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water at twenty-eight to thirty ounces; and in that proceed, drive a small engine, and finally escape into the
AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A WORKING MAN.
certain articles contributed to thein during the progress The only other aërated water of any repute is the of the free trade movement, with the signature of One oxygenated water. An ingenious gentleman, noticing the who has whistled at the plough. This person proves to be volubility of laughing-gas in water, and believing that a the same Alexander Somerville who created a sensation remedial agent of great value might be thus prepared, took during the latter days of the reform movement (summer out a patent for the article. For some time it was in great of 1832) as a private in the Scots Greys, who had been repute; but although we have made diligent inquiries flogged indirectly for writing a letter to a newspaper, in after it, in consequence of its value as a medicinal fluid, which he expressed his belief that his fellow-soldiers the manufacture appears now either to have been discon- would not support the Duke of Wellington in an effort tipued, or to be of a very limited extent. The gas was to resist the national will as declared by the House of procured by heating the salt known as the nitrate of am
Commons. The child of a mason's labourer in Hadmnonia; and was then made by a process similar to that dingtonshire, Somerville obtained some tincture of learndescribed above. The liquid had an agreeable sweetish ing at a parish school. While, in boyhood and early taste, and sparkled like ordinary waters. If the Liebigian manhood, working at laborious employments for small theory of the causes of severul very coinmon disorders is gains, he educated himself by reading and haunting the correct, the constant drinking of this water, thus supply company of such intelligent persons as fell in his way. ing a large amount of oxygen to the system, is much to The final result is, his being a favourite and well-paid be recommended. In the account published of its effects writer in the newspapers, and his publishing, at sevensome years ago, it was stated that several persons had and-thirty, a narrative of his life, possessing no small derived the most marked benefit from its use. The value as a report to one department of society of the expense of the preparation is probably the chief obstacle feelings and workings which go on in another, that other to its large adoption; the cost of the nitrate of ammonia being at present the subject of a problem charged with being many times greater than the gas-producing mate- the gravest interest to present and prospective humanity. rials employed in the other manufacture. It is perhaps The volume opens with sketches of the cottage economy hardly neeessary to state that this gas is not oxygen of Scotland, under the care of a decent industrious couple, itself, but an oxide of nitrogen, or nitrous oxide. influenced by the religious feelings of our country, and
There are some mechanical ingenuities connected with inspired with the anxious wish to bring up their children our subject, which may be appropriately mentioned in in a creditable manner. With all the drawbacks of a bringing it to a conclusion. The early ligatures to tie somewhat stern discipline, the system has a certain moral down the corks were string; but this was quickly aban- beauty, for which, it is to be feared, there is no counterdoned, in consequence of the pressure against the cork part in much of the modern life of better-paid working bursting the string. Wire was then used, and has been people, whether in town or country. Somerville partook since most generally employed, of various kinds-copper, of the usual hardships of his class-was half-starved in iron, tinned, and galvanised. Tinned wire is now begin. dear years, tyrannised over by the farniers' children at
ning to be eruployed; and in a large manufactory, the school, and thrashed by the master for resisting; sent to | consumption of wire alone will probably amount to some tend cattle while yet a child, and persecuted by supersti
tons in the course of a year. We were lately shown an tious fears, against which no one could instruct him to
firmly the neck of the bottle. An elegant instrument, delightful novelty of his sensations on first reading the
duced in London, consisting of an earthen vase of artistic paper. By and by he had to move about the country in
design, charged with carbonated waters, which are drawn search of work, generally with companions. One of the 1 in the required quantity by a clever mechanical tap at difficulties attending this kind of life was to avoid join
the top. The name of this instrument is the Syphon ing his friends in their potations of whisky, to which he Vase. " It forms an ornamental addition to the dinner had no sort of liking, while, moreover, he desired to be table; but from difficulties connected with the re- able to return home with a good suit of clothes purchased charging, it is principally adapted for local use. Aby his savings. It is distressing to hear of the sacrifices number of machines have been from time to time pro- made by Somerville's associates to the demon of liquor. posed for domestic use, of greater or lesser ingenuity; but On pay-days, he says, it was hardly possible for the most that general proposition, applicable to so large a variety abstemious and resolute to escape spending money on of subjects, obtains here also, that where the article is of liquor; meaning, we presume, that those who were most large consumption, it is always best and cheapest to pro- inclined, tempted and compelled those least so, to join cure it of those who devote themselves to its exclusive them in their orgies. It was in the crisis of the accession manufacture. We suspect if there were invented a of the Whig ministry in 1830, when the outcry for polidomestic tallow-candle-making machine, putting aside tical reforms arose, that the following circumstances took the excise difficulties, the most economical plan would be place, strongly illustrating a point which we lately brought found to be to purchase the article ready-made.
