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educated and accomplished lady, but I doubt whether focked in, the dyer's nephew among the rest; and in I could find one with a kinder heart.'

less than a year, M. Camus was able not only to return M. Pascal Camus spoke this in the tone of a man Paul's loan, but even to repay Madame Marengo the who confers a great favour; and though, after his death, sums she had spent upon him during his illness. Annette would be a portionless orphan, it did not occur Several years have passed away since the reconciliato him to look on the matter in any other light. It tion of M. Pascal Camus and Madame Marengo. They will perhaps be saying more in Madame Marengo's have wisely abjured speaking on politics, and are now praise than we might otherwise express, to state that as stanch friends as they were formerly bitter enemies, she took precisely the same view of the subject. She They have learned, that though people may not agree only saw the moral trust reposed in her, and she was on certain points, still there is no reason why they deeply affected. It was the first time, too, that the should be enemies. Though Paul was the instrument schoolmaster had ever addressed to her a word of praise : of their reconciliation, both the cardeuse and the the tears rose to her eyes, and in the height of her schoolmaster declare that their friendship is simply emotion she begged M. Camus to forgive her all that owing to the excellent qualities which they have since she had ever done against him. Then she confessed to then discovered in each other-qualities of which they him that she had been the cause of his losing his pupil, could of course know nothing as long as they remained and that numbers upon numbers of times she had mutually hostile. It will serve to show the confidence called him, behind his back, an old Cossack. This which reigns between them to state, that they have irreverent appellation rather shocked M. Camus; but lately agreed, but in secret, that a marriage between he made a heroic effort, and as Madame Marengo was Paul and Annette would be a very eligible affair in a evidently deeply penitent, he declared that he forgave few years' time. But as both the parties are yet rather her. It was his duty, he said, as a Christian, for he felt young, the elder ones have wisely determined, though his end approaching. Madame Marengo assured him they have long marked their secret attachment, to say that he was much better, but M. Pascal Camus per- nothing on the subject yet; and indeed it was premasisted that he was dying. * All men of genius,' said he ture to mention it even here. solemnly, 'foretell the hour of their death: it is not

There are a great many Madame Marengos and therefore astonishing that I should be able to predict Monsieur Pascal Camuses in this world, who quarrel mine. I shall die, added he, after a moment's pause, half their lives without knowing why. What a pity

at seventy seconds past eight o'clock to-morrow morn- they will not try the other system, by way of change ! ing. Mind, Madame Marengo, at seventy seconds past They would find it much less troublesome, and ten eight!'

times as pleasant, after all. Well, do drink some of your tisane; there's a dear,' interposed Madame Marengo, rather alarmed at the sick man's excited look. M. Camus was the most do

THE BLACKBIRD. cile of patients; he took the drink, and as it was of a

I could not think so plain a bird soporific quality, he soon sank into a deep sleep. Ma

Could sing so fine a song.' dame Marengo was not very superstitious, but she had Song birds, it is generally admitted, are among the heard of such things as deathbed predictions, and she most interesting portions of the animal creation, affordhad strong faith in her own presentiments. Now she ing a copious and instructive study to the naturalist, happened to feel a particular presentiment, which told and delighting the mere lover of nature with their her that M. Camus would really die at the appointed | matchless music, which adds a vocal charm to sylvan hour — great, therefore, was her anxiety during the scenery. Among the warblers for which this country night. M. Camus never wakened once: this looked is celebrated, the blackbird is esteemed a universal faextremely suspicious : morning came, and still the pa- vourite. The jetty songster may often be seen in the tient slept : eight o'clock struck, and Madame Ma- rural districts, whistling merrily in his wicker-cage rengo's heart beat high: she watched M. Camus with suspended on a cottage wall, or the branch of a tree feverish anxiety : the seventy seconds passed, and still overhanging the garden path. Occasionally, too, his he did not waken: in short, M. Camus did not open his shrill and gladsome note may be heard ringing in the eyes until a quarter past ten. Though rather pleased noisy streets of large and busy towns, imparting a to find himself alive and well, he was exceedingly sur-touch of nature, and reminding the passer-by, who has prised : there must be some mistake: the clock did not a heart to feel, of the green country, its pleasant lanes, go right: this was the first prediction of his which had sunny fields, and shady woods. not proved correct. At this moment the doctor came The blackbird is a native of England, staying with in. He declared that the patient was much better ; a us the whole year, and is the largest and earliest of our favourable crisis had occurred during the night. M. messengers of spring. It is the first of the seven tribes Camus immediately brightened up: this explained which constitute the turdus or thrush genus, and is everything: he wus to have died at seventy seconds found all over Europe, but appears to be less constant in past eight, but a favourable crisis having occurred, the Holland than in other places; in that country, though consequence was, &c. &c. Madame Marengo's presenti numerous in the autumn months, it is rare in winter. ment admitted of a similar explanation, and both were Blackbirds are found also in Northern Asia, as far down perfectly satisfied.

