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ters; and four years later, the young Canova-for such We wish it to be well understood in England, that the was the lad's name—was on his way to Rome with constitution of our society in India presents an insuletters of recommendation to some of the most illus- perable obstacle to the existence of anything resembling trious families in that capital.

an unscrupulous press. An unscrupulous press cannot Guided by that inspiration which belongs to genius, exist anywhere without an unscrupulous public. Now he carried his first letter to the Signor Volpato, from there is no publicif we may be permitted to use the whom he desired to receive instruction; the same Vol word at all in so narrow an acceptation—there is no pato who gave to Italy some of its finest sculptures. public in the world of so select a character as the news

The first friendship which Antonio formed was with paper-reading public of India. It consists of a few a youth of his own age-Raphael Morghen. After classes of educated English gentlemen-military offisome time, he gave up painting, and devoted himself cers, the civil servants of the government, and gentleto sculpture. Here his genius led him to the very men engaged in commercial pursuits. The Indian press summit of glory. In 1782, Zuliano, the Venetian am- has no • lower orders” for whom to pander. We have bassador, after a banquet given by him to the most no pot-house politicians--no literary dustmen-no eru

celebrated artists then assembled in Rome, invited the dite cads-no high life below stairs—no select circles | guests to accompany him to an adjoining saloon. He of slander-loving profligates and thieves. There is no

said he wished to show them a group newly finished great demand in this part of the world for intellectual, by an artist whose name he had not yet announced whatever there may be for gastronomical, high-seasoned to them. The subject was Theseus conquering the dishes. The most that Indian readers look for is the Minotaur. • Gentlemen,' exclaimed Zuliano with an Duke of Norfolk's panacea—“ a pinch of curry-powder.” air of satisfaction, this work is executed by a country. They are not very fond of strong meat and strong man of mine. Signor Antonio Canova,' he added, seek- drink; and no journalist having any regard for his ing in the crowd for a youth who seemed modestly to purse, would cater for his subscribers after any other shrink from notice, come forward to receive the con- than a most orderly, a most becoming fashion, having gratulations which you merit.'

the utmost regard for the delicacies, the proprieties of Canova became the most distinguished sculptor of civilised life. A few failures in this respect have ere his day, but was always the first to relate his early now struck a blow at the prosperity of an Indian journal, history to those who went to visit him in his studio; from the effects of which it has never recovered.' and, above all, he ever spoke with the deepest gratitude There can hardly be a doubt, we think, that the of the Signor Volpato.

freedom of the press in India has established its respecMay not this early passage in Canova's history en- tability ; but the grand objection made in England, is courage us to cultivate every talent which may have the danger of political consequences. Our government, been committed to us with an earnest and courageous we are told, is a government of opinion : let us keep spirit, feeling assured that whatever outward obstacles the natives, therefore, as much as possible in the dark; may obstruct our path, a firm persevering resolution, let them never suspect that there are any divisions— and patient unwearied labour, will ever in the end con- that there is a single discontented voice heard, or perquer fortune, and establish for us a solid reputation ? mitted to be heard, in the camp of their governors! This

caution is very amusing to persons acquainted with the THE ANGLO-INDIAN PRESS.

state of the native press in India. The Hindoo journals

are full of satire, both personal and political ; and what The first Anglo-Indian journal was published sixty. they want in order to insure the tranquillity of the seven years ago, in 1780. It was called • Hicky's Gazette.' country, is not concealment, but information. 'Already,' and is said by the Calcutta Review to have been full says an anonymous writer in 1840, the progress of of infamous scandal - in some places so disguised, as to India in European knowledge has placed her in a posi. be almost unintelligible to the reader of the present tion not immediately perilous, it is true, to her governday, but in others set forth broadly and unmistakeably, ment, but interesting from its parallels in history. and with a relish not to be concealed.' The individuals Native satirists now lash every day the follies and vices most fouily attacked were frequently young ladies, their of their rulers, and song.writers (so often the advanced anonymous enemies, it is to be presumed, being rejected guard of freedom !) give words to the inarticulate mursuitors; but the highest dignitaries of the government murs of disaffection. The Ilindoo mother lulls her were no more spared than the weaker sex; and at baby with a ballad, in which she tells him that how.