before the reader: It has long been a whim of ours, and we mention it • A number of masons were hewing the blocks of stone, because it may probably attract the notice of some one and each hewer had a labourer allotted to him to do the who has opportunities for practically making the at. rougher work upon the stone with a short pick, techni
tempt, that the elastic force of the carbonic acid gene- cally to “scutch” it. The masons were intolerable tyrants į rated in this manufacture might be economically applied, to their labourers. I was in the quarry cutting the blocks
on the expansive principle of the steam-engine, to drive from the rock when the tide was out: and when the tide the machinery used in the manufacture. The gas might was in, I went and scutched with some of the hewers, be generated in a powerful receiver, then be conducted chiefly with my friend Alick. One day, when we had into a kind of receptacle or boiler, from which it might been reading in the newspapers a great deal about the
tyranny of the Tories, and the tyranny of the aristocracy None of them offered to lay hands on me; one said in general, and some of the hewers had been, as usual, they had better let the affair rest where it was, as there wordy and loud in denouncing all tyrants, and exclaim- would only be a fight about it, and several others assented; ing “Down with them for ever!” one of them took up and so we resumed our work. a long wooden straight-edge and struck a labourer with * Had it been in summer, when building was going on, the sharp edge of it over the shoulders. Throwing down they would have either dismissed me from the works, or my pick, I turned round and told him that, so long as have struck, and refused to work themselves. It was only I was about the works, I would not see a labourer struck about the end of January, and they could not afford to in that manner without questioning the mason's pre- do more than threaten me.' tended right to domineer over labourers. “ You exclaim Against such a specimen of 'man's inhumanity to against tyranny," I continued, " and you yourselves are man,' it is delightful to place the following anecdote of tyrants, if anybody is." The hewer answered that I humble benevolence. Soinerville, with some companions, had no business to interfere ; that he had not struck me. arrived in Kelso in search of work on the eve of a biring “No," said I, " or you would have been in the sea by fair day:- We could get no lodgings there, every place this time. But I have seen labourers, who dared not being filled with cattle-dealers and other strangers speak for themselves, knocked about by you, and by many already arrived for to-morrow's fair. Thoroughly worn others ; and by every mason about those works, I have out, we lay down on the causeway of a narrow street seen labourers ordered to do things, and compelled to do where there seemed to be the least traffic, and the least them, which no working man should order another to do; danger of being run, ridden, or driven over in our sleep. far less have the power to compel him to do. And i Some of us were already asleep, when a weaver and his tell you it shall not be done."
