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EDINBURG))

JOURNAL

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF 'CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE,' 'CIIAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

No. 234. New SERIES.

SATURDAY, JUNE 24, 1848.

Price 1}d.

mêlée, there to clutch at what they may get, in part WOMEN'S HUSBANDS.

for those who ought to be the means of sparing their The exigencies of life sometimes put the lords of crea- cheeks from the too rough visits of the wind. No help tion into curious predicaments. It so happens that, for it. Our world says that a lady shall not even set in with all the virtues of our present industrial arrange- a chair for herself if a man be by, yet leaves the same ments, some men can do no good in the world. They person to drudge unassisted for the mouthful required try many things, and fail in all, although it is not for herself and offspring, whether she be a widow, or, always easy to see the cause of the failure. The wife what is sometimes worse, a wife whose husband cannot has then, if possible, to come forward and undertake gain her bread. There are her young ones—there the the duty of providing for the family, while the worthy husband, willing perhaps, but inefficient—there the illman sinks of course into the subordinate position. A replenished house, fast dimming in the cold shade of terrible time it is when these domestic revolutions take adversity. Friends worn out-how soon they wear! place; seldom short in duration, usually marked by Debts pressing. Shades of 'last resources' standing many vicissitudes of rule, and ups and downs of fortune. three deep, and not another substantial one in view. A vexing problem, too, the superfluous husband usually There is no longer any choice. If educated, she must is to the poor wife. The difficulty is, to get him made take to schooling; if not, to some grosser businessperfectly negative and neutral. He would fain be doing, keeping lodgers or boarders, or a shop, or an inn ; things were it only for a show-how to keep him idle! If much to be determined by circumstances, as well as kept idle, then how to occupy his energies innocuously tastes. The first steps are usually the most difficult, to the concern in which the wife is engaged! Oh, a not merely as regards means, but with respect to incliead business it is to have a woman's liusband in charge. nations. After a commencement has been made, and

Women are naturally shrinking beings, prone to keep some success attained, the pain deadens. Former conback amidst the obscurities of kitchens and parlours, nections cease to be remembered unpleasantly - the while men rough it for them through the outer world. excitement of activity becomes its own reward-the It requires, in general, the impulse of the affections to mind gets accommodated more or less to its new conbring the gentler sex into public life or professional ditions. Still there is much encountered and underexertion. Of course there is nothing they will not do gone which the world does not see; and of this the for their babes-nature has taken good care of that husband generally bears no small part. point. The upper classes, who never see women work- It is bad enough when this personage is tolerably ing but at gewgaws for ecclesiastical purposes, can little rational, and limits his ambition to keeping the books imagine what is in the heart of a poor wife in the of the concern, and attending to such other little duties middle ranks of society, when, after years of suffering, as he is fit for and his wife finds he may be intrusted the consequence of failure on her husband's part to with. Even in these favourable circumstances, it is not produce a livelihood, she comes out from her humble easy to keep him right, for he can scarcely fail to be retirement, to struggle for dear life to her household. the worse of the half idleness to which he must needs Duty, one would say, can never be a degradation; yet be assigned. If, indeed, he be an old man, he may walk habits are a second nature, and to break through the genteelly about, haunt the reading - room, and talk fiae veil of matronly privacy which she has been accus- learnedly of stocks and markets in which he has not tomed to draw between her and the world, cannot be one penny of interest. Sometimes he may be allowed unattended with pain. The reward afforded by the con- to cater or act on little commissions, or even, completing sciousness of performing a duty is confessedly sweet; the reversal of the sexes, take a gencral charge of the yet who does not know that the world pays more house, thus sparing time to his wife, which she may homage to the dignity which has no duty to perform, bestow upon her business. But never in any circumthan to the humility which knows nothing but duty on stances does he prove otherwise than a source of anxiety earth? Dear conventionalities, which we daily con- and trouble. The fact is, he is no one thing rightly, demn, and momently worship, and evermore cling to, and it is impossible to put him in his proper place. you it is which make it bitter for even a mother to Servants, children, customers, all mistake him. He battle for her sucklings. We verily believe the lioness scarcely knows what he himself, but only has a herself, when she fronts danger for her cubs, has some vague sense of being treated less rererently than is his sacrifice of feeling to make. Even she must feel the due. The wife has therefore, in addition to all other false position.

duties, to manage her husband's self-respect. She must But what use to talk? It is but a part of the tragic contrive to maintain a useless man, in the impression character ever mingling with this social life of ours, that he is useful. She must shape her own course, so that beings born for all gentleness should occasionally as to prevent possibilities of his interfering with or be forced, weeping, trembling, oft looking back, into the thwarting it.

