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and stunning rattle of the wind would have drowned in their skill and cunning in capturing it. Constantly them, so loud it roared and raved througlı the trees.' exposed to perils of all kinds, they become callous to

Even the lowlands in such a region are not without any feeling of danger, and destroy human as well as their terrors. The black threatening clouds seemed animal life with as little scruple, and as freely, as they gradually to descend until they kissed the earth, and expose their own. Of laws human or Divine, they neialready the distant mountains were hidden to their very ther know nor care to know. Their wish is their law, bases. A hollow murmuring swept thr the bot- and to attain it, they do not scruple as to ways and tom, but as yet not a branch was stirred by wind; and means. Firm friends and bitter enemies, with them it is the huge cotton-woods, with their leafless limbs, loomed "a word and a blow," and the blow often first. They may like a line of ghosts through the heavy gloom. Know have good qualities, but they are those of the animal; ing but too well what was coming, I turned my animals and people fond of giving hard names call them revengetowards the timber, which was about two miles distant. ful, bloodthirsty, drunkards (when the wherewithal is With pointed ears, and actually trembling with fright, to be had), gamblers, regardless of the laws of meum and they were as eager as myself to reach the shelter; but tuum-in fact, " white Indians.” However, there are before we had proceeded a third of the distance, with a exceptions, and I have met honest mountain-men. deafening roar the tempest broke upon us. The clouds Their animal qualities, however, are undeniable. Strong, opened and drove right in our faces a storm of freezing active, hardy as bears, daring, expert in the use of their sleet, which froze upon us as it fell. The first squall weapons, they are just what uncivilised white man of wind carried away my cap, and the enormous hail- might be supposed to be in a brute state, depending stones, beating on my unprotected head and face, al- upon his instinct for the support of life. Not a hole or most stunned me. In an instant my hunting-shirt was corner in the vast wilderness of the “ far west” but soaked, and as instantly frozen hard; and my horse has been ransacked by these hardy men. From the was a mass of icicles. Jumping off my mule—for to ride Mississippi to the mouth of the Colorado of the west, was impossible -I_tore off the saddle-blanket and from the frozen regions of the north to the Gila in covered my head. The animals, blinded with the sleet, Mexico, the beaver-hunter has set his traps in every and their eyes actually coated with ice, turned their creek and stream. All this vast country, but for the sterns to the storm, and, blown before it, made for the daring enterprise of these men, would be even now a open prairie. All my exertions to drive them to the terra incognita to geographers, as indeed a great portion shelter of the timber were useless. It was impossible still is; but there is not an acre that has not been to face the hurricane, which now brought with it clouds passed and repassed by the trappers in their perilous of driving snow; and perfect darkness soon set in. excursions. The mountains and streams still retain Still the animals kept on, and I determined not to leave the names assigned to them by the rude hunters; and them, following, or rather being blown, after them. these alone are the hardy pioneers who have paved the My blanket, frozen stiff like a board, required all the way for the settlement of the western country.' strength of my numbed fingers to prevent it being blown Trappers are of two kinds—the hired and the free: away; and although it was no protection against the the former being merely hired for the hunt by the fur

intense cold, I knew it would in some degree shelter me companies, while the latter is supplied with animals | at night from the snow. In half an hour, the ground and traps by the company, and receives a certain price

was covered on the bare prairie to the depth of two for his furs and peltries. feet, and through this I floundered for a long time be- There is likewise a third trapper on his own hook,' fore the animals stopped.

more independent than either. He has animals and * The way the wind roared over the prairie that night traps of his own, chooses his own hunting-grounds, and -how the snow drove before it, covering me and the selects his own market. From this class, which is | poor animals partly—and how I lay there, feeling the small in number, the novelists may be supposed to