as Syria: a large portion of the earth's surface is thus M. Camus now recovered rapidly. In less than a enlivened by their song. In England, they commonly month, he no longer needed Madame Marengo's assist- begin to sing in February: while the ground is covered ance, and was able to attend to his pupils. He then with snow, before a leaf is to be seen, or other birds discovered that they had all left him. Their parents have commenced their warblings, they pour out their declared, much in the same language which he had once clear notes from some thick hedgerow or the corner of applied to Madame Marengo, that both himself and his a wood. school-room smelt of the fever. This was a sad blow for Blackbirds couple early soon after beginning to sing, the schoolmaster ; but it happened that, at that very and lay twice in the season—the first time about the end time, Paul ascertained that the savings' bank, in which of March ; but this brood is seldom reared, owing to the he had deposited a few hundred francs, saved from his general inclemency of the season, and the want of shelearnings, was a remarkably unsafe place for money. lle ter. The first laying-five or six eggs—is always more immediately expressed a wish to invest it in some safe numerous than the second; a fact noticed long ago by speculation. In short, though not without much press- Aristotle, and verified by later observers. The birds ing, Paul induced M. Camus to accept of a loan, part of are said to be shy and suspicious: the place, however, which was to be applied to his immediate wants, whilst in which they build appears to be chosen without rewith the rest the school-room was to be fitted up in style. gard to concealment; for they often select bushes and This produced a wonderful effect: pupils immediately | low trees in gardens, or hedgerows by the side of muchfrequented walks. The nest is made of rushes, twigs, seat of a rabbit—the tail, in fact, of the rabbit being in or coarse grass, cemented together with clay, and lined contact with the nest. As the seat as well as the nest with wool, hay, or hair. According to some naturalists, were both occupied, these two companions must have the birds render the clay walls of their nest more secure sat meditating together for many a day in perfect peace by mixing in hogs' bristles, and leave a hole in the and good fellowship.' bottom for the escape of water, which, if April be The old birds separate as soon as their offspring are showery, would fill the interior, and destroy the eggs. able to live without aid, and never come together again Sometimes, as if for greater stability, the materials of until the next breeding time. Although attentive to the nest will be made to embrace a branch of the bush their young, they take but little care of themselves, in which it is built; the structure is, however, very and in the winter are often found frozen to death in rudely finished, and exhibits none of that neatness dis- the hedges. They are very cleanly in their habits, and played by many smaller birds. The colour of the eggs appear to derive much enjoyment from bathing and is á bluish-green, clouded with deeper shades of the preening their feathers. They accommodate themselves saide hue, and dusky patches and veins.

easily to diversities of climate, and live to the age of In some parts of the country, particularly the north, seven or eight years; but from the attacks of birds of the blackbird is still called the merle, from its Latin prey, and abandonment of nests, they are not so numename merula. Scott tells us, in one of his spirited rous as might be expected. They eat all sorts of berries, ballads

fruits, and insects, and display much cunning and inge« Tis good, 'tis good, in gay greenwood,

nuity in hunting for snails in gardens during the winter, When mavis and merle are singing.'

and breaking the shells against the wall or hard ground.