Matters are much determined by the degree of self- looked for, till the weariness of wo shall sink her into complacency possessed by the gentleman. It is to the the grave, a broken-down unrecognisable thing; who, last degree unfortunate if he be ill endowed in this in doing so, can say that all our social arrangements respect, for then is he continually getting rubs, for are quite right? Who does not see the wrongs which which an incessant application of the soothing salve is the selfishness of society inflicts on individuals, or at necessary. If, on the contrary, on good terms with least tolerates and sanctions for its own ends? Yet we himself, there is comparatively little difficulty. He talk of the martyr-burnings of former ages, as if all then feels as much master as ever. Sitting in his such sacrifices to mistaken views were past! chair over his book or his newspaper, and emitting a Perhaps existing circumstances in our island are not word of sage advice or remark now and then, he be just to women's husbands.' Should we ever come to lieves that in reality he directs everything, while the have a National Guard, they would probably shine out lady is a mere instrument. Speaking of home affairs in a very different light, being highly qualified to act to any one else, he seems only to allow his wife to enter the part of officers in such a band. In the event of a into certain engagements, in which he does not choose new organisation of labour after the plans of Louis to interfere : it never appears as if she were in any Blanc, they would be found not less qualified for the respect the centre of the family system. As the children more conspicuous situations, being remarkably well rise up, and take successively to industrious courses, adapted to work out the ideas of that Lilliputian philothey must all likewise become planetary to him. This sopher. We would have the ladies to think of it, both kind of man maintains a dignified and gentlemanlike on account of the pay, tending to lighten their own appearance before the world ; no great freshness of labours, and because nothing keeps the true 'woman's attire perhaps, but a good presence and a clean neck- husband' so well in temper, as to think he is doing cloth ; always very well-bred, often a favourite, on something, while in reality he is doing nothing. account of his agreeable company. You might meet him frequently without ever supposing him to be anything but a gentleman possessed of a quiet little com

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ART. petency, who took to newspapers and constitutional InVExtive genius seldom fails in exciting our admirawalks from choice. On falling into conversation with tion; and the history of a new discovery, after it has been him, you find him more given to talk of public than of a few years before the public, is highly interesting, affordprivate matters. He speaks of supporting' Sir Robert ing as it does the means of tracing the gradual developPeel, the reason being, that Sir Robert is such a finan- ment and growth of thought from a crude and often cier.' Modern men of business he holds in something accidental germ into shape and form, until at last science like contempt; they do not conduct matters in a gentle seizes upon it, and gives it a practical direction. This is manly way, all seeking to undersell each other. He wor- peculiarly the case with regard to photography, an art ships some ideal, which the shabby practices of the world involving some of the profoundest philosophical speculahave not allowed him to reach. If you ever find out tions and experiences, intimately connected with problems what he really is, you are left to infer that it is not he whose solution promises extraordinary triumphs for science. who is to blame for his not being a rich fellow enough. Considering the persevering industry with which experi

In a large class of cases the woman's husband is a ments on light are now conducted in various parts of less estimable, or at least harmless member of society. Europe, we may look for results which shall let us farther llis constantly drinking his pocket-money may be the and farther into the secret of many as yet inexplicable gentlest of his weaknesses. A tendency to make phenomena, foolish intrusions upon his wife when she is engaged

In the spirit of some laborious investigators, we might with those by whose patronage she gains the family go back to remotest antiquity for the origin of photobread—thus humiliating her in their eyes, and per-graphy, and find it in the knowledge of the action of light haps offending them—is not the worst kind of action possessed by the Egyptians, or detect it again in the magic he is noted for. What struggles poor women often mirrors and similar juggleries of the middle ages. We have to keep up decent appearances, and sustain their may, however, fairly assume the days of Giambattista exertions, while secretly tormented with an indis- della Porta, a Neapolitan," and the discovery of the creet associate of this kind !--the story of the actor

camera obscura (darkened chamber), as our startingplaying his part while the stolen fox was gnawing reflected on the wall of a darkened room when the light

point. Porta had noticed that external objects were his bosom under his cloak, is but a type of the case. The little fabric of success reared with labour and was admitted through a small aperture. Following up difficulty inexpressible, is continually liable to ruin at the inquiry thus opened to him, he contrived the fitting the hands of the domestic ogre, who himself perhaps of a lens to a movable box, and in this way produced the enjoys the largest share of its results. He eats his instrument which has suggested greater things, which to bread and butter, and threatens the life of her who lays the draughtsman and photographer is invaluable