wife, opposite to whose humble cottage door we lay, came • The labourers gathered around me; the masons con- out and said they could not go to bed, nor rest if they ferred together. One of them said, speaking for the rest, were in bed, with the thought of fellow-creatures lying in that he must put a stop to this; the privileges of masons the street. They had a large family of children, a small were not to be questioned by labourers, and I must either house, and were only poor persons, they said; still, if we submit to that reproof, or punishment which they thought would go inside, they would at least give us the shelter of fit to inflict, or leave the works; if not, they must all a roof and a fire to sit by. We went in. The weaver leave the works. The punishment hinted at was, to sub- and some of his children made a bed for themselves bemit to be held over one of the blocks of stone face down- neath the loom; his wife and the other children went to ward, the feet held down on one side, the head and arms a bed in the loft, and four of us lay crossways on the bed held down on the other side, while the mason apprentices which they had vacated in the kitchen. The other three would whack the offenders with their leathern aprons stretched themselves on the clothes-chests and the chairs. knotted hard. I said that, so far from submitting to In the morning, one of us went out and bought tea, reproof or punishment, I would carry my opposition a sugar, and bread for breakfast, while the kind woman great deal farther than I had done. They had all talked got us water and a tub to bathe our blistered feet; and about parliamentary reform ; we had all joined in the the weaver gave his shaving razors to those who needed cry for reform, and denounced the exclusive privileges shaving, and took his other razor, which was past sharing, of the anti-reformers, but I would begin reform where we and pared such of our feet as had bruises; and took a then stood. I would demand, and I then demanded, darning needle and worsted and drew it through the that if a hewer wanted his stone turned over, and called blisters, leaving a worsted thread in the blisters—the labourers together to do it, they should not put hands to best possible cure for them. When we had breakfasted, it unless he assisted ; that if a hewer struck a labourer and were all bathed, doctored, and refreshed, the good at his work, none of the labourers should do anything woman, her heart overflowing with motherly generosity, thereafter, of any nature whatever, for that hewer.' (The said, “ No, we must not offer to pay her; no, we must masons laughed.) “And farther," said I, “ the masons not speak of thanks even ; we were no doubt some shall not be entitled to the choice of any room they choose, mother's bairns; she had bairns of her own, and the wide if we go into a public-house to be paid, to the exclusion world was before them yet; it would be an awfu' thought of the labourers ; nor, if there be only one room in the for her to think it possible that they might ever be withhouse, shall the labourers be sent outside the door to out a roof to sleep under. Oh no; we must not speak
1 give the room to the masons, as has been the case. In about paying her; she had done nothing, nor the guideverything we shall be your equals, except in wages; man had done nothing but their duty, their Christian that we have no right to expect." The masons, on hear- duty, whulk was incumbent on them to perform to their ing these conditions, set up a shout of derisive laughter. fellow-creatures.' It was against the laws of their body to hear their privi- In the Merse (Berwickshire), our author found there leges discussed by a labourer ; they could not suffer it, were some curious distinctions between the rural labourthey said, and I'must instantly submit to punishment ing class and those of his native district, though they for my contumacy. I told them that I was a quarryman, are divided only by a rivulet. The people of the former and not a mason's labourer ; that, as such, they had no province work much the hardest, but are perpetually power over me. They scouted this plea, and said that changing masters, and they can never furnish forth wherever masons were at work, they were superior, and their marriageable daughters so well as the Lothian their privileges were not to be questioned. I asked if labourers. As indicating some peculiarities of the the act of a mason striking a labourer with a rule was maids of the Merse and of Lothian, I may report what not to be questioned. They said, by their own body it their respective admirers may be heard saying of them. might, upon a complaint from the labourer; but in this He from the Lothian side of the small rivulet beforecase the labourer was insolent to the mason, and the mentioned is told that he cannot get a lass for his wife in latter had a right to strike him. They demanded that Lothian who can bake a scone.* He rejoins that he cadI should at once cease to argue the question, and submit, not get one who can “fill muck at the midden, and drive before it was too late, to whatever punishment they chose the muck carts, as they do in the Merse: they never," he to inflict. Upon hearing this, I put myself in a defensive says, “gar women drive carts in Loudan.” And he says attitude, and said, “Let me see who shall first lay hands the truth. The Merse man next takes up what he calls on me? No one approaching, I continued, “We have the Loudan tone: he says, “ In Loudan the women are 50 been reading in the newspaper discussions about reform, slow at their work, and have such a long tone to their and have been told how much is to be gained by even words, that when they speak, they stop their work until one person sometimes making a resolute stand against the tone comes to an end, and in that time & Merse oppressive power. We have only this day seen in the woman would work round about them." The apologist papers a warning to the aristocracy and the anti-reformers of the merits and manners of the lasses of Lothian canthat another John Hampden may arise. Come on, he not suffer this to be the last word; he retorts smartly who dares ! I shall be Hampden to the tyrannies of masons !"
