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now swept along with the speed of light towards the victim's head, depending from which, more than one in. general's quarters, for life and death indeed depended on dividual asserted, was the long coal - black hair of Bill the cast. His tale was soon told, and an order for the Tuckett, alias Sam Staples. suspension of the execution procured, the general not hesitating to grant it on viewing the new features which
ANCIENT SEA-MARGINS. 11 the case presented; and ten minutes afterwards, he placed
the important document in the hands of the commander CHANGES of the relative level of sea and land, in times of the prisoners' guard, as that officer was in the act of which may be described as recent in comparison with delivering over his charge, to be dealt with by the provost- the earlier geological eras, are amongst the admitted marsbal according to their sentence! At a later hour in the morning General Wayne directed shell deposits at various heights throughout not only
truths of science. They are evidenced by terraces and the body of poor Benton to be exhumed for further examination. Every individual experienced in gunshot this, but many other countries. For some years past, wounds who viewed it pronounced the wound which tra- the predominant doctrine on this subject has been, that versed the body to have been beyond all doubt inflicted the changes of level were produced not by a depression by a rifle ball; and now that attention was directed to of the sea, but by an upward movement of the land, that point, declared with equal confidence that it was
this movement being understood to be usually confined nearly double the size of the orifice which would have been caused by the largest bullet which a gun of the
to limited portions of the earth's surface. Such movecalibre of the ordinary western rifle, such as that carried ments, as is well known, have been observed to take by Charley Simmonds, would admit. With reference to place on the coast of Chili, and on the north side of the the wound in the head, it was well known that Simmonds Baltic; in the latter case, the rise of the land is believed never carried a tomahawk, and it was shown to be phy: to be going on at the rate of about furty inches in a sically impossible that it could have been inflicted by that century. This is one strong reason for believing that of Chingowska. The axes employed in western warfare, the land has in all cases been the moving element.
it is well known, are of two kinds-one, the blade of Another, which was pointed out by Mr Playfair, is, that 1 which is narrow, and the edge from point to point long; for the decline of the sea from the land, even to the
the other having the face of the weapon short, but its depth from the edge to the eye considerable. That worn
extent of only a few feet, we should need to suppose the by Chingowska was of the former kind. A blow from it removal of a corresponding depth of water all over the ! must have produced an incision nearly twice the length globe, whereas the rise of a piece of land, even suppos. of that which the head of poor Benton exhibited, and ing it to be one of many hundred square miles, is a could not possibly have made one much above half its phenomenon which traffics with comparatively a small
depth. On applying one of the latter description, bow. lever, partaking of the form of the wedge rather than the quantity of matter. So has stood the subject for some
hatchet, it was found to fit the wound with the greatest years, no one, however, making any strenuous efforts | exactness, so as to leave no doubt that the blow had been to arrive at a general view of the memorials of change inflicted by a similar weapon,
of level which exist around these and other coasts, to 1
The general inquired whether Tuckett was accustomed ascertain how far any of them extend with strict horie to use the tomahawk; and on hearing from a score of zontality, or to compare their heights at various places, persons who were familiar with his habits that he carried | It has been tacitly taken for granted that such objects one of the latter description, ordered him at once to be placed under arrest.
are local, and consequently that, beyond the general But that worthy had not been disposed to await the fact of their existence, they say nothing as to the past result of the investigation. The camp was searched; but history of the earth. he was nowhere to be found. Some of the heavier and In the work quoted below * — to which, for obvious less portable articles of his property were still at his reasons, we cannot advert critically –
-an account is quarters; but it soon became plain that, having heard of given of a laborious series of personal investigations the discovery of the rifle ball, which was certain to bring prosecuted in many parts of this island, and also in bome the murder to his own door, as the possessor of the France and Ireland, from which the unexpected result only piece on the frontier that would carry one of the has arisen that, besides the few specimens of ancient size, he had at once absconded, taking with him little beaches hitherto observed within sixty feet above the besides his arms, including the very rifle which was so present level of the sea, there are at least fifty more at essentially connected with the discovery of his part in the different heights up to about 1300 feet, and furthercatastrophe.