. As it before him. “Swamp the whole concern!' was the

was usual in that day, Porta incurred the displeasure of tipsy cry of such a man with reference to a little busi- the priestly authorities, by whom he was censured as a ness which his wife carried on, and which somehow meddler in supernatural affairs. aggrieved him. We see here all the evils of lunacy, in 1566, mentions a kind of silver ore which, on exposure

Fabricius, in his work 'De Rebus Metallicis,' published while yet the patient is not in a state which entitles others to reduce him to harmlessness. He must be flat- to light, lost its natural colour, yellowish-gray, and be. tered out of his maudlin furies, and allowed to have black. The same substance is referred to in the writings

came of a violet colour, which afterwards deepened into his will by way of bribery, when he ought rather to be of some of the alchemists: they appear to have been aco manacled and strait-waistcoated. In his partner, all the time, there is one struggle going on in addition to quainted with the effects of light on paper prepared with all others, between the relics of old affection, or the the metal. About 1770, the celebrated Scheele tried sense of decency towards her children and the world,

some experiments in connection with the subject; and & and the heaving throes of disgust at conduct from which year or two later, Petit, a Frenchman, observed that her womanly worth and delicacy revolt. Hard, hard / nitrate of potash and muriate of ammonia crystallised indeed is the fate of some women! To look at a gay coveries followed; and about the beginning of the present

more actively in the light than in darkness. Other disassemblage of young ones, and think that some of these century, attempts were made by Wedgewood and Dary happy creatures are yet to groan out a weary life as the slaves of debased fatuous tyrants, with that terrible action of light. They could not, however, succeed in

to copy profiles, and transfer from paper to glass by the perplexity which arises in such circumstances from children--no help to be expected from any bystander, no more than to Sinbad when he was about to be lowered

* Photography: a Popular Treatise, designed to convey Correct into the sepulchre with his dead wifc--no relief to be Talbot, and others. By an Aniateur. Brighton. 1817

General Information concerning the Discoverers Niepce, Dagnetre,

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rendering their pictures permanent: no sooner were they copies of Daguerreotype and Talbotype portraits can be produced, than they vanished.

obtained by throwing magnified images of them by Niepce's is the next name that occurs : he was living at means of lenses upon it.' As in the case of DaguerreoChalons-sur-Saone when, in 1814, he detected the action type, the quicker the process the better; to expedite it, a of light upon resinous substances. He coated a silvered heated iron is sometimes applied to the back of the plate of pewter with vapour of asphalte; the plate being camera : for the production of a perfect image, it is essenthen placed in the camera, received an invisible impres- tial that the paper be of uniform texture. The sensitive sion of the objects placed before it, and the latent picture properties of the paper here described render it highly was brought out by an application of oil of lavender and valuable to travellers, or any one desirous of taking coroil of petroleum. Niepce came to England, hoping to rect impressions of objects. Etchings, too, may be copied gain attention and patronage; but failing in this, he re- by it, and wood blocks prepared for engraving with the turned to France, where he made various improvements utmost accuracy, In fact the field of research thus in the process, which he described as the method of opened, both useful and curious, is boundless. In some fixing the image of objects by the action of light,' and to instances the Daguerreotype has been engraved, and an which he gave the general name of heliography, or sun- electrotype plate taken from it, by means of the electropainting. The ‘fixing' was a most important step gained, galvanic battery, as the previous experiments had failed in this essential The introduction of paper into the photographic art point. Subsequently, 4 year or two before his death, promises to be of considerable service in overcoming the Niepce became acquainted with Daguerre; and further objection which exists in many quarters to a picture on a investigations were conducted with such success, that in metallic plate, as in Daguerreotypes. A metallic surface 1839 the latter had, so to speak, perfected the process, presents many inconveniences, to which cause may profor which the French government awarded to him a pen- bably be attributed the rapid diminution of the excite. sion of 6000 francs, and another of 4000 francs to Niepce's ment and interest created by Arago's announcement of son: the secret thus became public property. In the same the discovery in 1839. The latest additions to this year, our countryman Mr H. Fox Talbot communicated branch of art, whether practical or philosophical, may be a paper to the Royal Society 'on the Art of Photogenic gathered from a paper published in the Philosophical Drawing'-a remarkable instance of coincident inven- Transactions of the Royal Society for 1847. According tion and discovery. No communication had taken place to the author, Mr Claudet, it had been observed, from between the parties, and Mr Talbot is said to have com- the origin of the invention, that red, orange, and yellow menced his researches into photography in 1834.

