with a high state of refinement and politeness. The or penetrated through a cordon of savage nations for first absolute emperor of Japan is said to have been a the purpose, they were found to possess the political and Chinese warrior, who commenced his reign in the year social institutions, the manners, and even the frivolities 640 B.C.-just thirty years after the invention of porcepeculiar to civilised life.

lain in China. Before the middle of the seventeenth Tea is suggestive of a thousand wants, from which century of our era, disgusted with the religious quarrels spring the decencies and luxuries of society. The of the Dutch and Portuguese, and annoyed by the eager savage may drink water out of his calabash till dooms- selfishness of the traders of various other nations, the day; but give him tea, and he straightway exercises Japanese grew tired of the world, and sealed themhis faculties in the invention of a cup worthy of such a selves up hermitically in their own islands, where a pobeverage. Tea was thus the inventor, I have little pulation, as some say, of 45,000,000 remain to this day doubt, of that rich porcelain called china, from which in a state of utter isolation. But luckily the tea-plant arose numberless ideas of elegance in form, and beauty continued, and continues, to flourish among them; and

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