length we read without any surprise the following ever wise and industrious he may be, he can never | announcement: Mr Hicky thinks it a duty incumbent hope for a hundredth part of the return obtained by

on him to inform his friends in particular, and the Europeans; and on the occasion of the ignorant and public in general, that an attempt was made to assassi- insulting claim put forward by government to the pro. nate him last Thursday morning between the hours of prietorship of the lands, a bolder strain arose, of which

one and two o'clock by two armed Europeans, aided and a translation appeared in one of the (London) Indian i assisted by a Moorman. Mr Hicky is obliged to post- magazines. The following are the two last stanzas :!, pone the particulars at present for want of room, but “And what are we to do, my men ?-my brothers, one and all, they shall be inserted the first opportunity.'

Upon you with my loudest voice and angriest I callOnly fifty years after this, when the journals had Take up your tulwars in your hand, and loudly sound the gong, become numerous, Lord William Bentinck alludes to

I doubt not there are thousands who will round our banner throng. the press in his public despatches as forming a salutary Oh great are we in numbers, and in numbers there is mightcheck upon the public officers of government; and at a Like a river we will pour upon our enemies in tight; time when the native community had been roused into

And if we strive right manfully, we shall not strive in vain, exasperation by the abolition of the sati, and both the

To send our foreign tyrants back to their own homes again!" civil and military services by a series of reforms and The Anglo-Indian press of the present day is reretrenchments, this dangerous engine-which had been spectable not only in character, but numerical force. the object of suspicion and alarm to former governors. The editor of the Telegraph and Courier (Bombay) general - was left in practical freedom. In 1835, Sir has been kind enough to send us some statistics, by Charles Metcalfe confirmed this freedom by law; upon which we find that there are twenty-seven Indian an assumption, as the recent historian, Mr Thornton, papers, five Singapore and Straits papers, and three tells us, that nothing was more likely to conduce to China papers. Of these six are daily, three tri-weekly, the spread of the enlightened knowledge and civilisa- twelve bi-weekly, nine weekly, and five uncertain. tion, the arts and sciences of Europe, over India, than It will be seen from the statement we publish,' says a licentious and unbridled press.

the Telegraph and Courier, ‘that Calcutta possesses With reference to this implied charge, the Review three daily and four weekly papers, two of the heb| Ee have already quoted makes the following remark :- domadals, however - the “ Christian Advocate" and

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“ Hindoo Intelligencer"— being organs of particular old chased repeater, that hung above the head of a dying sections of the community. Madras has one daily, two parent when bestowing his trembling blessing on the poor bi - weeklies, and three tri-weeklies--the last named outcast who parted with it for bread; the widow's wedmode of publication being peculiar to the south-eastern ding - ring is there, the last and dearest of all her pospresidency. In Bombay there are two dailies, a bi- sessions; the trinket, the pledge of love of one now dead, weekly, and a weekly. The papers in the north of the only relic of the heart's fondest memories; silver that India are all issued twice a-week-a convenient arrange- used to hang over the quiet mantel-shelf; the flute, the

graced the holiday feast; the gilt-framed miniature that ment as regards postage, which presses with peculiar favourite of å dead son, surrendered by a starving mother weight on the daily journals. In Ceylon, our cotem- to procure food for her remaining offspring; the locket poraries—with the exception of the " Morning Star,” that held a father's hair ; or, gloomier still, the dress, the of which we have no information-likewise come under very covering of the poor is there, waving like the flag the denomination of bi-weekly. The “Friend of China,” of wretchedness and misery. It is a strange sad sight to and “Straits Times,” are the only bi-weeklies further those who feel aright. There are more touching memorials east-the rest of the papers being hebdomadals.' The to be seen at a pawnbroker's window than in all the monuamount of subscription is from ten rupees to sixty-four ments in Westminster Abbey.—Newspaper paragraph. rupees annually. The aggregate subscription for twenty