The number of noxious creatures destroyed by these The bird's habit of flying mera, or solitary, is said by birds is surprising ; but the good they do in this way is Varro to have gained it this appellation. The merle too often lost sight of by growers of fruit. Blackbirds, appears to have been a favourite among our older poets: there is little doubt, have to answer for the misdeeds of Claucer and Spenser make frequent mention of his other depredators. Their bright yellow bill and dark musical name. He was also known as the ousel. Dray, plumage cause them to be more easily detected than ton uses both expressions

birds of the ordinary colour; they have, besides, the * The oisel near at hand, that hath a golden bill,

habit of uttering a quick shrill cry of alarm when sudAs nature him had marked of purpose, t' let us see

denly disturbed, which naturally draws attention. They That from all other birds his tunes should different be: For with their vocal sounds they sing to pleasant May;

have thus come to be regarded as insatiable destroyers Upon bis dulcet pipe the merle doth only play.'

of fruit, and in many places a war of extermination is

carried on against them. Others of the feathered race Shakspeare, too, sings of

have suffered from the same prejudice, which arises * The woosel-cock, so black of hue,

entirely from a want of true knowledge. The best-inWith orange-tawny bill.'

formed naturalists agree that birds are more sinned The blackbird, according to Buffon, is of a more against than sinning. A remarkable instance occurred decided black than the raven, its plumage being less about the middle of last century in New England: affected by reflection. The bill of the young does not there was a general failure of the crops, and the inhaacquire the yellow tinge until they are a year old; the bitants, attributing the deficiency to the depredations of inside of the mouth, the heel, and soles of the feet, then jackdaws, turned out, and shot every bird of that tribe become of the same colour, and a beautiful circle of they could find. But for some years afterwards, such gold forms round the eyes. The female is not so dark was the prodigious increase of insects and reptiles, that as the male, her feathers incline to a rusty black or the crops were but little increased. brownish hue. During the period of incubation, the

A grass plot attached to a country-house was once male will frequently sit on the eggs for four or five visited by a dozen or two of blackbirds for several days hours, while his mate

in succession ; they ploughed it up so diligently with

their bills, as to make the surface look rough and deSudden flits To pick the scanty meal.'

cayed. The owiter of the property, unwilling to shoot

the intruders, caused the grass plot to be dug up in The sight of these birds is very acute, which enables several places, when it was found to be overrun with them to detect an enemy from a great distance; their the larvæ of chafers. The birds were left in undisturbed reputed shyness may probably arise from this cause, possession; and although the walls were covered with and their taking to flight on the first alarm. It is, ripe fruit, they left it for the grubs, which they effechowever, certain, that if much watched or disturbed, tually destroyed, and the grass plot soon resumed its they will abandon their nests, and on such occasions original appearance. We can fancy the humane proare said to break their eggs, or destroy the young. prietor here spoken of acquainted with Tennyson's

Although the low position in which blackbirds gene- thoughtful linesrally place their nests exposes them to many casualties,

"Oh, blackbird ! sing me something well ; they are slow to learn from experience. Gesner, however,

While all the neighbours shoot thee round, relates an instance of two young broods having been

I keep smooth plots of fruitful ground, eaten by a cat from a nest built at the foot of a hedge.

Where thou mayst warble, eat, and dwell. After the second loss, the parent birds abandoned the old nest, and constructed another in an apple-tree, at a

Yet though I spared thec, kith and kin, height of eight feet above the ground, out of reach of

Thy sole delight is sitting still,

With that gold dagger of thy bill the enemy. On some occasions blackbirds seem to

To fret the summer jennetin. forget their habitual mistrust, and invite observation, A pair once built their nest among some dry thorns in

A golden bill ! the silver tongue

Cold February loved is dry : a pile of fagots in a garden pear Windsor, close to

Plenty corrupts the melody which men were passing the whole day with wheel

That made thee famous once, when young. barrows. The nest was so near the ground as to be completely exposed to view, but the birds persevered

Take warning! He that will not sing and reared their young. Another pair built, a few

While yon sun prospers in the blue, years ago, in the camelia- house of the Messrs Lod.