rays exert but a slight influence upon the metal plate. Niepce's process occupied from two to six hours; but Experiments made by Sir John Herschel, Becquerel, and such have been the progressive improvements, that the Dr Draper of New York, have led to the discovery of operation is now instantaneous: formerly, the picture was other interesting properties. The latter gentleman conas the bloom on the grape, liable to obliteration on the siders that the rays comprehended from the blue to the slightest touch; now, the impressions are permanent. red, under the powerful sun Virginia, when separated The process of sun-painting at the present day is thus from the remainder, operated as a check to their action. described :— The silver tablet is first carefully cleaned On this part of the subject the general result of the inand highly polished; it is then coated by the vapour of vestigations, which have been extensively carried on, is, jodine, and afterwards exposed to that of chlorine or that while red rays impede, yellow rays will produce, a bromine: the proper focus of the object having been photogenic cffect. By photogenic effect is meant the obtained, the plate is in darkness inserted in the place of bringing of the plate into a state in which it will receive the ground-glass screen of the camera obscura ; the aper- vapour of mercury: the picture or Daguerreotype image ture of the camera is opened to admit the image, for a is produced solely by the affinity for mercury of the time decided by preceding experiments and the judgment parts previously affected by the photogenic rays.' of the artist, and then closed; the plate is removed (still Most of the experiments here adverted to were made excluded from light), and placed in a box with mercury with the pure rays of the prism. Mr Claudet has reslightly heated, to expedite volatilisation, until the pic- peated them, but with coloured glasses, and arrived at ture, which before would not have been perceptible, is various novel and important conclusions. He finds that fully and clearly developed ; finally, the type-invested the red glass absorbs two-thirds, and yellow glass one-half, surface is subjected to the solution of hyposulphate of of the transmitted light. During one of the dense London Boda, for the removal of iodine, so that there shall remain fogs, when the sun looks like a dark-red disk, a plate was upon the plate only the mercury which represents the exposed to the dim light: it left a round black image. On image. The picture being now approved, there is left but another plate, exposed for twenty minutes, a long black to protect it with the solution of gold. Some of the stripe was produced, marking the sun's passage; but there most important improvements in this method of manipu- had been no photogenic action in either case. These lation have been effected by Fizeau and Claudet. experiments, while proving that red, orange, and yellow

Mr H. F. Talbot's discoveries are not less beautiful rays destroy the effect of photogenic light, have led to than those of Daguerre; in some respects they are pre- some highly valuable practical and economical results. ferable, as the pictures are produced on paper from what It has hitherto been necessary to prepare the plates in is termed a negative image, and admit of being copied in the dark, as their sensitiveness would be weakened or endless numbers. The value of this mode of multiply- destroyed by exposure to light. This precaution may ing old drawings, letterpress, correct copies of objects of now be dispensed with. The sensitiveness of a plate can any kind, will be well appreciated by the artist, natu- be completely restored by exposing it under a red glass ralist, and antiquary. The sensibility of the paper is for some time before placing it in the camera. This caused by repeated soaking in a solution of chloride of possibility,' observes Mr Claudet, ‘of preparing plates in silver and common salt. Mr Talbot has also discovered open day, offers a great advantage to those who wish to that paper prepared with nitrate of silver, iodide of take views or pictures abroad, and who cannot conpotassium, acetic and gallic acid, will render a perfect veniently obtain a dark room. Again, in the case of a picture in twenty or thirty seconds. Taking the Greek plate which has been left too long in the camera obscura, word kalos (beautiful), he named his process Calotype; or accidentally exposed to the light, instead of rejecting with a view, however, of preserving the name of the it, we can restore its sensitiveness by placing it under a inventor, it has since been called Talbotype. When red glass. There is still another useful application of the photographic recipient is taken from the camera, the this property: if, after one or two minutes' exposure to picture is not visible, but has to be developed by washing the mercury, we perceive the image is too rapidly devewith gallo-nitrate of silver, and by heat. The fixing of a loping, or presenting signs of solarisation, which a pracTalbotype is accomplished by washing with a solution of tised eye discovers before it is too much advanced, we bromide of potassium, or by a bath of hyposulphate of have only to stop the accumulation of mercury by exsoda, or with a strong brine of common salt. So highly posing the plate for a few seconds to the red light, and sensitive to light is the Calotype paper, that enlarged again place it in the mercury box, to complete the modi.