more, these are always horizontal, and the various Whilst the excitement was at the highest, a man fragments found in different districts observe particular arrived in camp who had been absent on leave since the levels ; so that it would appear the relative level of sea morning of the day on which the murder was committed, and land in this island and the neighbouring lands has and who heard of the tragedy now for the first time. On been shifted scores of times, without the land having been being informed of the circumstantial evidence which had moved off its original plane to any perceptible extent. It so nearly resulted in the death of the late prisoners, he at will readily be observed that it is difficult to imagine once stated that, on the evening previous to his departure, such a result to have arisen throughout so wide a space, he had seen Tuckett tear a morsel of the fur from the the land had been moved every time that the sea trimming of the hunting shirt of Charley Simmonds, the was placed in a new relative level. The doctrine of latter having thrown the garment aside whilst engaged in the mobility of the land is therefore so far discountesome athletic exercise. He thought it oud of Tuckett, nanced by what is now brought before the public, and no he said, but did not interfere, as be considered it no small disturbance is consequently threatened to many affair of his. The wampum belt of the Indian had of the conclusions arrived at by geologists. We have doubtless been purloined whilst the owner lay in a state not, however, stated the whole case; for it also appears of helpless intoxication, and both deposited for obvious from this volume that there are ancient sea- niargins purposes in the place where they were subsequently dis- in Norway and North America observing levels precovered.
cisely correspondent with those of Britain and France; Shortly after it was ascertained that Tuckett had ab- thus extending the uniformity of shift over a very con. sconded, Chingowska was missing also. The day passed siderable portion of the globe. The probability for a away, but no intelligence concerning him could be ob- movement of the sea as against a movement of the tained. The night fell, but he was still absent. At an early hour on the following morning he entered the camp,
* Ancient Sea-Margins, as Memorials of Changes in the Relative with the much-prized rifle once more in his possession, Level of sea and Land.' By Robert Chambers, Esq., F. R.S. E. į end at his waist a human scalp, freshly torn from the Edinburgh: W. and R. Chambers. London : W.s. Orr. 1848.
land, becomes, in regard to this portion of the earth, terraces, much stress was laid on the fact, that there proportionally great, though it certainly would not be was a head of a valley coinciding in height with each graceful to dogmatise on this point, while all the great terrace, as if the water had there found its ancient masters of the science rest, however unsatisfactorily, on outlet. It is now shown that, in a cluster of islands a different conclusion.
closely placed together, such as the mountain tops of The lowest ancient beach of any note is one at about Glenroy would once be, there is a tendency in the twenty feet above the present level of the sea.
narrow intermediate sounds to be silted up, so as to be rally appears in extensive plains of clay or sand-as, for passable in a low state of the tide. Were the sea to example, the carses of Gowrie and Falkirk in Scotland, withdraw from such an archipelago, it would leave and the low plain between Portsmouth and Brighton, terraces round the islands, and the silted-up sounds and that extending along the south shore of the Bristol would become heads of valleys of corresponding level. Channel in Somersetshire. Another noted one is a Thus the greai argument for the lake origin of the little above forty feet; another about seventy feet; an. Glenroy terraces is taken away. Another novelty other at a medium of about 107, above which the land brought forward in this work is a view of the way in many districts makes a more sudden and abrupt rise in which lakes have in many instances been formed. than at any other point. There is a great terrace at In the Great Glen of Scotland, for instance, which is about 192 feet, which appears along the right side of a deep trough amongst the hills, there is a range of the Avon valley at Bath, and other places in England, lochs, of great depth, separated by gravelly isthmuses. as well as all round the outskirts of Paris, and at other Whence the isthmuses by which the lakes are con. places on the Seine. At about 280 feet, there is a grand fined ? No great currents could have brought these terrace seen at many places. Not less remarkable is accumulations, passing over profundities, amounting in one at about 393 feet; this - appears at Abbotsford on the case of Loch Ness to seven hundred feet. They Tweedside, at Colinton (near Edinburgh), in Dumfries are shown to be the remains of detrital matter brought shire, and-at Versailles. One of the level ridges beside down by side rivulets when the sea filled the glen. A Lake Ontario, which are believed to have been produced careful examination shows that all the side glens conby a body of water resting there, is of the same height. taining mountain rills of rapid descent, and consequent It is also the height of a shoulder of Arthur's Seat (a great power of bringing down débris, occur at the isthmuses.