LABOUR. four of the Indian papers is L.78, 10s., the remaining three not being stated; and of five of the Chinese, Singa- plish. All things are full of labour, and therefore the more

The more we accomplish, the more we have to accompore, and Straits papers, seventy dollars, the remaining we acquire, the more we care, and the more we toil, to three not being stated. The Hindoo Intelligencer,' a secure our acquisitions. Good men can never retire from Calcutta weekly journal, is edited by a native. The their works of benevolence. Their fortune is never made. “Kurrachee Advertiser' is lithographed. With regard I never heard of an apostle, prophet, or public benefactor to the circulation of these papers, we are in possession retiring from their respective fields of labour. Moses, and of no precise information. In India there are no stamps, Paul, and Peter died with their harness on. So did Luther, the number of which admits of a tolerable guess in and Calvin, and Wesley, and a thousand others as deservEngland; and the publishers, as may be supposed, are ing, though not so well known to fame. We are inured to not very communicative on the subject.

labour. It was first a duty ; it is now a pleasure. Still Several of these journals publish a summary, which there is such a thing as over-working man and beast, mind they transmit to England by each overland mail. The is the better for it. The muscles of an elephant, and the

and body. The mainspring of a watch needs repose, and summary is a number containing a selection of articles wings of a swift bird, are at length fatigued. Heaven gives published during the intervals of the mails, with such rest to the earth because it needs it; and winter is more other matter as is expected to be found peculiarly inte pregnant with blessings to the soil than summer with its resting at home. It is, in fact, a fortnightly or monthly Howers and fruits.-A. Campbell. paper, as it may be, printed in India, and intended for circulation in Europe. This circulation, however, is

IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING WELL. much injured by the full reports of Indian intelligence It seems paradoxical to observe that the art of listening that are now given by some of the daily London news- well forms a part of the duty of conversation. To give up papers before the arrival of the ordinary mail, and by the whole of your attention to the person who addresses the comprehensive précis of the Indian News' and himself to you is sometimes a heavy task; but it is one *Indian Mail. These two journals, which are as large which we must pay for the privileges of social life, and an as most of the Sunday papers, exhibit in rather a re- good - breeding; whilst consideration for others will give

early practice will render it almost an involuntary act of markable light the activity and promptitude of the this little sacrifice a merit and a charm of which the lowest metropolitan press. When the mail is delivered in proof of Christian feeling can never be devoid. To listen London-sometimes as late as three o'clock in the after-well is to make an unconscious advancement in the power noon—their editors and printers fasten upon the Indian of conversing. In listening, we perceive in what the inand Chinese papers, and more especially the sum- terest, in what the failure of others consists. We become, maries; and by dint of working hard all night, are able too, aware of our own deficiencies, without having them to publish a condensation of their contents, with leading tanght through the medium of humiliation. We find ourarticles, and such home intelligence as is interesting to selves often more ignorant than we could have supposed readers connected with India, in time for circulation it possible. We learn, by a very moderate attention to throughout the kingdom by the eight o'clock mail of the the sort of topics which please, to form a style of our

The art of conversation' is an unpleasant phrase. following morning. This is of course a great accommodation to the public; but the hurry and excitement of The power of conversing well is least agreeable when it

assumes the character of an art. the system has had an unfavourable effect upon litera- gentlewoman will gently sympathise with the speaker;

In listening, a well-bred ture. Formerly, there were several Indian magazines or, if needs must be, differ as gently. Much characof high character published in London, but we are not ter is shown in the art of listening. Some people appear aware that there is now a single individual of the class. to be in a violent hurry whilst another speaks; they hasten The Asiatic Journal,' a most valuable and interesting on the person who addresses them, as one would urge on work, was abandoned some years ago, confessedly on a horse, with ‘Yes, yes. Very good. Ah!' Others sit on account of the injury its circulation sustained from the the full stare, eyes fixed as those of an owl, upon the first in the field of these stamped newspapers.

speaker. From others, a loud and long laugh is, at intervals, produced, and all the company turns round to see

what was the cause of the merriment. But all these vices THE PAWNBROKER'S WINDOW.