BY THOMAS MILLER.

fications, which give the image all its tones, and the most the blinding sleet blowing full in his face, when he saw favourable tint. In truth we may complete all the ope- those little round red fiery eyes in the ruddy grate, rations of the Daguerreotype in the open air. . The which told that they were both watching and keeping exposure under red glass, necessary to destroy the effect the 'pot a-boiling. Although old John was not a man produced by white light, must be a hundred times longer of many words, he was civil and obliging to all his cus. than has been the exposure to white light, that of the tomers; and a strange lot they were at times, consisting orange glass fifty times, and that of the yellow glass only often of the most indifferent characters of both sexes. ten times. Thus a plate exposed to white light for a Sometimes, however, he had a sprinkling of what he second, will be restored to its former sensitiveness in ten called bettermost-sort-of-people,' such as returned very seconds by the yellow glass, in fifty by the orange, and in late from the theatres, and preferred walking home to a hundred by the red.'

hiring a cab, or of young 'swells,' who stopped to light Thus we find that every ray has its own peculiar action. their cigars, or men whose business on the press de“The effect commenced by the blue rays is destroyed by the tained them late, and others who were compelled to be red and yellow; that which was produced by the red is up and out early—but these were exceptions: his prin. destroyed by the yellow; the effect of the yellow rays is cipal patrons belonged to a class who neither 'toiled destroyed by the red; and the effect of the two latter is nor spun. True, there were the poor cabmen, doomed destroyed by the blue: each radiation destroys the effect to be out for the night, and the police, who are forof the others.' Mr Claudet is of opinion that the red bidden to enter any house to refresh themselves whilst rays exert an electrical action. From this point of view a wide field is open for investigation, connected, as before beverage was indeed acceptable.

on duty: to these, on a bitter winter-night, old John's observed, with some of the highest questions respecting A man of great conversational powers would never natural phenomena on which scientific men are now en have got on like old John Nighton : his principal obsergaged. At all events an ample reward awaits the patient vations were confined to · A cold morning, Thank you inquirer.

-Fourpence, please — Much obliged— Change, sir’and all such little matters as solely appertained to busi

ness; for those who assembled around his coffee-stall THE FORCE OF HABIT.

came only for what they wanted, or to inquire after

some one they had appointed to meet there, or to con. A BRIEF paragraph, announcing the untimely end of verse with one another. Rumour did say that old John the subject of this sketch, went the round of the papers was in possession of many secrets, and that rich offers about ten years ago. For the few additional facts woven had often been made to him to reveal them; but neither into the following article I am indebted to a friend, who inspector nor sergeant could ever get more out of him was well acquainted with the original.

than that he had enough to do to mind his own busi. A person must either be out very late or very early ness, and to see that his customers paid for what they before lie arrives at a knowledge of half the ways and took.' No one ever remembered seeing the old mau means of obtaining a livelihood in London -- let him out in the daytime: the light scemed to make him search through a long summer-day, and he will never drowsy; and he was always thankful when the days meet with a coffee-stall in the streets, while at mid-began to shorten. He used to wislı that the sun rose night scores may be found scattered at the corners of and set at six all the year round; for that, he argued, the chief thoroughfares. Under low archways-at the would seem natural. if ever he took a bad shilling, be entrance of narrow courts—the foot of the bridges-and laid the blame to the daylight, which he said dazzled even at what in the daytime are the most public and his eyes.' He was never known to be a minute behind crowded places--may these open-air sta!ls of refresh- his time: as the church clock tolled the hour of midment be found, from the midnigiit hour to the grey night, the cart, which he himself drew, was sure to be dawning in winter, and in summer until about six in seen in the old accustomed place. At six in the morn. the morning. They form a kind of mustering ground, ings of summer, and seven in winter, he had packed where many wait, from the closing to the opening of up, and was gone. the 'gin palaces' (a period seldom exceeding in some For years he had been his own housekeeper; but as neighbourhoods more than two or three hours), and age crept upon him, he employed a charwoman, a here they regale themselves with coffee, cakes, and sharp-looking, talkative little body, who by degrecs bread and butter, until the doors of the halls of drunken- began to assist at the coffee-stall, and often brought the ness are again thrown open. So long as there is no old man a little something hot and comfortable about very outragcous disturbance, the police pass on, and four in the morning. Old John never drank liis own allow the sons and daughters of night to congregate coffee; he said it did not agree with him.' In the around these places by scores. But little capital is re- course of time the little sharp-eyed woman became quired to open one of these establishments - a chair, Mrs Nighton ; and it was observed by many that with an awning large enough to shelter the vender and from that period old John never again looked the man his table from the wet-a few cups and saucers-milk- that he once did. One winter John caught a severe jug and sugar-basin, with charcoal-pan, kettle, bellows, cold, and for a whole week, for the first time in his diutern, and a little colice, and bread and butter, are all life, he was unable to attend to his business. His wife, the requisites for a street coffee-stall, many of which however, managed to get through it, though not withihave proved most profitable investments.