' hill near Edinburgh), where the rock, hollowed out into Thus the Tarf and Chalder come in at the place between a kind of trough, is found to be all smoothed, as by Loch Dich and Loch Ness. Loch Ness, again, is sepa. some mechanical agent applied laterally, while the sur- rated from the sea by a detrital mass, the remains of face bears numerous scratches in the same direction, what was brought down by certain powerful rills which the work, it is believed, of ice. A sea, at this height, descend from the hills behind Dochfour. The rivulets bearing along icebergs, would be adequate to produce Urquhart and Garry enter Loch Ness, it is true, at the the effects; and it therefore becomes important to learn broad side; but there are special circumstances in their that the ocean did once stand at this level. Another cases, which have rendered them incapable of projecting great terrace, in France and America, as in Britain, is a detrital mass across such a profound glei, and so at 545 feet. The table-land round Rouen is smoothed forming an isthmus. down to this level ; so is one of the plateaux of the It is startling to find in this work so many of the Paris basin (at Buc). Such is the height of the ancient sites of mansions and other remarkable edifices, and beach above the falls of Niagara, and of one of the lake even of large towns, set down as ancient beaches, though ridges of Ontario. At the same level, a terrace runs it is only a natural consequence of the attraction which along both sides of the Tweed, and along its tributaries, flat ground presents for building. Thus the bulk of portions of it affording sites to the towns of Selkirk and Glasgow is on a beach, which rises to about twenty-six Peebles, and the ancient fastness of Newark. So also feet above the sea; the western portion of Liverpool is dves the remarkable sandy plateau at Carstairs in on an ancient beach, between sixty and seventy feet Lanarkshire-about 684 feet above the sea--come into above the present sea- level; the terrace on which a relation to a grand terrace connected with the Mawmee large portion of northern London is situated is an river on Lake Erie. Amongst the examples of ancient ancieni beach; and so forth. There is something, howbeaches of greater elevation, the celebrated paraliel roads ever, much more startling in the details given respectof Glenroy are by far the most remarkable. These ing the hill on which the Old Town of Edinburgh is have at length been ascertained by levelling as respec- situated. And here we shall indulge in the only extract tively 817, 1059}, and 1139. feet above the sea, the which it seems proper to make from the section of local latter being about the height of a terrace seen in several investigations. places in the centre of the island. The probability of • The Old Town, as is well known, is [mainly com. these markings having been produced by the sea, and posed of a street] built on a sloping ridge or tail of a not, as has been supposed, by a lake, now becomes, for mile long, stretching eastward from the Castle rock, and this and other reasons, very great.