very blood freezing in my veins, and my bones petrify- select their romantic trappers, who amuse their leisure ing with the icy blasts which seemed to penetrate them with sentiment and philosophy. -how for hours I remained with my head on my knees, The equipment of the trapper is as follows :-On and the snow pressing it down like a weight of lead, starting for a hunt, he fits himself out with the necesexpecting every instant to drop into a sleep from which Isary equipment, either from the Indian trading-forts, knew it was impossible I should ever awake-how every or from some of the petty traders — coureurs des bois now and then the mules would groan aloud and fall | --who frequent the western country. This equipment down upon the snow, and then again struggle on their consists usually of two or three horses or muleslegs—how all night long the piercing howl of wolves one for saddle, the others for packs -- and six traps, was borne upon the wind, which never for an instant which are carried in a bag of leather called a trap-sack. abated its violence during the night I would not at- Ammunition, a few pounds of tobacco, dressed deertempt to describe. I have passed many nights alone skins for moccasins, &c. are carried in a wallet of dressed in the wilderness, and in a solitary camp have listened buffalo-skin, called a “possible-sack.” His “ “possibles” to the roarings of the wind and the howling of wolves, and “trap-sack” are generally carried on the saddleand felt the rain or snow beating upon me, with perfect mule when hunting, the others being packed with the unconcern; but this night threw all my former expe- furs. The costume of the trapper is a hunting-shirt of riences into the shade, and is marked with the blackest dressed buckskin, ornamented with long fringes; pantaof stones in the memoranda of my journeyings.

loons of the same material, and decorated with porcuBut we must now come to the most interesting por- pine-quills and long fringes down the outside of the leg. tion of the work-a description of the trappers of the A flexible felt-hat and moccasins clothe his extremities. Rocky Mountains, who, according to our author, appear Over his right shoulder and under his left arm hang to approximate more to the primitive savage than per- his powder-horn and bullet-pouch, in which he carries haps any other class of civilised man. Their lives are his balls, flint and steel, and Odds and ends of all kinds. spent in the remote wilds of the mountains, and their Round the waist is a belt, in which is stuck a large habits and character exhibit a mixture of simplicity butcher's-knife in a sheath of buffalo-hide, made fast to and ferocity, impressed upon them, one would think, by the belt by a chain or guard of steel; which also supthe strange phenomena of nature in the midst of which ports a little buckskin case containing a whetstone. A they live. Food and clothing are their only wants, and tomahawk is also often added, and of course a long the pursuit of these is the great source of their perils heavy rifle is part and parcel of his equipment. I had and hardships. With their rifle habitually in their nearly forgotten the pipe-holder, which hangs round hand, they are constantly on the watch against danger, his neck, and is generally a gage d'amour, and a triumph or engaged in the supply of provisions.

of squaw workmanship, in shape of a heart, garnished * Keen observers of nature, they rival the beasts of with beads and porcupine-quills.' prey in discovering the haunts and habits of game, and Thus furnished with everything that is necessary,

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and having chosen the locality of his trapping- twenty and thirty shillings a pint-cup, which is the ground, he sets out on his expedition to the moun- usual measure; tobacco fetches ten and fifteen shillings tains, sometimes alone, sometimes with several more a plug; alcohol, from twenty to fifty shillings a pint; in company, as soon as the breaking up of the ice gunpowder, sixteen shillings a pint-cup; and all other permits. Arrived on his hunting-grounds, he follows articles at proportionably exorbitant prices. the creeks and streams, keeping a sharp look-out for • The “beaver” is purchased at from two to eight “sign.” If he sees & prostrate cotton-wood tree, he dollars per pound; the Hudson's Bay Company alone examines it, to discover if it be the work of beaver buying it by the pluie, or “ plew ”-that is, the whole whether “thrown” for the purpose of food, or to skin; giving a certain price for skins, whether of old dam the stream. The track of the beaver on the mud beaver or “ kittens." or sand under the bank is also examined; and if the "The rendezvous is one continued scene of drunken" sign” be fresh, he sets his trap in the run of the ness, gambling, and brawling and fighting, as long as animal, hiding it under water, and attaching it by a the money and credit of the trappers last. Seated, Instout chain to a picket driven in the bank, or to a bush dian fashion, round the fires, with a blanket spread beor tree. A“float-stick” is made fast to the trap by a fore them, groups are seen with their “decks" of cards, cord a few feet long, which, if the animal carry away playing at “ euker," "poker,” and “seven-up,” the the trap, floats on the water, and points out its position. regular mountain-games. The stakes are “beaver," The trap is baited with the “medicine," an oily sub- which here is current coin ; and when the fur is gone, stance obtained from the beaver. A stick is dipped their horses, mules, rifles, and shirts, hunting-packs, into this, and planted over the trap; and the beaver, and breeches, are staked. Daring gamblers make the attracted by the smell, and wishing a close inspection, rounds of the camp, challenging each other to play for very foolishly puts his leg into the trap, and is a “gone the trapper's highest stake—his horse, his squaw (if he beaver."