Shall sing for want, ere leaves are new, diges of Hackney, where the female was frequently

Caught in the frozen palms of spring.' seen sitting on the nest by the numerous visitors to Amongst other freaks of nature, she sometimes prothe celebrated nursery. An instance is recorded among duces a white blackbird ; an instance occurs in Wilothers, in Stanley's Birds,' of a blackbird's nest on loughby, together with this writer's explanation of the the ground, in a tuft of grass or rushes, close to the phenomenon. 'On the Alps,' he says, "the Apennines,

*

*

*

and other high mountains, are sometimes found birds of most beautiful songsters : his song consists of many this sort all over white. We ourselves saw one in a strophes, following at short intervals, among which poulterer's shop at Rome, party-coloured of black and are some more staid chirping hoarse notes, varied with white. But this we look upon as accidental: either the clear whistles; but it is specially distinguished, and coldness of the region, or the constant intuition of snow, heard at a great distance, by a loud flute-like tratuc effecting this alteration of colour-as in crows, ravens, tratatoe, which has also been compared to the sounds &c.—so that we do not think a white blackbird (pardon david, hans david. According to Bechstein, 'the natuthe seeming contradiction in adjecto) to differ speci- ral song of the blackbird is not destitute of melody ; fically from a black one.' The same fact had not but it is broken by noisy tones, and is agreeable only escaped the notice of older writers : Pliny believed the in the open country. When wild, it sings only from blackbird to turn red in winter. Le Vaillant describes March to July; but when caged, during the whole an African blackbird, called, from its note, the 'John- year, except when moulting. Its voice is so strong Frederic;' and another, which seems to repeat the Dutch and clear, that in a city it may be heard from one end phrase, Piet, myn vrouw. There is also a blue blackbird, of a long street to the other. Its memory is so good, found in Gibraltar, the Pyrenees, and the islands of the that it retains, without mixing them, several airs at Mediterranean: its singing very much resembles that once, and it will even repeat little sentences. It is a of the nightingale. Instances of white blackbirds have great favourite with the lovers of a plaintive, clear, been met with in this country : the albino is generally and musical song.' found in a nest with three or four others of the natural The blackbird's music has found responsive echo in hue; sometimes the head only is white. There was many a heart; many a 'mute inglorious Milton' has one, about ten years since, in the Zoological Gardens at been inspired by it, whose thought never expressed London, which had been taken in Northamptonshire; itself in words. The peasant poet Clare alludes reand a stuffed specimen, cream-coloured, is preserved peatedly to the never-caring blackbird ;' and we may at the British Museum. On the continent, the flesh conclude our notice of this interesting warbler with a of blackbirds is esteemed a great delicacy, particularly sonnet in which the musical inspiration is happily conafter the vendange, or grape-harvest—they are then fat veyedand in good condition. Preference, however, is gene

• Methinks, methinks a happy life is thine, rally given to those which have fed on olives and myrtle

Bird of the jetty wing and golden bill! berries. By ancient physicians the flesh was regarded Up in the clear fresh morning's dewy shine as provocative of good-humour, and easy of digestion. Art thou, and singing at thine own sweet will: They prescribed it as a remedy against dysentery and

Thy mellow voice floats over vale and hill,

Rich and mellifluous to the ears, as wine colic: the gall dissolved in vinegar was an excellent

Unto the taste : at noon we hear thee still ; cosmetic for the skin. The oil contained in the body And when gray shadows tell of Sol's decline. of the bird was applied for the cure of sciatica ; and

Thou hast thy matin and thy vesper song; this oil, together with the volatile salt supposed to

Thou hast thy noontide canticle of praise

For Him who fashioned thee to dwell among abound in the flesh, was said to render it a specific

The orchard-grounds, and 'mid the pleasant ways against the plague. Blackbirds, it is said, were once Where blooming hedgerows screen the rustic throng: rare in the north of England ; but now they are nume