extending in vertical height from 108 feet above the All of these markings are such as to prove a shift sea at Holyrood Palace, to 325 at the Castle Hill. It of the level of the sea from a high point to that may beforehand seem very unlikely that ground which where it now rests, as the last great event in the has been the site of a city for the most part of a thou. history of the globe. They are connected with the sand years, and undergone all the changes incidental to most superficial formations namely, those beds of frequent renewals of the buildings, should continue to sand, gravel, and clay usually grouped under the name exhibit with any distinctness traces of such peculiar of alluvium.' They denote a period of repose, like the natural markings as are the subject of this work. present, but closely following on the disturbed period, Nevertheless, having remarked a series of flats, or, as it of which the diluvium or drift* is the memorial. Some were, landing-places, in the general ascent of the prinyears ago, when the glacier theory was at its height, cipal street which runs along the top of the sloping Dr Buckland, M. Agassiz, and Mr Lyell pointed out ridge, I deemed it not impossible that they might be accumulations at the openings of many little glens in primitive features of the same character with indicaScotland as indubitable examples of moraines, similar tions which I had observed on similar bill-faces as yet to those which are brought down by glaciers in the in a state of nature. It appeared in the very first place Alps at this day. These are here shown to be merely as favourable to the idea of their being natural features deltas—the detrital sheets brought down by the burns, at all, that out of the four flats, two were the sites of and delivered into the estuaries once filling the glens. ancient public buildings of an important character, such In the speculations on the lake origin of the Glenroy as the best or most convenient ground would be selected
for, while a third formed a demarcation between the * The stiff blue clay mixed with boulders, usually called in Scot. city and its ancient suburb the Canongate. The crucial land the till, resting immediately under the alluvial formatious. test, however, evidently lay in the levels. If these corresponded with those of ancient beaches well-marked broad plain, which seems to form no inconsiderable part elsewhere, and especially in the neighbourhood of the of the park around Dalkeith Palace, and of which there city, then was it tolerably certain that the flats in ques. is also a large section to the south of the park wall, the tion were indentations made by the sea, in the course of duke's kennel being situated upon it. This is from its subsidence to the present level. If it should prove about 144 to a few feet more above the level of the sea. otherwise, they might be presumed as accidental, or the It is an unmistakable ancient sen-margin in its form ; result of causes not concerned in the present inquiry. as to its constitution, the cutting for a coal mine near
Now the reader has already seen many examples of the kennel gives forty feet of sand slightly mixed with beaches of this range of elevation described. Let us, clay. The street of Dalkeith itself, and the flat ground before taking any further notice of the Old Town inden- to the south near Woodburn, form another level, about tations, advert to several markings in the immediate 168-73 feet; the South Esk intersecting the space. On neighbourhood of the city.
the hill-face above-mentioned, at Cowden and White. Just beyond the suburb of Newington, an obscure hill, the terraces are respectively 280 and about 390 rill called the Powburn pursues its way through a little feet in elevation. valley, observing an easterly direction. On the upper * Let us now return to the street-covered ridge of brink of this valley, to the north, there is a terrace ancient Edinburgh. We start at the plain of Holyrood, crowning a steep slope or bank, and presenting all the 108 feet above the sea. From hence the street ascends, usual appearances of an ancient sea-margin. Part of it with no well-defined interruption, till we reach Milton having lately been laid out as a public cemetery, we House, where there is a flat of at least 100 yards in have had opportunities of ascertaining that the ground extent. This is 144 feet above the sea-level, agreeing to a considerable depth is composed of a clayey sand. with the plain at the duke's kennel, and with several This terrace appears to be 170 or 171 feet above the sea. markings in the north of Scotland. As being flat
Passing westwards less than a mile, we find, behind ground, it has been selected for the sites of some of the Grange House, a terrace, more faint, yet sufficiently best mansions in the old city, particularly the elegant distinct, which can be traced along till it crosses the house and grounds of Lord Justice-Clerk Milton, and Canaan road into the grounds connected with the villas the hotel of the Lords Panmure, in which a greater of that district, and so onward to Falcon Han; on the than earls, the illustrious Adam Smith, dwelt for other side of the valley of the Jordan Burn, opposite to several years and died. After another ascent, there these villas, the corresponding terrace is prominently occurs another flat, even more extensive. From promarked; the two sides of an ancient creek of the sea, bably the same principle of preference, this gives site when that element stood rather more than 280 feet to the church and old court-house of the Canongate ; above its present level. The same flat is rudely marked likewise to the supposed ancient mansion of the Goron the skirt of the Blackford Hill, at Libberton West don family, and to the palace of the Earls of Murray Mains. These markings, however, are all of them tame - the residence of Cromwell when in Edinburgh. It compared with a grand terrace of the same height on is 165-7 feet above the sea, corresponding with numthe north side of the little valley beyond the Libberton berless terraces already and to be described. In the ridge. The fine old mansion of Moredun is situated preceding instances, the flat has been superficially as upon it: it extends, with great distinctness, a good way extensive as the ascent. The street has been fairly eastward, affording site to Mr Lothian's villa at Ferney- divided between the rise and the level. We now, how. side, but fades away on the slope under Edmondstone ever, pass along a somewhat longer ascent, and then House.