of manner may be avoided by a gentle attention, and a

certain calm dignity of manner, based upon a reflective There is more philosophy of life to be learned at a pawn- mind and humble spirit.-Hints to Young Ladies on their broker's window than in all the libraries in the world. The Entrance into Society. maxims and dogmas which wise men have chronicled disturb the mind for a moment, as the breeze ruffles the surface of the deep, still stream, and passes away; but there Be reserved, but not sour; grave, but not formal; bold, is something in the melancholy grouping of a pawnbroker's but not rash; humble, but not servile ; patient, but not window which, like a record of ruin, sinks into the heart. insensible; constant, but not obstinate; cheerful, but not The household goods, the cherished relics, the sacred pos- light; rather be sweet-tempered than familiar; familiar, sessions affection bestowed, or eyes now closed in death rather than intimate; and intimate with very few, and had once looked upon as their own, are here as it were with those few upon good grounds.— William Penn. profaned: the associations of dear old times are here violated; the family hearth is here outraged; the ties of love, Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also kindred, rank, all that the heart clings to, are broken here.

Own.

sold by D, CHAMBERS, 99 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. Orx, It is a sad picture; for, in spite of all the glittering show,

147 Strand, London ; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, its associations are sombre. There hangs the watch, the Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHANDERS, Edinburgh.

DEPORTMENT.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF 'CIIAMBERS’S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE' CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

No. 211. NEW SERIES.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1848.

Price 11d.

cessive; and the spectacle makes one melancholy. Can THE NAV I E.

it be possible,' you say to yourself, that they don't NAVIGATOR, or rather its abridged form of Davie, is a know of the wheelbarrow?' This little vehicle, homely term of recent currency in our language, and well as it appears, is entitled to be associated with the most known to apply to one engaged in railway operations stupendous undertakings. Pushed along on a plank-ploughing the solid land in deeper and more last- another English invention-by a stout navie, it forms ing furrows than his neighbour Jack of the ocean one of our most valuable machines. The great or does his mobile element. The term, as is well known, wholesale carrying engine, however, of the navie, is the originated in the excavating of canals for inland navi- wagon on temporary rails. Of this expert mechanism gation. Canals having had their day, the labourers so the continentalists likewise knew nothing till they saw employed have been fortunate in finding more extensive it introduced by English contractors; and after all, the and profitable scope for their industry in the making of car, dragged with difficulty by ropes, is still chiefly emrailways. The essential basis of the class is English, ployed by them—a dozen men or women not doing the much the larger proportion of the navigator body being work of one horse ! draughted from Lincolnshire, the rural parts of Lanca- The English navie, paradoxical as it may seen, is shire, and adjoining districts. Digging trenches in the an important agent in the spread of civilisation : he fenny parts of Lincolnshire has always been a staple carries the arts abroad, and practically expounds their employment to this class of labourers; and this it pro-operation. Now that he has shown the French the bably was which originally adapted them for canal use of the pickaxe, the short shovel, the wheelbarrow workings. The navie of this generic type possesses in and plank, and the wagon and temporary rail, we may a rude state those qualities and habits which give re- reasonably expect that the knowledge of these improved spectability to the English character. To a great degree instruments of labour will be extended over Europe. of Danish or Saxon descent, and uncorrupted by social How curious! An illiterate peasant from the fens of vices, the pure navie-taking him zoologically-is a Lincolnshire tells the learned of France and Germany fine animal. His large bones, great muscular energy, things which alter the face and condition of kingdoms, and love of good living, indicate his Teutonic origin, and which they never heard of before! Philosophers not less than his tractability, inclination for work, and who can discover planets, not having the ingenuity to downright honesty and spirit of independence. The invent a wheelbarrow! Countries affecting to stand at navie of the right sort is no sham: he will give work the head of science, yoking women in rope-harness to for the money. Only treat him well, and keep him draw mud, and making them draw it too, in the most from drink, and his behaviour is unexceptionable. No unscientific manner! human being will go through such a quantity of bodily One thing is remarkable in the English navie—he labour with more cheerfulness.