* Cake of barley-bread.
and without a very long tone, that “if the women o' I offered my certificate of six months' gratuity for a Loudan dinna cut their words so short as they do i' the quire of writing paper, and pen and ink, to begin to Merse, neither do they cut their claes so short: gin [if] write my narrative of the legion, would give nothing for the lasses o' the Merse would eik the Loudan tone to their the worthless certificate, but made me a present of seveshort goons, their short goons would set them the better, ral quires of writing paper. I walked out of Glasgow, and maybe the lads would like them naething the three or four miles up the Clyde, got into a field of beans waur.”
nearly ripe, crept out of sight into the middle of the 'Should these disputants be shearing with the Merse field; lay there three days and nights, writing the first women within hearing, as is most probable, the "Loudan chapters of my “Narrative," and living on the beans. I louts," as they are ill-naturedly called, may reckon on a sent the farmer a copy of the work afterwards, as paykemp (contention) which shall stretch their skin before ment for what I had eaten.' they get to the end of the field. Their best agility and The style of this book is quiet, simple, and perspicuous. strength, and their worst and fastest work, cannot cope The writer tells much against himself; yet the general with these women as shearers. The men have not yet impression left is in his favour. In the humblest situabeen born who are their matches at a kemp. They will be tions, he seems to apply himself to the duties before him first at the land end, if they should slash the corn down, with diligence; he resists debasing pleasures, for the sake and trample over it without laying it in the bands for the of something better; he is content to be a loser, rather bandsters to tie in sheaves. They must, and will reach than fall the least grade in integrity. Many of his rethe land end first. The Lothian shearers, let them do marks on the position and interests of working men their best, must only follow. When the latter do reach might be listened to with advantage by that class, and the land end, they will be taunted by the others, and there are passages in the volume calculated to be of wider told that they must "sup another bow o' meal afore they utility: for instance, the following :- An old cavalry kemp again wi' the lasses o' the Merse, or cast up to soldier in Edinburgh gave me some words of counsel, them about their short goons!”:
to be observed in the stable and the barrack-room. Í After many changes of masters and of employment, refer to them now, because I have found them, or similar Somerville enlisted in the Scots Greys, and the spring of rules, useful elsewhere than in a stable or barrack-room. 1832 found him a recruit of one-and-twenty in the Bir-One was, to observe when the soldier's wife, who might be mingham barracks. The men caught the contagion of in the same room with me, was about to go for water to the time, and some joined the political union. Sonuer- the pump, or was in want of water, I was to take her pail ville, from a sense of propriety, abstained from doing so, and say, “ Nay, mistress, let me go to the pump for you,” though as keen a reformer as any. At the crisis when and go instantly. Another rule of conduct was to antiit was apprehended that the Duke of Wellington was cipate a comrade who might require his clothes brushed, going to undertake an anti-reforming government, our and rise and do it for him before he had time to ask thé hero wrote his famous letter-a proceeding, we humbly favour. And so in the stable, if I had charge of a comthink, much to be condemned, but not so much so as rade's horse in his absence, he on guard perhaps, to be as that of his officers in punishing it. There seems no room kind to his horse as to my own; and at any time, if I had to doubt that the first consequence of his authorship nothing to do myself, to put forward my hand and help being suspected, was to force him into an act of dis- some one who had something to do. The same readiness obedience. He was put upon an unruly horse, without to oblige may be practised in a workshop, in a literary stirrups, and obliged to ride it in the school, till, seeing office, or any other office, and is as necessary to be obthat he must be thrown, he dismounted, and refused to served there as in a stable. But I fear that if there be resume his lessons. Placed under arrest for trial, he was not a natural inclination to be obliging, the desire of brought before the commanding officer, Major Wyndham, acquiring the good-will of associates will fail to make one who taxed him with a treasonous act in writing the always agreeable. Almost all men, probably all, who letter, and told him he would repent of it. There was have risen above the social level upon which they were a hurried and irregular court-martial-a condemnation born, or who have created new branches of trade, or have of course, and the infliction of a hundred lashes, which been inventors, or have made discoveries, have been men Somerville here describes in most vivid terms. As must who were ever ready to put forth their hands to help a be remembered, he became a martyr of the newspapers companion in his work, or to try to do