out a great deal of grumbling, besides telling the cusNear a great central London thoroughfare had old tomers that it was his own fault--that he had quite John Nighton stood for above a quarter of a century enough to go into some other line of business, without with his coffee - stall. He began business by selling exposing himself to the cold and the night air any saloop, a decoction of some kind of sassafras, which, longer. She also got the customers to reason with her witli milk and sugar, formed a welcome beverage for husband about the matter; and they did. Her proposithose who could not afford the then costly luxury of tion was, to sell the fixtures and good-will of the coffeecoffee. It was not until he had thoroughly established stall, to take a good-sized house, and furnish it, and let himself, that he ventured to introduce coffee to his su- it off into lodgings. There were no end of lodgers, who perior customers, as he called them, while at the same had known the old man for years, ready to come any time he dealt out saloop to the poorer classes; and day and occupy the apartments. Mrs Nighton was there is no doubt that he was one of the first who intro- delighted—“She had known people make å mint of duced this article amongst his out-of-door customers. money in the lodging-house line, and why shouldn't Throughout the pleasant nights of summer, and when they?' After many a growl and deep-meaning shake the winter winds come howling over the bleak bridges, of the head, the old man at last allowed himself to be old John was ever to be found at the same spot; and over-persuaded, although he said he knew it would many a belated wanderer smiled, as he came along with come to no good. He asked L.20 for his business, and declared that it was worth L.100. One day, whilst he rent-free, they carried off all they could lay their hands was asleep, his wife sold the fixtures and all for L.10; upon. Bed-ticks were found without feathers ; pillows, when he awoke, and began to prepare for the night as shects, and blankets were taken away; the very mantelusual, cart, kettle, charcoal, and all were gone. There pieces were plundered of their ornaments : fenders, was a noise like subsiding thunder heard for above an fire-irons, and hearthrugs vavished as if by magic; hour in the house, and it is said that the old man sat and after being pledged, the duplicates were sometimes growling in his arm-chair, and smoking his pipe at forwarded to Mrs Nighton, assuring her of their intervals until daylight; nor could all her persuasions honesty, and promising that they would redeem them as induce him to go to bed until his usual bedtime. “I soon as they could. After much 'gnagging and werretshould be dead in a week,' said he, 'if I broke up my ting,' she succeeded in driving the old man out in the old habits.'

daytime, giving him strict orders that, if he came in The next day Mrs Nighton took a large twelve contact with the defaulters, he was at once to call the roomed house, and having in the course of the week police and give them in charge. Poor John Nighton! persuaded her husband to allow her to draw a con- he went out more for the sake of peace and quietness, siderable sum out of the savings' bank, it was soon and to get rid of his wife's incessant clamour, than in furnished from cellar to attic. Her next step was to the hope of ever retrieving anything from the plunprocure a 'thorough' servant; as for lodgers, she had derers. more applications than rooms. The old man never Behold him at last in the crowded streets of London interfered with her arrangements; all he at first did in the open noon of day! He seemed to wander along was to steal out in the night, and bemoan the loss of like a man in a dream; he was ever running against his coffee-stall at the bars of the late night-houses. somebody, then pausing to rub his eyes, and gaze Sleep he could not excepting in the daytime; and around in astonishment: sometimes he filliped his nose, when he could find no one else to speak to, he accom- or pulled his hair, or struck his elbow against the wall, panied the policemen on their beat, sometimes never as if doubtful whether he was asleep or not. A dark once speaking for the hour together. In vain did they narrow court was his delight; and where any other tell him that his wife was a sharp, clever woman, and person would have been compelled to have groped his sure to do well-he only shook his head.