has pitched his standard of living at a high point. He The English navie has carried a knowledge of his refuses to live on wishy-washy broth, or porridge, or craft into countries where the arts of digging and hand- potatoes ; he must have bread, beef, bacon, beer, and ling the spade were in their infancy. It may seem coffee, all of the best kind. Uninstructed, like the Engridiculous to talk of there being an art' in shovelling lish peasantry generally, he is apt to transgress the earth into a barrow; but it is an art, and a very im- laws which govern the stomach, and suffers accordingly. portant one. It is quite English. The very spade is In some places, whole bands of strong-bodied navies English, and so are the pickaxe and wheelbarrow. All have become subject to a species of scurvy from living over continental Europe, the instrument of digging is a too long on one species of diet. The prevalent want of clumsy species of adze, and that for lifting is a long pole vegetables during the past year has perhaps contributed with a small shovel at the end of it. The short shovel to aggravate this evil; and something is also due to the with a cross handle is English; the French and Ger- distance at which navies frequently are from markets. maps know nothing of it, except as a new importation. In many cases, the labour of railway digging is carried With the short English spade or shovel, a navie will on several miles from any town or village, and it is with ease lift, in a given space of time, six times the therefore necessary for the contractors or their agents quantity of earth that a Frenchman will do with his to establish temporary stores at which food can be long-poled instrument. He excels in the art of carry- purchased. These stores, usually called tommy-shops, ing as well as lifting. On several railway workings have been the object of much unreasonable clamour. which we have seen on the continent, apparently under It is perhaps true that some storekeepers have done the charge of native contractors, the earth is filled into injustice as respects the prices and qualities of articles ;

small cars or wagons, which are drawn by men or women but instances are more common of contractors losing 1: with ropes across the soft and uneven surface of the money by their endeavours to supply the wants of their 1

ground. The toil and tediousness of this process are ex- workmen. We have been assured that contractors

would rather have nothing to do with this kind of landers are more inclined to occasional than regular traffic; but necessity compels them to become shop- labour, and therefore they require a kind of drilling bekeepers. If they did not establish stores, the men fore they are fit to work in gangs. Navies, it will have would not engage with them: the navie will not go been observed, work to each other's hands: the wheelinto a desert to be starred.

barrows are run along a succession of planks in so many Another thing has excited not a little useless indig- lifts. One set of navies take each his barrow a certain nation. The contractors or their agents are accused length, and having set it down to be lifted by a second of paying the navies by orders on the tommy-shops for set, they bring back the empty barrows which are ready goods, instead of giving them a weekly money wage. for them. Thus there is a row of goers with full, and This is no doubt an improper method of paying work- a row of comers with empty barrows. Now, this method men : but who is to blame? The men, by their impro- of operation, dictated by long experience, is irreconvidence, are constantly in want; they absolutely depend cilable with the Highlandman's ordinary conceptions. for existence on the goods given to them on account; He does not like to be kept going backwards and forand it is notorious that if money, instead of money's wards all day long with one wheelbarrow before and worth, were paid daily, the money would be dissipated another behind him. It is keeping up the thing too in drink, and there would be a continual saturnalia. hotly. It affords no time for snuffing. Gossip is out The very reason why settlement is postponed till the of the question. On this account, railway labour is end of a fortnight or month, instead of taking place apt to prove distasteful, and would be gladly exchanged every Saturday, is, that the great drinkings may be for something more leisurely. But the Highlander finds fewer, and that the work may not unnecessarily be in- other reasons for dislike of his new profession. If he terrupted. On a railway now in progress in Scotland, be ignorant of English, or possess only a limited know. a large proportion of the navigator's earnings, we are ledge of it, there is the greatest possible difficulty in told, is spent on whisky, which the English navies making him understand that wages must be paid acspeak of as 'white beer,' and consume raw in tumblers. cording to capability. Fresh from Skye, he can see no Riots and fights have consequently been of lamentable philosophy in paying him less than a true navie who frequency; nevertheless, considering the vast numbers is master of his craft. Accordingly, believing himself of men employed at a distance from seats of authority, to be cheated, he goes off in a pet. The best thing it is matter for surprise that so little crime has been that could be done for the Highlands would be to teach committed. The fact is explained only by the English the people English; for until this is done, they must navie not being radically defective in good principle: inevitably remain strangers to the thoughts and habits he is not revengeful, mean, or avaricious. What a of modern society. national disgrace that so fine a type of man elemen- When at length fairly initiated into, and accustomed tarily should have been reared in a state of intellectual to, railway labour, the Highlanders make a respectdarkness scarcely differing from that of the tribes of able class of navies. With more self-respect than the Central Africa !