something more and clubs, and the case being noticed in the House of than what was allotted for them to do by their emCommons, a court of inquiry sat upon it, and condemned ployers. The apprentice, or journeyman, or other person the conduct of Major Wyndham as injudicious. Somer- who will not do more than is allotted to him, because he ville was enabled by the public beneficence to obtain is not bound to do it, and who is continually drawing a his discharge, but he suffered much in delicacy of spirit, line to define what he calls his rights, with his fellowfrom the efforts of vulgar-minded partisans to parade workmen, or with his employer, or, if in the army, with him and his sufferings before the public. His value as his comrades, and the non-commissioned officers immea subject for the newspapers comes out in a strong and diately over him, is sure to remain where he is, or sink somewhat amusing light in these memoirs.
to a lower level. He is not destined to be a successful Much credit seems due to him for his refraining from master tradesman; to be a discoverer in science, an inall retaliatory measures against his oppressors. While ventor in mechanics, a propounder of new philosophy, nor remaining steadfast in his political prepossessions, he does a promoter of the world's advancement, and certainly not seem to have been provoked by his experience of the not of his own. wantonness of power into any general feeling of bitterness • It may to some appear like vanity in me to write against either classes or persons. The trades'-unionists what I now do, but I should not give my life truly if I of 1833-4, expecting to find in him one fit for treasons, omitted it. When filling a cart with manure at the farm stratagems, and spoils, endeavoured to inveigle him into dunghill, I never stopped work because my side of the a conspiracy which it now appears had been formed, with cart might be heaped up before the other side, at which objects not greatly different from the famous Gunpowder was another man; I pushed over what I had heaped up Plot; but he not only shrunk from the part assigned to to help him, as doubtless he did to help me when I was him with horror, but gave the government such warning last and he first. When I have filled my column, or as enabled them to defeat the plan. He afterwards columns of a newspaper, or sheet of a magazine, with the served in the Spanish legion, where he attained the rank literature for which I was to be paid, I have never stopped of sergeant-major. On returning penniless, he wrote a | if the subject required more elucidation, or the paper or narrative of that distressing episode-an extraordinary magazine more matter, because there was no contract for work, from the circumstances under which its composition more payment, or no likelihood of there being more. was commenced. 'I might,' says the author, ‘have found when I have lived in a barrack-room, I have stopped friends, and have got assistance in Glasgow. I would my own work, and have taken the baby from a soldier's not, in the dirty regimentals I was clothed in, go to any wife when she had work to do, and nursed it; or have person who had before known me. The person to whom gone for water for her, or have cleaned another man's
accoutrements, though it was no part of my duty to do ago. I carefully scanned the face of the country round
When I have been engaged in political literature, in every direction, but the anxiously-looked for smoke and travelling for a newspaper, I have not hesitated to was nowhere to be seen; and I was at last most reluctravel many miles out of my road to ascertain a local tantly compelled to relinquish my hope of finding the fact, or to pursue a subject into its minutest particulars, party for that night at least. if it appeared that the public were unacquainted with Not knowing whether the surveyed line lay to my the facts of the subject; and this at times when I had right or left, I resolved on taking the direction in which work to do which was much more pleasant and profitable. I thought there was least personal risk, and therefore When I have needed employment, I have accepted it at lost no time in getting on a line which had been run by whatever wages I could obtain--at plough, in farm drain, my directions the year before, along which I kept to the in stone quarry, at breaking stones for roads, at wood. northward, as, in case I did not in the meantime cross cutting, in a sawpit, as a civilian, or as a soldier. I have either the other line or tracks of the party, I should in London cleaned out a stable, and groomed a cabman's have at least made some progress towards Campbell's
, horse for a sixpence, and been thankful to the cabman the nearest settlement on the Tobique. I continued to for the sixpence. I have subsequently tried literature, press forward without discovering the objects of my hare done as much writing for ten shillings as I have search. I had reached the Beaver Brook, a branch of readily obtained - been sought after, and offered-ten the Wapskihegan, when night overtook me, and it comguineas for. But had I not been content to begin at the menced to rain. It was now quite certain that for beginning, and accept shillings, I would not have risen one night I must forego the comforts of food, fire, or to guineas.