Thy life a ceaseless prayer, thy days all Sabbath days.' rous, and in the neighbourhood of Newcastle have almost driven away the common thrush. In the Ork

OCCASIONAL NOTE. neys, the bird is called the chucket from its winter note-chuck, chuck. The power of imitation is strong

LINGERING PREJUDICES AGAINST SCOTLAND. in the blackbird: one has been heard to give a respect. In a recent trial before the Court of Queen's Bench, a able version of the nightingale's melody, and another barrister, wishing to show that a witness could not to crow like a cock. The latter sat perched on a tree have been simple enough to sign a particular self-conclose to a mill where poultry were kept, and evidently demnatory document without reading it, thought it a enjoyed the imitations. Sometimes it broke off in the good point to show that he was an attorney; but this middle of the cock •d-1-flapped its wings, and was not enough—he was a Scotch attorney; as if nowhistled its ordinary note. When kept in the house, thing but the shrewdest regard to his own interest was the birds will imitate many sounds of the human voice, to be expected from a person so describable. The naand may be taught little airs, which they seldom ture of the individual case is nothing to the purpose; . forget.

but in so far as a great body of people is reflected on, The natural song of blackbirds can only be heard in we think ourselves called on to protest against the perfection when they are at liberty: it is too powerful climax of the learned counsel. It belongs to a class of to be listened to in-doors : in winter, their voice becomes prejudices which we thought had long been left to the hoarse and disagreeable. They begin to sing with the most ignorant of our southern compatriots. surely earliest dawn, and may still be heard when twilight is is unworthy of an educated person of our age thus to deepening into darkness, especially on the evenings of sanction and assist in keeping alive antipathies to close, sultry days. Gilbert White enumerates the which a legislative measure of a hundred and forty blackbird among others which are silent about July years' standing gave a practical quietus. We should or August ; the latter, he observes, is the mutest have thought that the evils arising from such antimonth of all the fine season. In September, when the pathies were exemplified in so strong a manner in anwoods begin to put on their autumnal tints, the black- other section of the empire, that any rational or con- tu bird may again be heard 'whistling from the thorny siderate Englishman would hesitate to evoke even a brake,' and he retains his musical voice until the cold dormant specimen of this most unhappy class of feelweather has fairly set in. Different opinions prevail as ings. Fortunately, Scotland is so contented in the en. to the character of the blackbird's music. Aristotle de- joyment of the well-earned fruits of her own honourable scribes the bird as stammering and chattering in winter, industry, that she can afford to smile at such poor but in summer growing darker in colour, and making shafts of wit. But the discredit of launching them is a loud noise with open throat. The cocks,' says Wil- not on this account the less. loughby, are very canorous, whistling and singing It occurs forcibly to a Scotchman on hearing of such very pleasantly all the spring and summer-time, only pellets being thrown at his country, through the Eng. their note is too loud and shrill near hand.' To some lish journals or any other medium, that the conduct of ears the note suggests nothing but melancholy – a the chief of the three nations to the Irish proceeds on a chant of lamentation ; the hearers, however, must have strikingly diverse principle. From Ireland-no matter been in a melancholy mood, for the music is peculiarly from what cause-England has for many years expecheerful and exhilarating. • The male blackbird,' in rienced extreme annoyance. Ireland is the millstone the words of an intelligent observer, is one of our round her neck. She spent seven millions upon Ireland

in one year. Listen to a private individual English- ing streets, better worth recording than the items of man, and he tells you, beneath his breath, that he is departed dinners. How the continuous tide of human sick of this murderous beggarly associate, in whom he life pours on, hither and thither, in a resistless current, finds no honour or truth, but an endless, thankless "Give, give!' England, however, publicly treats this offering in itself a mighty range for contemplation! We matter with signal tenderness-no jibe, such as that know an old lady who shed tears as she stood and of our barrister, would be ventured on in either the watched the multitudinous life of a busy thoroughfare: Queen's Bench, or the House of Commons, or at any and truly is it impressive, presenting as it does every public meeting. England dare not use such terms variety of human character. There are things to be towards Ireland. It is curious to see her less considerate sons so ready to venture on jokes to the discredit of London, which can be seen and heard nowhere else,

seen and heard among the crowds that throng the streets I of Scotland, which for centuries has given no offencebat from which nothing is dreaded. How far the contrast and which are as much a part of London as its parks is honourable to her, we need not stop to consider. and public buildings. The jibe and jest of folly—the