come to a short, though very decided flat at the head of • When the sea beat on this terrace, the hill on the the Canongate, from 202 to 205 feet above the sea-level. summit of which Craigmillar Castle is situated pre- [Terraces at this elevation occur in many parts of the sented only a little rocky isle above the waves. This country.) Another comparatively long ascent, and at
isle consisted of a mass of sandstone, which forms a St Giles's Church, we come to a fourth flat-one un'; vertical precipice to the south, just under the walls of usually broad and well- marked. Here the principal
the castle. A good way out from the bottom of this public buildings of the ancient city were congregated : cliff, in all three directions, is a flat on which the castle the parish church (afterwards cathedral), the Tolbooth or garden, with its ancient quaint devices, may still be town-house (both of them structures of great antiquity), traced. That flat is 280 feet above the level of the sea. and the Parliament House and courts of law. Here Answering in elevation, it has been too much disturbed the ground has been slightly lowered in modern times, by the hand of nan to present the required linearity. to the effect of softening
the abruptness of the original I am assured, however, by Mr Smith of Jordanhill, that transition from the ascent to the flat. The original the overhanging cliff bears much of that appearance of height at the flat was about 280 feet above the sea-level sea-wearing which he has observed in similar precipices -a perfect coincidence with the terraces at Canaan, that either are now, or have been at a comparatively Moredun, and Cowden; as also with examples in other recent period, exposed to the dash of the billows. districts. It may be added parenthetically, that the Whether it does so or not, there can be no doubt that it tract of table-ground on which Heriot's Hospital and once was exposed to this action, as the sea could not the Charity Workhouse stand is precisely of the same have laid down the Moredun terrace opposite without height. Thus is completed the series of indentations in at the same time rolling its waves along the Craigmillar the Edinburgh ridge, all of them, it will be observed, garden, in which case it must have impinged on the coincident in elevation with distinct memorials of seacliff at every high tide. How little could Mary, when margins in the surrounding country, near, as well as she walked in this garden, pondering on her conjugal | far. It seems reasonable, accordingly, to infer that infelicity, imagine that we should in time learn of na- these marks were made by the tooth of the sea, at the tural transactions which took place upon the same spot pauses which it made in descending from between 300 ages before her period !
and 100 feet over its present level. When we reflect *If, in the winter season, when the ground is com- on the many historical associations connected with the | paratively clear for observation, we take a station at last group of buildings, it becomes a curious considera
Dalkeith, and direct our eyes to the southward slope tion that the locality of them all, from the commencewhich there rises above the Esk valley, and along which ment of the Civil War with the Liturgy riots, down to the Kelso road proceeds, we shall very readily perceive the seizing of Porteous in his prison, as well as the that it is, as it were, laid out in flats, the straight hori- localisation of the supreme law-courts of the country, zontal outlines of which give a strong character to the should have been, to all appearance, determined by a ground. Some extend westwards, and fade on the hill-circumstance so different in its relations as the wearing side; others stretch far in the other direction, till they of the sea on the face of a drift-formed hill, in an age terminate in the sky line. To the east of Dalkeith, so remote in comparison with the eldest of historical this terraced hill-face is distinctly seen rising out of a levents!'
We shall return to this work for some details tending ludicrous and unfeeling; yet her voice was so low and to show that the last shifts of the level of the sea touching, and so full of gentle pathos, that as I listened took place after the country had received its human to the plaintive strain and the old sad words, many inhabitants.
painful but treasured memories were called up, and I could not restrain my tears.
Unfortunately I had no money about me, nor could GATHERING BLUE-BELLS.