shelter--having at the same time no doubt of my easily
reaching Campbell's some time next day. My situation FIVE DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS OF NEW at that time, although but the commencement of my
disaster, was one of no ordinary suffering. I had BRUNSWICK.*
already undergone nearly twelve hours of the most On the morning of the 5th of last November we were harassing fatigue, without food or a moment's rest; and encamped on the line of survey in the Tobique district, now, cold and wet, stood alone amid wind and rain, in about five miles from the Little Gulquac. At eight a sterile and shelterless wilderness, and on a night o'clock, the party having struck the tents, and got their so dark, that the very sky seemed black. What was several loads in readiness, commenced their day's march to be done? To follow a course, and move forward in along the line, when I left them, as I usually did, for the dark, I knew was impossible. There were thirteen the purpose of examining the neighbouring country. I long hours until daylight, yet I dared not lie down to took a course to the westward for about half a mile, rest, for fear of perishing. I at length resolved to behind a small mount, from the top of which I was led endeavour to follow the course of the Brook, in doing to expect an excellent view of the surrounding country, which, I had difficulties to surmount which would, I as observations from it of distant mountain heights have no doubt, appear to many almost like impossibi. | had already been made by the surveying party during lities, even by daylight. Such a night of falls, wounds, the summer's operations. After making a few notes bruises, scratchings, and fatigue, is, I confess, beyond and sketches, I went to the top of the bill, where I my powers of description. On the morning of the 6th, remained for a short time similarly employed. I next I found I had got to within a short distance of the descended, with the intention of regaining the line mouth of the Brook, which I crossed, intending to fol. of survey, and joining the party. This, however, I low down the Wapskihegan river, until I came to a found to be no such easy matter. The country in this lumber road I had travelled the year before, leading by neighbourhood has to an immense extent been laid Shea's Mountain to the Campbell settlement, on the waste by extensive fires, and the trees, and even the Tobique river. The waters were now much swollen, 80 soil, in some places are so thoroughly burnt up, that that I could only scramble along a very steep bank, there is not a vestige of vegetation to be seen; in thickly wooded with underwood and trees. I had gone others, the naked trunks of the trees are left standing, some distance down, when, thinking that a little way like the grim ghosts of a stately forest race, chared back from the bank of the river I might probably find by fire, or blanched by the storm; or they are tossed the travelling easier, I took that direction, and again by the whirlwind into the most frightful heaps of con- found myself in a seemingly open country of burnt fusion. These are termed ‘windfalls, and form some lands. I'he surrounding highlands were distinctly seen of the most formidable barriers to the progress of the on all sides in the distance, and amongst the most contraveller of the wilderness.