have one), and, as once happened, his scalp! There “When a lodge is discovered, the trap is set at the go "hos and beaver !” is the mountain expression edge of the dam, at the point where the animal passes when any great loss is sustained; and sooner or later, from deep to shoal water, and always under water. “ hos and beaver” invariably find their way into the Early in the morning, the hunter mounts his mule and insatiable pockets of the traders. A trapper often examines the traps. The captured animals are skinned, squanders the produce of his hunt, amounting to hunand the tails, which are a great dainty, carefully packed dreds of dollars, in a couple of hours; and, supplied on into camp. The skin is then stretched over a hoop or credit with another equipment, leaves the rendezvous framework of osier-twigs, and is allowed to dry, the for another expedition, which has the same result time flesh and fatty substance being carefully scraped after time; although one tolerably successful hunt (grained). When dry, it is folded into a square sheet, would enable him to return to the settlements and civithe fur turned inwards, and the bundle, containing lised life, with an ample sum to purchase and stock a about ten to twenty skins, tightly pressed and corded, farm, and enjoy himself in ease and comfort the remainand is ready for transportation.

der of his days. During the hunt, regardless of Indian vicinity, the • An old trapper, a French Canadian, assured me that fearless trapper wanders far and near in search of he had received fifteen thousand dollars for beaver "sign." His nerves must ever be in a state of tension, during a sojourn of twenty years in the mountains. and his mind ever present at his call. His eagle eye Every year he resolved in his mind to return to Canada, sweeps round the country, and in an instant detects and, with this object, always converted his fur into any foreign appearance. A turned leaf, a blade of grass cash ; but a fortnight at the "rendezvous" always pressed down, the uneasiness of the wild animals, the cleaned him out, and, at the end of twenty years, he flight of birds, are all paragraphs to him written in had not even credit sufficient to buy a pound of pownature's legible hand and plainest language. All the der. wits of the subtle savage are called into play to gain an • These annual gatherings are often the scene of advantage over the wily woodsman; but with the natu- bloody duels, for over their cups and cards no men are ral instinct of primitive man, the white hunter has the more quarrelsome than your mountaineers. Rifles, at advantages of a civilised mind; and thus provided, sel-twenty paces, settle all differences; and, as may be imadom fails to outwit, under equal advantages, the cun- gined, the fall of one or other of the combatants is cerning savage.'

tain, or, as sometimes happens, both fall to the word Yet sometimes the precautions of the white hunter "fire.”' are vain. The Indian, observing where he has set his We have already given some specimens of our author's traps, creeps towards them in such a way as to leave skill in painting from nature; but the following scene, no trail, and couches patiently in the bushes till his though often sketched, has rarely been treated with a victim comes.

Then flies the arrow; and at so short freer and firmer touch. It is a scene far from unfamiliar a distance it rarely flies in vain. The whiz is hardly to the trapper:—' A little before sunset I descended in the ear of the victim when the point is in his lieart, the mountain to the springs ; and being very tired, after and the exulting savage has a white scalp to carry taking a refreshing draught of the cold water, I lay home for the adornment of his lodge. But the balance down on the rock by the side of the water and fell fast of spoil of this kind, it must be said, is greatly in favour asleep. When I awoke the sun had already set ; but of the trappers, whose camp-fires, at the end of the although darkness was fast gathering over the mountain, hunt, exhibit twelve black scalps for every one their I was surprised to see a bright light flickering against ! comrades have lost.