I succeed in prevailing on the songstress to call at my It sometimes happens that, without any particular home, which I found she must pass on returning to her cause for anxiety or depression, the mind is unaccount- temporary lodging. 'She disliked entering any house, ably perplexed and weighed down; and at such seasons
unless obliged;' but she promised to be there again even a dream of the night may produce a painful to-morrow, where the blue - bells grew, and when the effect, while our sad memories or futile regrets cannot lengthening shadows of the pale autumnal afternoon
would mark the time for her. altogether be dispelled even by the strongest exertion
Her story, as she told it to me, was a short and simple of our reasoning powers. I had arisen one morning one, and yet not commonplace; nor could I doubt its to fulfil the daily round of appointed duties, but in a truth for a moment, for the eye never deceives.' spiritless, discontented, and repining mood. Feelings She had been an orphan since the age of sixteen. of the kind usually hold their sway in the silent and Her father, who was a woodman, had been killed by an secret recesses of the heart; for we know that it is weak accident before her birth, when engaged in felling trees and wrong to indulge in them, and we are ashamed to in the New Forest. The widow supported herself and seek for sympathy, which indeed can be but sparingly the fields when she could get work to do; for as the
her child by singing about the country, and working in accorded in such cases. Towards the afternoon I sal- daughter of a wandering Welsh harpist, the gift of song lied forth to try the effect of a solitary ramble, know- and the love of roving were in her hereditary. The ing this to prove frequently the best restorative for unhappy circumstances, however, attending the birth a nervous or morbid temperament. In a secluded of her infant had fallen heavily on the little innocent, spot, from whence a gentle pastoral valley was visible, occasioning, it was supposed, some organic derange. between the spreading branches of old linden - trees, ment of the complex vessels of the head, and owing to overshadowing the pathway, which led onward amid the ignorant treatment of quacks, to whom her mother a collection of mossy hillocks, on whose broken surface resorted, and a fall received in early infancy, making
her, in her own sad words, . What you see, ma'am.' scanty heather tufts and delicate blue - bells were
When her mother died, a benevolent physician, to scattered, an object attracted my attention. It moved whom her case became known, had given her a recomslowly, and with apparent difficulty, now disappearing mendation to a London hospital, defraying her expenses behind the hillocks, then emerging and stooping down, thither; naturally concluding that clever and multiplied and altogether presenting a very peculiar appearance. advice, together with care and judicious management, I saw presently that it was a human figure, which I might do much towards effecting a cure, or at anyrate supposed at first to be some poor misshapen child seek ameliorating her condition. But after a long time, ing for blue-bells. But although correct as to the em- she added, .all the doctors agreed that my case was an ployment, I found, on nearer approach, that the gatherer incurable one, and that fresh air and perfect freedom was no child, but an unsightly and deformed cripple of were the only things they could recommend as likely to mature years.
ease my pain.' She supported herself on crutches, and besides the She told me the name of the worthy practitioner who hideousness of the most unnatural distortion it is pos- had originally befriended her, and who had continued sible to imagine, added to dwarf-like stature, her wan to allow her a small sum weekly, sufficient for her but placid face was rendered yet more ghastly by maintenance, until two years previous to this period, heavy linen bandages bound around it, and across her when death had deprived the orphan cripple of her forehead. Her well - patched coarse garments were benefactor. scrupulously clean, while her long thin white fingers Since then, walking all over England and Wales, she were eagerly stretched forth to pluck the blue-bells, had supported herself by singing, when able to do so, which she added to her store with childish delight. and by the gifts of the charitable. The open air was
I volunteered my assistance, and soon not one more as necessary and nutritious to her as daily food, while blue-bell was to be found. She thanked me in a sweet her childish delight in gathering wild flowers formed low voice, and quietly set herself down on a bank of the sole recreation and solace of her lonely existencemoss, and began to arrange her humble nosegay: at lonely as that of the lepers of old. first I had fancied that she was imbecile, but that The outcast added in a gentle deprecatory tone, but thought was quickly dispelled on hearing her speak, far removed from the whine of the common mendicant, and meeting the earnest intelligent gaze of her deeply- and putting her hand involuntarily on her bandaged sunken but bright black eyes.