spicuous was Shea's Mountain, which led me to the The surveyed line through this section of country, resolution of taking a direct course for it, not dreamowing to the facts above stated, was merely traced out ing of the formidable difficulties I should have to enwith small stakes, placed at long intervals, which, having counter on the way. I toiled on with determined become dark and discoloured, could scarcely now be dis- perseverance through a dreadful combination of wind- 11 tinguished from the surrounding dead-wood. I was not falls, marshi, lakes, streams, &c., so that another day then in the least disconcerted at failing to find the line, was nearly spent before I had reached the moun- ! but continued to advance in the direction which I knew tain. I at length found the lumber road, and now con. it to take, stopping from time to time to make sketches sidered myself safe, and my journey' nearly at an end, and observations as before. As it was now getting late being only four miles from the settlement; but I in the afternoon, and I felt confident I had gone quite reckoned without my host. I followed the road for a as far as the party were likely to have advanced in their short distance, until I came to an old lumber camp day's march, I again made an effort to discover them, and road lending off to the left, which I examined, and by traversing the country both to the right and left for unfortunately rejected, as it appeared to pass on a a considerable distance, whooping as loud as I possibly different side of the mountain to that which I knew the could: but all in vain ; I could neither hear nor see proper road to take. From that moment I continued anything of them. Very little more than half a mile to go astray. from where I stood I recognised a rocky height from On travelling a little way further, I came to a second which I had, the year before, made some observations, old lumber camp, where the road again branched into and immediately proceeded thither, in the hope of being two. A snow-storm had now commenced, and night able to discover from it the smoke of the camp. On
was once more fast approaching. On going about a mile reaching the summit, there stood the post which I had and a half down one of the roads, I did not like its placed for my instrument exactly as I had left it a year appearance, and returning, followed the other, which I
found equally unsatisfactory, as it did not much resemble * The hero of these adventures is Mr John Grant, employed in the road I had travelled during the summer of last year. the Halifax and Quebec railway expioration survey.
I, however, endeavoured to console myself with the pro
bability of the difference in its appearance being caused a death knell. A sort of mirage next appeared to me to by its covering of snow.
spread over the low grounds, so completely real in its 'I continued to travel for some miles through a low effect, that frequently, when expecting to step over marshy ground, until I became quite convinced of my my boots in water, I found that I was treading upon being in a strange part of the country; when I re- long dry grass ; to be convinced of the truth of which, turned, with the intention, if possible, of regaining the I frequently felt with my hand. My first vision was old lumber camp before dark, and passing the night in undoubtedly the result of delirium tremens, brought on it; but the night came upon me so suddenly, that I by exhaustion; but whether the latter arose from the had only time to go a little way to the right, where same cause, or from real external phenomena, I cannot the ground was higher, and less swampy, and take well determine. up my quarters in the shelter of some low bushes, a I continued my toilsome journey along the alternately few branches of which I threw on the ground before flat and tangled, or precipitous banks of the river, lying down. I need scarcely say I was wet, cold, which, from being now swollen, left me no beach to hungry, and much fatigued, having now continued to travel on. I crossed a large brook, which, mistaking it walk without interruption for upwards of thirty-five for the Odell, led me to suppose myself but a very little hours. On lying down, I got into rather a distressing way from the settlement (in reality, upwards of twelve sort of slumber, from which I in a short time awoke, miles off). I had not advanced a great way further, with much pain in my limbs and back, and stiff with until I suddenly dropped down. Supposing I had cold. I got up and walked about, until once more over- merely tripped and fallen, I got up, and endeavoured to come with fatigue, when I again lay down, to endure continue my march, but again staggered and fell. I a repetition of my sufferings; and in this way passed a got up a second time, and leaning against a tree, in dreadful night of about thirteen hours. On the morn. the hope of recovering from what I at first imagined to ing of the 7th, as soon as it was sufficiently clear, I left be temporary indisposition, again made several fruitless my wretched couch, shivering with cold, and by no attempts to walk, until at last the appalling fact forced means refreshed after my fatigue. I was nevertheless itself upon me, that I had really lost my strength; and in tolerable spirits, not considering myself lost, and feel as any further exertions of my own were now imposing assured that within a few hours at least I should sible, my case was indeed hopeless, unless discovered once more be in comfortable quarters.