its sides. A glance assured me that the mountain was * At a certain time, when the hunt is over, or they on fire, and starting up, I saw at once the danger of my i have loaded their pack-animals, the trappers proceed to position. The bottom had been fired about a mile below the “ rendezvous," the locality of which has been pre- the springs, and but a short distance from where I had viously agreed upon; and here the traders and agents secured my animals. A dense cloud of smoke was of the fur companies await them, with such assortment hanging over the gorge, and presently a light air springof goods as their hardy customers may require, includ- ing up from the east, a mass of flame shot up into the ing generally a fair supply of alcohol. The trappers sky and rolled fiercely up the stream, the belt of dry drop in singly and in small bands, bringing their packs brush on its banks catching fire and burning like tinder. of beaver to this mountain market, not unfrequently to The mountain was already invaded by the devouring the value of a thousand dollars each, the produce of element, and two wings of fame spread out from the one hunt. The dissipation of the rendezvous, how- main stream, which, roaring along the bottom with the ever, soon turns the trapper's pocket inside out. The speed of a race-horse, licked the mountain side, extending goods brought by the traders, although of the most in- its long line as it advanced. The dry pines and cedars ferior quality, are sold at enormous prices :--Coffee, hissed and cracked as the flame, reaching them, ran up


their trunks, and spread amongst the limbs, whilst the himself on his legs, swaying from side to side, stamps long waving grass underneath was a sea of fire. From impatiently at his growing weakness, or lifts his rugged the rapidity with which the fire advanced, I feared that and matted head and helplessly bellows out his conit would already have reached my animals, and hurried scious impotence. To the last, however, he endeavours at once to the spot as fast as I could run, The prairie to stand upright, and plants his limbs farther apart, but itself was as yet untouched, but the surrounding ridges to no purpose. As the body rolls like a ship at sea, his were clothed in fire, and the mules, with stretched ropes, head slowly turns from side to side, looking about, as it were trembling with fear. Throwing the saddle on my were, for the unseen and treacherous enemy who has horse, and the pack on the steadiest mule, I quickly brought him, the lord of the plains, to such a pass. mounted, leaving on the ground a pile of meat, which I Gouts of purple blood spurt from his mouth and noshad not time to carry with me. The fire had already trils, and gradually the failing limbs refuse longer to gained the prairie, and its long dry grass was soon a support the ponderous carcase; more heavily rolls the sheet of flame; but, worse than all, the gap through body from side to side, until suddenly, for a brief instant, which I had to retreat was burning. Setting spurs into it becomes rigid and still; a convulsive tremor seizes it, Panchito's sides, I dashed him at the burning brush, and and with a low, sobbing gasp, the huge animal falls though his mane and tail were singed in the attempt, over on his side, the limbs extended stark and stiff, and he gallantly charged through it, Looking back, I saw the mountain of flesh without life or motion.' the mules huddled together on the other side, and evi

dently fearing to pass the blazing barrier. As, how1 ever, to stop would have been fatal, I dashed on, but

GLEANINGS IN BIBLIOGRAPHY. before I had proceeded twenty yards, my old hunting RESEARCHES into the origin of the names applied to mule, singed and smoking, was at my side, and the the various forms of written or printed documents have others close behind her.

often engaged the attention of the curious—they have *On all sides I was surrounded by fire. The whole afforded matter for ingenious speculation to the antiscenery was illuminated, the peaks and distant ridges quary, and given to the zealous bibliopole frequent Į being as plainly visible as at noonday. The bottom was opportunities a roaring mass of flame, but on the other side, the

painfully to pore upon a book prairie being more bare of cedar-bushes, the fire was

To seek the light of truth.' less fierce, and presented the only way of escape. To reach it, however, the creek had to be crossed, and the The Hebrew word sepher throughout the Scriptures is bushes on the banks were burning fiercely, which ren- generally translated book; it might, however, with equal dered it no easy matter; moreover, the edges were truth, be rendered writing, deed, tract, or pamphlet. coated above the water with thick ice, which rendered in the Septuagint the translation is biblos, and in the it still more difficult. I succeeded in pushing Panchito | Vulgate libellus. Dr Clarke quotes from an old version into the stream, but in attempting to climb the opposite of the Bible, supposed to be earlier than Wickliffe'sbank, a blaze of fire was puffed into his face, which Who ever schal leeve his wiif, geve he to her a ly bel ; caused him to rear on end, and his hind feet flying away that is, a lytil book of forsakynge.' The libelli— little from him at the same moment on the ice, he fell back- books—are said to have first appeared about the comwards into the middle of the stream, and rolled over me mencement of the Christian era; and the term libellus in the deepest water. Panchito rose on his legs, and was applied to many religious and legal documents