brow, God is very good to me, for I have never wanted; On sitting down to rest beside her, and inquiring if and though He sees fit to send me pain, yet with the she was fond of flowers, as she took such pains to pain there is healing, for I often forget it all when I collect them, 'Oh yes, ma'am!' she answered, I love look on the beautiful things of His making. Indeed I them dearly; they do me so much good with their am very happy; for if such fair flowers are to be found happy looks and sweet scents. I take them home with on earth, where the birds sing, and the waters are so me, for they ease my pain when I have them near me clear, and the trees are so grand, how much more beauto speak to. I am but a silly one; though I often tiful our home in heaven will be!' remember Him who made both me and the flowers.' • But are we so sure of seeing heaven?' I hesitatingly
I asked where she suffered the most pain. “In my said, wishing to hear the answer. Her answer was a head, ma’am. It has been so ever since I can remember silent smile, but a serious and solemn one, only faintly --sometimes better, sometimes worse; but I will sing lighting up her pallid suffering countenance; and when you a song if you please, for helping me to gather this I parted with her, it was in the earnest and full con. pretty nosegay.'
viction that this destitute cripple was indeed, as she It was useless my requesting her to desist from the affirmed, very happy; and passing rich also in the posexertion ; she began without heeding my remonstrance, session of the priceless graces of patient cheerfulness, and as if it were the return she habitually made for resignation, and faith. kindness, warbling the words of a bygone and very This little adventure had given me a lesson, and beautiful ballad. An attempt at sentimental descrip- administered a reproof, which all discontented and tion, when speaking of this poor creature, would be l repining individuals may not have the good fortune to
encounter so opportunely. For my own part, the light It thus becomes a most instructive study, perhaps to none of that poor cripple's smile is to this day upon my so much as to young persons. Then there is a foreign heart; and in the midst of the sorrows and anxieties of air mixed with much that we see in Ireland ; there is life, whether real or imaginary, my harassed thoughts also the strong cast of a different nationality, something often fit away to employ themselves happily and bene- distinctly more primitive than the Saxonism of our ficially in-gathering blue-bells.
land, and leading to habits, and even modes of thinking, wholly peculiar. Add to all this the beauty of much
of the country, the touching remains of antiquity OCCASIONAL NOTE.
everywhere thickly scattered, the rough oddity of the
conveyances, and the quaint whimsicality of their conIt seems to be generally concluded that comparatively ductors—and supposing you only will not be too keenly few persons will visit the continent this summer. The
sensitive to the assaults of beggars, or too nice and faspleasure and health-seeking host will be mainly re- fully as much pleasure from a visit to Ireland as you
tidious in general respects, you cannot fail to derive atricted to the more interesting districts of our own have ever done from any pleasure trip accomplished island, which were their sole resort during the war. within the bounds of (to say the very least) the United For those who may be inclined to go northward, we Kingdom. may mention that there are now two lines of railway passing into Scotland-one by the east side of the island,
COLONY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. only broken at the crossings of the Tyne and. Tweed; Tue agitation in favour of this colony increases every another, which is quite uninterrupted, proceeding from day. Besides books written for the express purpose of Carlisle to both Edinburgh and Glasgow. There is a attracting emigrants, extracts from the local papers are farther line to Stirling, which, by the time the present industriously circulated, and it is sought on all hands sheet sees the light, will be advanced to Perth ; so that to impress upon the public mind of England that South a tourist will be able to pass, without interruption, and Australia is a perfect paradise both of capitalists and in less than a day, from London to the border of the labourers. For our part, we mean neither to join nor Highlands. In another year, we believe, this line will resist the clamour. All we desire is, that the people be extended to Aberdeen.