We have already given more lines to the subject bard sententiousness of business—the sneer of envythan it is worth ; but a general remark may yet be the groan of misery--are strangely mingled in London. allowed. If England has any sympathies with the two We have lived for some years in London, and in our associated kingdoms, they flow as six to one in favour daily peregrinations through the streets, many objects of Ireland. How like this is to the way of the world have struck us as noteworthy, which may possess a gein private life! Literature and common talk are full of the cant of a sentimental interest about unfortunate neral interest. Our residence is ‘over the water,' which persons, however truly the authors of their own mis means on the Surrey side of the Thames, about threefortunes, and even although some dash of criminality, quarters of an hour's walk from Blackfriars Bridge, away romantic or otherwise, may attach to them. But the in what is at present debateable ground between smoke worthy, industrious, frugal man, who sees after his own and sunshine. We are just out of one of the main thoaffairs and troubles nobody-who fulfils all the great roughfares, down a short lane, on one side of which is a duties towards his family, his friends, and the public, real hedge, such as you see miles away in the country, not excepting an abundant but modest beneficence towards the meritorious poverty round about him—that and a goodly sprinkling of trees ; and at night, all is as is a kind of man of a different stamp. He is not pic- quiet as in a country village. We start in the morning turesque. He does not excite benevolence. Perhaps at nine, and walk fast or leisurely according to the seahis success in life rather provokes envy. No one has son; and if we have a few minutes to spare, can always any sympathy for him. This is the case of Scotland. dispose of them profitably at some book-stall on the Of course, in the satisfaction arising from duties well way: many stray facts and valued volumes have we performed, and aims wholly legitimate and praise- picked up by this means at little cost. In the winter, worthy, there is ample compensation for every injustice when the weather is fine, we step at once from our door that may arise from prejudices so vulgar and so ridi on to a hard frozen path, that rings beneath our feet; culous.

the hedge and trees are white with a frosty incrusta

tion; and on reaching the high road, we find its clean WALKS TO OFFICE-CAPRICORNUS TO

surface striped by countless wheel-tracks. But after CANCER

the first furlong or two, the brightness and naturalness

of surrounding objects deteriorate with every step of We have read of a man whose whole life was passed in progress citywards, in a gradually - increasing uproar, London, and who, walking daily to and from his official gloom, and dinginess. Half a mile behind, all was duties during a period of forty years, never found any- clean and crisp; now the pavement begins to look as thing worth jotting down in his diary except his dinners though it had been coated with damp ashes, which, a and the name of the house in which they were eaten. little farther on, are transformed into black slippery Just imagine an individual

, after nearly half a century mud, trying to the pedestrian's patience, and provocaof active service, retiring on a 'superannuated allow- tive of ire in omnibus conductors and cab drivers. ance,' with no other record of the past than a big cata- When you started, the sun was shining in a clear sky; logue of masticatory achievements! What a resource but as you went on, he began to look a little tawny, on rainy days, when the newspaper was exhausted, and then brown, and now he looms in lurid redness through the customary stroll could not be taken, to bring out the smoky atmosphere, which deposits itself in New the heavy volume, and "chew the cud of sweet and Zealand tattoo lines round your eyes, nose, and mouth, bitter fancies' over its suggestive memoranda, which makes your breath look as though it came from a cokemight run thus : Feb. 19, 1830—Dined in Butcher-hall furnace, and half stifles you into the bargain. The Lane; alamode beef and college pudding ; half-and-white rime still clinging to the tilt-cover of wagons half:

or, July 6, 1831-Lamb chops and asparagus at coming in from the country, is looked at with astonishPamphilon's ; gooseberry tart; cheese; stout! It fol- ment by people in the streets, nine out of ten of whom lows, of course, that the writer of such a journal must would hardly believe that the atmosphere is clear and be a bachelor ; a wife and children would have given exhilarating at a distance of two or three miles. The him something better to do than keep a chronological gloom deepens, and you are past all doubts as to its

account of eatings and drinkings. Were it possible to being one of the annually-recurring genuine London ' investigate motives, we should perhaps find nothing but fogs. Gaslights are burning in the shops, flinging be

the physical fact of a good digestion. That a man may wildering shadows across the streets, and making everynever write anything is within belief; but that one who thing look strange and spectral. On crossing the bridge, kept a diary, and walked about the streets of London the fog seems denser than ever-not a glimpse of the for a lifetime, could never find an accident, or a foggy river is to be seen. Steamboats, however, are feeling day to commemorate, staggers credibility. It is possible their way along, and the murky fumes from their funthat the very greatness and multiformity of the subject nels remind you of smoke-vomiting monsters in some may make .taking notes' difficult or impossible to an Dantean inferno. Sometimes the dismal pall lifts and unpractised hand. A slight habit of observation will, floats away about the middle of the day, and the glad however, detect a thousand things in the restless, roar- sun comes out (for it is mostly in clear weather that

1

the real metropolitan fog makes its visitation), and man route for years, and their conversation, as you may hear and beast can breathe again. At other times, it clings in passing, is mostly of a hearty, cheerful tone-the in. all day, and creates a scene, on the approach of night, spiring effect of a good breakfast. With what generous scarcely possible to describe. The gas lamps are of no pity is their hand often thrust into their coat pocket for more use than fırthing rushlights ; omnibus drivers stray halfpence to be dropped into the outstretched lose their way in Fleet Street and the Strand, or mis- palm of some shivering beggar; and they seem to have take Temple-Bar for the Horse Guards, and shout to a friendly word or nod for almost every one they meet. one another as mariners navigating an unknown sea. There is a contagious cheeriness in all this, but it is The habitual frequenter of the streets is as much at a liable to fluctuation. We have watched those same loss as the veriest stranger : to walk is almost as adven- individuals on their return from office, at four in the turous an undertaking as travelling in the desert with-afternoon ; their manner is then reserved, not unfreout a compass ; and when, on nearing home, you emerge quently abrupt and somewhat snappish, which effecfrom the smoke, you draw a long breath with a feeling tually keeps beggars at bay, and intimidates crossingof having escaped some horrid calamity, and lost a sweepers. We were long at a loss to account for this day.

transformation of character, until a friend, well expe-
Such is one of London's phenomena: but the same rienced in the phenomena of urban life, whispered that
walk presents other characteristics for consideration, a Londoner going home to his dinner is always impa-
moral as well as physical. Nowhere is the struggle for tient and out of temper.
existence so apparent as in the suburbs of the huge city, Now you meet a troop of German musicians, in round
and nowhere is it attempted under more hopeless cir- white hats, or slouching Italians with barrel pianos, on
cumstances. The effort may probably be more intense their way to the farthest suburban limit, from whence