stood trembling with affright in the middle of the stream, libellus poenitentialis—libellus famosus. į whilst I dived and groped for my rifle, which had When tracts first came into existence, they were

slipped from my hands, and of course sunk to the bot- mostly confined to religious subjects: their name is | tom. After a search of some minutes I found it, and derived from the Latin tractatus, something drawn out,

again mounting, made another attempt to cross a little as a summary or treatise. *If,' as Hazlitt says, ' books, farther down, in which I succeeded, and followed by the like wings, carry us o'er the world,' it must be confessed mules, dashed through the fire, and got safely through that the lightest books are often the heaviest wings: it the line of blazing brush.'

would be diflicuit, indeed, to fly with the tracts that the Upwards of 100,000 buffalo robes find their way into schoolmen threw off as matters of recreation. 'Some the United States and Canada every year; and besides books,’ it has been remarked, “ like the city of London, those killed by the Indians, innumerable carcases left fare the better for being burnt.' to rot untouched on the trail, attest the wanton bruta- Antiquaries are in doubt as to the origin of the word lity of the crowds of emigrants to California, Columbia, pamphlet : various Greek derivations have been proand elsewhere. Still the numbers of these animals are posed, suggested probably by the syllable pan; in countless; and it will probably be many years before ancient times, however, paper was sometimes spelt the reckless whites accomplish the feat of stripping the pampier. The earliest known mention of the word boundless prairies of their ornament and pride, and de- occurs in ‘Philobiblon,' a work of the fourteenth cenpriving the traveller of a meal. We have now only tury, in which the learned and reverend author says he room for the following masterly description of the death reveres books rather than pounds sterling-libros non of a buffalo, which will serve as an appropriate tailpiece libras'—and 'panfletos' rather than “palfridis. In the to a more faithful portrait of the trapper of the Rocky reign of Henry VI. the term was pamflete; and plaunflet dlountains than has probably ever before been drawn. at the end of the fifteenth century. According to Dr

No animal requires so much killing as a buffalo. Johnson, the derivation is from the French-par un filet, Unless shot through the lungs or spine, it invariably held by a thread; but another authority, Dr Pegge, escapes ; and, even when thus mortally wounded, or even suggests palme feuillet

, leaf to be held in the hand. In struck through the very heart, it will frequently run the period of the civil wars, England was overrun with a considerable distance before falling to the ground, pamphlets ; so fast did they multiply in the heat of particularly if it sees the hunter after the wound is party spirit, that the parliament passed a denunciation given. If, however, he keeps himself concealed after against 'pamphlet, treatise, ballad, libel, or sheet or firing, the animal will remain still, if it does not imme- sheets of news. The rulers, perhaps, looking round diately fall. It is a most painful sight to witness the on the popular literature of the day, anticipated the dying struggles of the huge beast. The buffalo invari- | thought of a modern writerably evinces the greatest repugnance to lie down when mortally wounded, apparently conscious that, when

• Huge reams of folly, shreds of wit,

Compose the mingled mass of it;' once touching mother earth, there is no hope left him. A bull, shot through the heart or lungs, with and so, as prudent statesmen, applied a check to overblood streaming from his mouth, and protruding tongue, production. Tracts and pamphiets, nevertheless, have his eyes rolling, bloodshot, and glazed with death, braces done, and are still doing, good service, by carrying

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knowledge into quarters where larger works seldom or renegade was placed at the head of the new establishnever penetrate; and we may say with an author of ment, but the national character was against him ; and the past century, there's scarcely any degree of people notwithstanding his activity, at the time of his death, but may think themselves interested enough to be con- which happened in 1746, he had not been able to print cerned with what is published in pamphlets.'