should not, on the one hand, allow themselves to be car
Meanwhile, the scenery ried away by representations that, however true at the which, by its physical beauty and its romantic associa- moment, may turn out to have no permanent truth, or, tions, presents the most solacing contrast to ordinary on the other hand, remain obstinately blind to their industrial life, can be reached from the cities of the own interest, through misgivings that are inapplicable busy south without the loss of a night's rest. Tourists to the altered circumstances of the time. In short, we from that region would do well to come to the north by do not want to dissuade our countrymen from leaping, one line, and leave it by the other, taking Glasgow and but we would have them look beforehand; we would Edinburgh in their way. Edinburgh is in its highest have them measure the space with their eye, and inbeauty in summer, being almost as much a garden as a
quire calmly into the causes of the failure or success of city, not to speak of its ancient towers in the air, and
When the colony in question was first planted, the its streets of palaces. Hence a tour can be extended prosperity of New South Wales and Tasmania was at into the Highlands, to a near or far point, ending at its height. The sheep of Spain and Saxony were natuGlasgow. The shortest curve is by Stirling, the Tro- ralised on the shores of the Pacific, and a great comsachs, and Loch Lomond, which requires only two days. merce established in wool. In New South Wales, the A wider curve is by Perth, Dunkeld, Loch Tay, Loch settlers had spread themselves over the country in Eard, and then the Trosachs and Loch Lomond, as bequest of pasture; and in Tasmania, where the surface fore: this takes about four days. A still wider sweep was more limited, they had recourse to re-emigration passes on from Dunkeld to Inverness, and returns by to the mainland, and the rich plains of Port Philip the Caledonian Canal and the Western Islands to the were soon dotted with their flocks and herds. At the Clyde. In returning from Glasgow by the Caledonian opposite angle of the new continent, the north-west, Railway, the celebrated Falls of Clyde can be seen by a Swan River colony had been planted: but this did not stoppage of half a day at the Lanark station. Through- turn out so well. The great object had been to get out out all these routes there are excellent hotels. The capital, and men to work it, in what was supposed to chances of weather are tolerably equal through the be a boundless field; and with this view, free grants of summer and autumn, excepting perhaps in the latter land were lavishly given, at the rate of forty acres for part of July and early part of August, which are un- every three pounds expended in goods and implements, usually apt to be rainy.
or in conveying labourers. When the emigrants arrived, We eagerly embrace this opportunity of recommend- however, which they did in great numbers—most of ing English and Scotch alike to give due consideration them tempted by the idea of getting estates for nothing to Ireland as a field for their summer ramblings. This they found that the only land as yet explored was on may seem a strange advice to those who are shrinking the banks of the river, where there was not room for from the tumults of the continent. But, whatever be half of them; and the timid or the impatient, therefore, the real state of the latter case, we are very sure that set forth to seek a new home in the other Australian no true cause exists for dreading a visit to even the settlements. most ill-reputed districts of the sister island. There is But the calamity of Swan River was at once a gain no real danger of any kind to a well-meaning stranger and a warning to New South Wales, Tasmania, and in Ireland, and never has been. The discontents of the Port Philip: a gain, because they thus obtained an incountry regard wholly different objects. Persons who crease both of hands and capital, and a warning, because have not hitherto visited Ireland would, on experience, it demonstrated that the system of colonising by means be surprised at ever having entertained fears on the of indiscriminate grants of land was radically bad. And subject, and they would equally be surprised to think this question now became a very important one to the that they had been so long in visiting a country pos. prosperous sheep-farmers of these settlements, for busisessing so many interesting features. The first and
ness was increasing, and wages high. It does not apstrongest point of interest is, we think, of a historical pear,' remarks a shrewd observer, that the labourers character. We peruse, in much of the social life which themselves had any objection to this state of affairs ;'* we see around us, a sort of living portraiture of past cen- but the farmers had of course the command of the press, turies in England and Scotland. It forcibly recalled to ourselves the Scotland of the days of the Covenanters.
* Earl's Enterprise in Tropical Australia. 1846.