way, there he saw all that was going on, and would Now Mrs Nighton, with all her apparent cunning watch the people passing by for the hour together. His and calculation, had her weak points, and prided her favourite haunt was beneath those gloomy arches on self on taking people by their looks.' Old John would which the Adelphi Terrace built. He was also often have preferred a good reference with his lodgers, but seen to peep down those dark gratings near Waterloo his better-half pooh-poohed;' anybody could get a Bridge, where the cellars are five storeys deep. Had he reference, she said, but an honest-looking face was a gift been single, he would have occupied one of these. •Cool, of nature. She had her own way, and lost by it. Her quiet, and shady,' he used to say ; 'a man might sleep honest-looking lodgers came and went without paying, there in the daytime.' and she consoled herself by saying that she knew they After many offers to purchase back his old business, would if they could, and that it would be all right all of which were refused, a bright beam of hope at enough at last. Wiser people said that it was just what last shot across his mind--it was the last flicker of the might be expected, and that the riff-raff who wasted flame before it shot up and expired in the darknesstheir nights in the streets and at coffee-stalls, couldn't he would set up in opposition to his rival. A few nights be expected to pay for apartments, and that really they after, he was seen stationed at the end of a neighbouring could not see of what use lodgings were at all to such street, at a spot which few people passed in the night. like people. In fact they paid Mrs Nighton back again For a whole fortnight he stood his ground manfully, in her own coin, and said that she knew they were although he was scarcely visited by a single customer; honest.

the few who approached only cried shame on him for Meantime the old man had formed an acquaintance selling his business, and then attempting to injure with his successor, and now went out night after night, the purchaser. Even those who had stolen his goods and hovered like a ghost around his old coffee-stall. Tó refused to deal with him, and went so far as to justify and fro he traversed, almost a shadow of his former their conduct by his own. self, and sometimes when an order was given, he so far On reaching home one morning his wife was missing; forgot himself as to move forward as if to serve; then and two or three days passed away and no tidings came; he passed his hand across his forehead, shook his head, but at length a leiter arrived stating that her former muttered something to himself, and continued his mea- husband had returned from transportation, and as she sured march as usual. One morning, as his successor always had a liking for him, they had set sail together was packing up, and after John had nodded his good for America. The little that remained in the savings' by,' the old man turned back and said, “Twenty-five bank she had drawn out before her departure, leaving down; come in to-night.' The new occupier replied, also the half-year's rent, besides a considerable amount No, no; not for double that amount.' John Nighton of taxes, unpaid. This last blow was too much for the hcaved a deep sigh, and that day could not be persuaded old man: what remained of his goods was seized and to get up for an hour, as was his general custom at sold, and from that hour he went wandering about like dinner time.

a restless spirit during the day, and at night occupied A visible alteration for the worse had already taken his new position with his coffee-stall at the corner of place in old John's appearance. His face, which before, the court. This lasted but for a few nights; no one through exposure to the wind and weather, looked blue, came near him saving the policeman, and he once or and purple, and crimson, as if made up of a minglement twice found the old man fast asleep in his chair. of all kinds of healthy and lasting colours, now faded One night they missed him at the accustomed place;' into a series of dingy yellows. His clothes, too, which inquiries were made at the little house up the court before suited his “thick rotundity,' now hung about him where he lodged: he went out at .dark-hour,' and had in loose disorder, 'a world too wide for his shrunk' not returned. Tidings came next day that an old man form; and although he went to bed as usual in the answering to his description had been seen late at morning, the old familiar sleep visited him not. Punc night wandering on Blackheath ; another day passed tual as the midnight itself, he was ever found at his without bringing any further rumour of his whereformer post; and for five weeks in succession did he about.' make an advance of five pounds each week on his ori- At length a notice was stuck up at the police station ginal offer ; but fifty pounds was not sufficient to buy that the body of an old man had been discovered susout the new-comer.

pended from a beam in a ruinous outhouse near LewisMatters grew worse at the lodging-house. Lodger ham. Old John Nighton had hanged himself; he had after lodger decamped; and not satistied with cscaping fulfilled his own prophecy, for from the very night when

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