more than sixteen works. The first was a Turkish and Francis I., although called the patron of letters, issued Arabic dictionary, 2 vols. folio, of which the impression an edict for the closing of all shops for the sale of books, was com ted in 1729; the price was fixed at thirtyunder penalty of death. This severity was afterwards five piastres, by order of the sultan. In the following mitigated, yet booksellers were forbidden to sell any year a Turkish grammar appeared, a copy of which, books but those in their catalogues, one of which was with each leaf of a different colour, is still in existence. exclusively of works approved by the church. On no Two years of constant labour were required for a account whatever were they allowed to introduce books copyist to transcribe the Bible carefully upon vellum. from countries out of the Roman pale. Penalty of death • What time and trouble,' says Voltaire, . must have was also decreed against those who should sell or dis- been taken to copy correctly in Greek and Latin the tribute books, or publish engravings and woodcuts, works of Origen, of Clement of Alexandria, and of all however small, without special permission from the the other writers called Fathers !! St Jerome says in royal authority.

one of his satirical letters against Rufinus, that he had According to some writers, Louis XI. of France sent ruined himself with buying Origen’s works after having Nicolas Jenson, director of the mint at Tours, about written with so much heat and bitterness against that the year 1462, “to inform himself secretly of the cutting author. “Yes,' answered Rufinus, 'I have read Origen: of punches and characters, by means of which the if it be a crime, I acknowledge my guilt, and that I rarest manuscripts might be multiplied by printing ; exhausted the whole of my wealth in purchasing his and to bring away the invention subtilly' Jenson, works at Alexandria !' The writer just quoted observes, however, from some cause, did not return to France : that it is with books as with men, the small number he established himself at Venice in 1469, where he play a great part, the rest are confounded in the crowd. printed the ' Epitres de Ciceron,' and one hundred and Reflect," he adds, that the whole known universe is fifty other works, during the next ten years. Ile ap- governed by books except savage nations. Who are the plied his talent as a graver of coins with equal success leaders of mankind in well-governed countries? Those and skill to the art of typography; and to him are we who know how to read and write. You do not underindebted for the introduction of the Roman character stand Hippocrates, or Boerhaave, or Sydenham; but in printing. In 1563, an ordonnance was issued by you put yourself into the hands of those who have read Charles IX., by which printers were enjoined not to them.' print any books whatever, ‘under penalty of hanging We have often looked into the substratum of history or strangling.' Such means for the suppression of for incidental facts that might lead us to judge of the knowledge, whatever their success at the time, remind state of popular feeling in a city or town when the us of the attempt to stay the stream of the Danube by printing-press was first set to work. Did the inhabidamming up its source. Monarchs would have done tants go about their ordinary avocations with the plodbetter to leave printing to work its own cure; for, ac- ding unconcern induced by long habit? or did they meet cording to Sismondi, 'there is as great a mortality by twos and threes to talk in half-doubting tones of the among books as among men.' Sir Thomas Overbury new mystery, savouring strongly of the supernatural, tells us

that was to make books faster than twenty copyists • Books are a part of man's prerogative;

could write them? Were no curious and wondering In formal ink they thoughts and voices hold,

crowds collected in front of the quaintly-gabled house, That we to them our solitude may give,

heretofore not more remarked than the surrounding And make time present travelled that of old.

edifices, in which the printer was shut up with his-50 Our life, fame pieceth longer at the end,

said the copyists--unholy mechanism? Was there no And books it farther backward do extend.'

standing on tiptoe to peep in at the windows? Did no The name of the Elzevirs, the famous printers of the adventurous urchin climb by the projecting carvings sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, first occurs in an to steal a glance through some weather-broken chink? edition of · Eutropius, printed at Leyden in 1592 : it were there not women among the onlookers, who, as is seldom or never met with in works printed after portentous whispers went round, half-wished the babe 1680. Their Bible has sold for 110 florins, Seneca for in their arms might be clerkly inclined, and read the L.17, Virgil L.15, Horace L.8. Their masterpiece is unwritten volumes so soon to see the light? Did not an ‘Imitation of Jesus Christ,' a small duodecimo of those about to set out on a journey put off their depar257 pages, published in 1679 ; it has sold for L.6. ture for a day, that they might first see a specimen of