in town,' but it is more concealed, masked by the pro- they play their way gradually homewards. Street mu-
fusion of brass, blaze, and glitter. But here, in the out- sic, compared with what it was a few years since, has
skirts, where there is as yet no neighbourhood, no back undergone a great improvement. Young females occa-
streets swarming with a poor population, always ready- sionally pass you, coming from town, with a thin book or
money customers, the attempts to establish a business roll of music in their hand. How various are the charac-
seem little better than frantic. In some, the fraudu-ters they present !--some thoughtful and anxious, others
lent intention is palpable from the very outset; but mechanical and business-like, others, again, flippant and
others excite our sympathy. A newly-married couple restless. They are governesses going to their daily
come out, and take one of the 'run-up' houses, all shop task of teaching and training young children. You
and closets, for which the suburban approaches to Lon- may read their qualifications at a glance, and discover
don are famous. The husband is a respectable artisan, those really fitted for their office. Some few who receive
or clerk at a coal-wharf; his wife has learned dress- an adequate salary may be seen in the omnibuses; they
making, and incontinently the window is filled with are of the better sort: but for most, teaching is a weary
little frocks, coats, and caps for children, ticketed at duty, undertaken as a last resource. Here, too, you meet
foolishly low prices to tempt purchasers. 'First Floor men with portfolios under their arms-artists who give
TO LET' stares you in the face from the central pane, lessons at a guinea a quarter. How sensitive they ap-
day after day, as you go by; but the accommodation is pear of being too closely scanned, for none but them.
too raw, and the rooms too small, for a respectable, quiet selves know the trouble they have to retain a show of
lodger; and they either stand empty, or, as the rent respectability about their threadbare garments! It is
must be made up at all events, are let to a man employed rare, even in the coldest weather, that you see them
at a neighbouring glue factory, who manages to squeeze wearing a cloak or overcoat, and the attempt to brave it
his household gear, wife, and two children into them. out is obvious. The struggle in many cases must be
Henceforth a dirty blind gives a squalid appearance to most painful and melancholy. lIow much more inde-
the first floor window: the struggle, however, goes on pendent and contented appear the men hawking garden
below : the trim and showy articles first exhibited disap- stuff in wheelbarrows, bakers delivering their cus-
pear, and give place to others of a plainer style; and a tomers' bread! But it is of such that a large proportion
glance at the interior shows you that the shop window of the necessitous world consists, which shrinks and
contains the whole of the stock in trade. At last, on suffers unseen within the greater world of London, all
passing some morning, you see the shutters closed : the pleasure or business around them. The sparse traffic
inmates have made a moonlight flitting of it, and gone of the suburbs affords them no concealment, and the
to tempt fortune in another parish, or to hide their dis- sight of them lets us into many a secret of the struggle
appointment in a lodging close to the husband's place of for existence in the crowded metropolis.
business. The history of one is the history of a thou- How the cries and confusion increase as you approach
sand-green-grocers, haberdashers, stationers, whatever the more crowded streets! The shops, too, have an air
may be the business. A few struggle on for a few years, of business about them, and are less precariously sup.
until back streets are built, which drain them off from ported than those you have hitherto passed. Here and
the main thoroughfare; better and larger shops spring there, however, you still see one whose existence depends
up, and their places are taken by tradesmen with capi- on those of uncertain ways and means, where viands of
tal. What eventually becomes of all those who do not most equivocal appearance are exposed for sale, while a
succeed, must remain matter for grave speculation. scrawl on a black board announces, Hot sheeps' heads

The great human tide begins to flow city wards as every night from eight to eleven. Another will be, early as six in the morning. A few scattered mechanics “ Notorious halfpenny shaving-shop.' A third declares a and porters are then hastening to their work. At seven, Rise in bones, and old iron;' adding, by way of postthe number is augmented, with here and there an “as- script, . Any gentleman's black eye cured in five minutes sistant,' or a bookseller's collector. At eight, troops of for twopence. A few yards farther, you read, ‘Ball merchants' and lawyers' clerks make their appearance; this evening at seven ; tickets threepence each, refreshand from the hour at which their daily employment ments included !'-facts pregnant with meaning, exhibegins, are called the 'Nine-o'clock-men.' A few strag- biting the physical resources of a numerous class of the glers from this division fill up the next hour, when the population.

Ten-o'clock-men' may be seen all going in one direc- When the suburban roads converge, and pour their tion along the now busy thoroughfare. They are gene- traffic into one line of street, it is no longer easy to rally more advanced in life, and more staid in appear- detect individual characteristics ; groups must now be ance, than those who preceded. Many are picked up by taken instead of units. You need no other warrant the omnibuses, which now come speeding on, crowded that Christmas is nigh than the grocers' shops. What with passengers who must be in the

city by ten. Not a profusion of plums and currants, spices and candied a few, however, prefer to walk. They fall in with fruits! In fact, you have only to look at a grocer's or acquaintances, by whose side they have paced the same linendraper's window, at any time of the year, to know

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