by some of the party, who I had no doubt were by this The cravings of hunger were now becoming excessive, time in search of me; or, what certainly did appear and not even a berry was to be seen with which I might improbable, by some persons going up the stream to allay them. The weather throughout had been, and still lumber. Under the circumstances, I thought it best to continued dark, and the only compass then in my pos- endeavour to regain the banks of the river ; but owing session I had long considered as useless; I, however, took to my weak and disabled condition, I could scarcely do off the glass, with the hope of repairing it, but my hands more than drag myself along on my hands and knees, had become so benumbed with cold, that the needle slip- and was consequently overtaken by the night and a ped from my fingers amongst the long grass, and I was sharp frost. I took shelter behind the roots of a fallen unable, after the most diligent search, to recover it. I tree, and pulled off my boots, for the purpose of pournow found that both the roads leading from the lumber ing out the water, and rendering my feet as dry as I camp again united, and resolved to continue the one I could make them, to prevent their being frozen; after had been following, under the impression that it must which, from my feet being much swollen, I found it bring me out somewhere on the Tobique. For a con- quite impossible to get them on again. I lay down, siderable distance it traversed a low marshy district, excessively fatigued and weak; yet other sensations of where I found it very difficult to follow, being some- sutfering, both mental and physical, kept me, through times up to my knees in water. After a march of another dreary night of twelve or thirteen hours, in a several hours, I came to a limber brow, on a river which state which some may possibly conceive, but which I appeared of doubtful size for the Tobique : but as of must confess my inability to describe. There was a sharp course my route lay down the stream, I, under a gra- frost during the night, against which my light jacket dual mustering of doubts and fears, continued my and trousers were but a poor protection. On the mornjourney in that direction.
ing of the 8th, when it was sufficiently clear, I discovered I had felt, without at that moment comprehending that I was not more than a hundred yards from the bank them, very evident symptoms of approaching weakness of the river. On endeavouring to get up, I was at first I frequently heard the sound of voices quite distinctly, unable, and found both my feet and hands frozen ; the and stopped to listen. I whooped ! but not a sound in former, as far as my ankles, felt as perfectly hard and reply. The stream murmured on its bed, the wind dead as if composed of stone. I succeeded, however, with rustled amongst the leaves, or whistled through the long a good deal of painful exertion, in gaining the bank of grass; but that was all: everything else was silent as the river, where I sat as long as I was able with my feet the grave. In a short time after, a most extraordinary in the water, for the purpose, if possible, of extracting illusion occurred. My attention was first attracted by the frost. The oiled canvas haversack in which I cardistinctly hearing a tune whistled in the direction of ried my sketching.case I filled with water, of which I the river ; and on looking round, I saw through the drank freely. The dreadful gnawings of hunger had by trees an Indian with two squaws and a little boy. My this time rather subsided, and I felt inclined to rest. jy at the sight may be readily conceived: their canoe, Before leaving the bank of the river, I laid hold of the I thought, could not be far off; and I already fancied tallest alder near, and drawing it down towards me, myself seated in it, and quietly gliding down the river. fastened my handkerchief to the top, and let it go. I I hallooed! but to my utter amazement, not the also scrawled a few words on two slips of paper, de. slightest notice was taken, or reply made. The Indian, scribing my situation; and putting each into a piece with folded arms, leant against a tree, and still con- of slit stick, threw them into the stream. I next tinued to whistle his tune with philosophic indifference. moved back a little way amongst the long grass and I approached, but they receded, and appeared to shun alders; and striving to be as calm and collected as my me; I became annoyed, and persisted, but in vain, in sufferings and weakness would allow, I addressed mytrying to attract their notice. The dreadful truth at self to an all-seeing and merciful Providence, and endea
length flashed upon my mind : it was really no more voured to make my peace with Him, and place myself ! than an illusion, and one of the most perfect descrip- entirely at His disposal-feeling assured that whatever
tion. Melancholy forebodings arose. I turned away, the issue might be, whether for time or eternity, it retraced my steps, and endeavoured to think no more would undoubtedly be for the best. I trust I was not of it. I had turned my back upon the vision, but as presumptuous, but I felt perfectly calm and resigned to I retreated, its accompaniment of ghostly music for my fate. some time continued to fall upon my unwilling ear like I lay down amongst the long wet grass, having placed