The Sultan Bajazet II. issued a decree in 1483 for- the wondrous craft, and carry the news with them? bidding the use of printed books by the Turks, under Did not wayfarers, arriving with dusty hose, unsling penalty of death. This decree was afterwards confirmed their knapsacks, and seating themselves on the opposite by his son Selim I. in 1515, and implicitly obeyed by side of the narrow street, wait to see the upshot of an the Mohammedans, with equal ignorance and fanati- event that filled the town with wonder? Surely the cism, until the eighteenth century, when, in the reign magistrates and the brethren of the guilds, in furred of Achmet III., Seid-Effendi, who had accompanied his and robed gowns, were sitting in their carved and pafather, the ambassador, to the court of Louis XV. in nelled council-hall for the first sheet to be brought to 1720, was so much struck with the advantages of them, there in grave debate to determine the question printing, that he determined his own country should of doubtful agency? We can hardly believe that the participate in them. For the attainment of this object enemies of progress succeeded in repressing all manihe employed the services of a Hungarian renegade, who festation of curiosity; society had just then reached was subsequently surnamed Basmadjy- the Printer.' another of its culminating points. Luther, with unA memorial was drawn up, by means of which the ceremonious hand, was opening ways for the admission grand vizier, Ibrahim Pacha, an enlightened protector of light where, for ages, all had been darkness; the of literature, obtained a favourable edict from the sultan. human mind had found a new want, and · books, the But fearful of wounding the religious scruples of his mind incarnate, the immortality of the life that is,' subjects, and of alarming the numerous class of copyists, were destined to supply it. Achmet forbade the printing of the Koran, the oral In the absence of precise information on these points, laws of the Prophet, the commentaries on these works, we may turn to a more recent portion of history, which and books on jurisprudence-leaving to the industry of future antiquaries will look back to with as much the printers philosophical, medical, astronomical, geo- gratification as those of the present day feel in decigraphical, historical, and other scientific works. The phering the hieroglyphics upon the bricks of Nineveh.

Printing was first introduced into the South Sea Islands weeks before the first portion of the Scriptures was in June 1817, when the first native printed books were finished, the district of Afareaitu resembled a public published at Cimeo, in the district of Afareaitu. The fair.' king, Pomare, had taken the greatest interest in the Canoes came from distant islands, bringing cocoa-nut proceedings of the missionaries, and requested that he oil in exchange for books: on one occasion, a party who might be sent for whenever they were ready to go to arrived late in the evening slept on the ground all night, work. The composing-stick was placed in his hand, rather than miss the chance of the first supply in the and, with some assistance, the monarch composed the morning. But the books, to be really useful, required first page of the spelling-book, an alphabet in capitals, binding; and leather being scarce on the island, the and small letters. . He visited us almost daily,' writes supply was economised to the utmost. A copy halfMr Ellis, . until the 30th, when, having received inti- bound in red morocco was sent to the king; the boards mation that the first sheet was ready for the press, he were formed of native cloth, made of the bark of a came, attended by only two of his favourite chiefs. tree beaten together: these were, in numerous instances, They were, however, followed by a numerous train of covered with pieces of old newspapers, dyed purple his attendants, &c. who had by some means heard that with the juice of a species of mountain plantain. The the work was about to commence. Crowds of the natives learned to bind, some in thin wood; and all the natives were already collected around the door, but animals were hunted to procure skins; dogs and cats, they made way for him ; and after he and his two com- every creature that had hitherto lived unmolested, was panions had been admitted, the door was closed, and killed, and the novel sight of skins hung out to dry at

the small window next the sea darkened, as he did not the door of the huts was seen throughout the island. ti wish to be overlooked by the people outside. The king Such was the desire to possess books, that, the narrator 1 examined, with great minuteness and pleasure, the form pursues, 'I have frequently seen thirty or forty canoes, as it lay on the press, and prepared to try to take off from distant parts of Eimea, or from some other island, the first sheet ever printed in his dominions. Having lying along the beach ; in each of which five or six been told how it was to be done, he jocosely charged his persons had arrived, whose only errand was to procure companions not to look very particularly at him, and copies of the Scriptures. For these many waited five not to laugh if he should not do it right. I put the or six weeks, while they were printing. Sometimes I printer's ink - ball into his hand, and directed him have seen a canoe arrive with six or ten persons for to strike it two or three times upon the face of the books; who, when they have landed, have brought a letters; this he did, and then placing a sheet of clean large bundle of letters, perhaps thirty or forty, written paper upon the parchment, it was covered down, turned

on plantain leaves, and rolled up like a scroll. These under the press, and the king was directed to pull the letters have been written by individuals who were unhandle. He did so, and when the paper was removed able to come and apply personally for a book, and had from beneath the press, and the covering lifted up, the therefore thus sent in order to procure a copy. chiefs and assistants rushed towards it to see what Details thus minute of the first printing and diffusion effect the king's pressure had produced. When they of books in the cities and towns of Germany, and other beheld the letters black, and large, and well-defined, places on the continent, would now be regarded with there was one simultaneous expression of wonder and high interest. None, unfortunately, have come down to delight.

us, and we can only speculate as regards the popular • The king took up the sheet, and having looked first feeling on the first promulgation of an art whose design at the paper, and then at the types, with attentive ad- was, in the language of Davy, 'for perpetuating thought miration, handed it to one of his chiefs, and expressed a in imperishable words, rendering immortal the exertions wish to take another. He printed two more; and while of genius, and presenting them as common property to he was so engaged, the first sheet was shown to the all awakening minds—becoming, as it were, the true crowd without, who, when they saw it, raised a general image of divine intelligence, receiving and bestowing shout of astonishment and joy. When the king had the breath of life in the influence of civilisation.' printed three or four sheets, he examined the press in all its parts with great care, and remained attentively

THE PLEASURES OF POVERTY. watching and admiring the facility with which, by its mechanism, so many pages were printed at one time, No! reader, no! I am not a satirical fellow, about to until it was near sunset, when he left us, taking with launch poisonous words of unfeeling levity at those who him the sheets he had printed to his encampment on are victims to the tyranny of that cruel dame; neither the opposite side of the bay.'

am I a Stoic, and desirous of proving that the absence An edition of 2600 copies of this spelling-book, and of pleasure is as good as its presence. In no way do I another of 2300 of a catechism and collection of texts, wish to make the worse appear the better reason ;' were rapidly printed and circulated among the natives, but I should like to prove, if possible, that there is some several of whom had been instructed so far as to be able reason in these words, . The pleasures of poverty. I to perform the more laborious part of the presswork. have some title to be heard on this subject, my dear By the middle of 1818, 3000 copies of the Gospel of St reader, for (entre nous) I am, and have always been, as Luke were printed, entitled, Te Evanelia na Luka, poor as a church mouse; and therefore you may be iritihia ei parau Tahiti;' literally, · The Gospel of Luke, sure that what I am about to offer to your attention is

taken out to be the language of Tahiti;' with the im- no pretty piece of speculation, or imaginary theory, | print, • Nenheihia i te nenei raa parau a te mau Mi- formed without the slightest knowledge of the facts.

sionari,' 1818. • Pressed at the (paper or book) presser Allow me to put some preliminary questions. In the of the Missionaries.'

first place, “Who are the people who can with proThe sensation created in the vicinity of the printing priety be called poor?' We often hear that such and establishment spread over the whole island; chiefs and such a nobleman, with only ten thousand a year, is | people crowded the office daily. The press soon be. very poor;' and we can also call to remembrance one came a matter of universal conversation; and the faci- or two persons who have been lity with which books could be multiplied filled the

• Passing rich with forty pounds a year.' minds of the people in general with wonderful delight. Multitudes arrived from every district of Eimea, and At first sight, it seems impossible that both these stateeven from other islands, to procure books, and to see ments can be true; and yet a little reflection shows this astonishing machine. The excitement manifested that they may be. The village pastor may find forty frequently resembled that with which the people of pounds enough for his yearly necessities, and the man England would hasten to witness, for the first time, the of rank may find ten thousand pounds inadequate to ascent of a balloon, or the movement of a steam-carriage. his expenses ; in such a case, the latter is, and the so great was the influx of strangers, that for several / former is not, poor. From these and other considera


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