Irislı, they are invariably better dressed, and however Of late years, in consequence of the rapid extension poor, they are never seen in rags. On their arrival in of railway labour, vast numbers of Scotch and Irish, as the low country, their garments almost uniformly conwell as of the ordinary English labouring class, have sist of a small blue bonnet, a blue cloth jacket and been drawn into the ranks of the navies. To all these trousers, woollen stockings, and stout shoes. Frugal in the original navie has been a kind of model, both as to their habits, and quiet in their demeanour, they study the art of his labour and his external habits and appear to save a portion of their earnings with which to return ance. As might be expected in a community formed home when they have accumulated enough. They are of such various materials, jealousies and animosities are certainly, if less efficient workmen, better behaved, and

The old wars between English and Scotch more honest in their dealings than the bulk of the other i still linger among navies : the Irish are exposed to navies. ill-usage from both. Let us first speak of the Lowland We now come to the Irish, who here, as elsewhere, Scotch. These have been drawn miscellaneously from show peculiar qualities. The greater number of course handloom weaving and other crafts, also from among have been small farmers or rural labourers their ordinary out-door labourers and ploughmen ; the temp- own country, and have come to England for the sake ! tation of high wages having induced many to desert of employment. The ordinary notion of the Irish being their homes to try the line--some in order to save a little disposed to idleness may be true, for anything we know, money, and others for the sake of gross indulgences. in the land of their birth ; but from all we have heard Both classes have attained their object: the well - be- or seen, they are anything but lazy when mixed with haved have bettered their circumstances; the bad gone English and Scotch, and have a fair prospect of remu. greater lengths in bad habits, and become worse. It neration. It may therefore be said that the Irish make must be admitted, however, that the better class con- good navies, when properly brought in to the work, siderably preponderates.

and strengthened by feeding. A person who employs The Lowland Scot, being three-fourths an English- a large number of Irish navies thus writes to us of man, and already accustomed to regular labour, easily them :— The famine and disease recently in Ireland

T falls into the ranks of navieism; but the Highlander threw a great many of her people over on our works, usually, from his long-ingrained habits of idleness, his and most of these came the very pictures of want and love of talking and snuffing, and his ignorance of Eng- wretchedness—a bundle of bones wrapped scantily in lish, is at first more difficult to manage. Nothing sti- rags. A very general want of economy prevails amongst mulates him to face railway work but positive starva- the Irish ; they seem to act literally on the motto, “Suffition, and sometimes not even that will drag him from cient for the day is the evil thereof,” for they have no his hovel. We have seen it stated that Highlanders thought of the future. Their common diet is tea, coffee, have deserted their employment on Scotch lines in loaf bread, butter, cheese, ham, and butcher- meat, order to return home and live on charity. Whether which usually absorb the chief part of their earnings, this be true to any extent, it is certain that the High- so that very little is left, after paying their lodgings, for

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clothing or a day's sickness. One good trait I have gene. labours, and likewise to bury the dead.

There cerrally found amongst those on the work—a fellow-coun- tainly has been some difficulty in the management of tryman is seldom refused a meal or a night's lodging, this fund, similar to what is experienced in other benetill he find means of providing such for himself. Arriv- fit societies—namely, the difficulty of guarding against ing of course entirely destitute of funds, when the new. imposition by malingering, and the expectation that comer does go to work, he requires immediate means of every case of sickness should be suitably attended to, subsistence; this is furnished him in the form of a note irrespective of the necessities of the individual. The of credit from his employer to a storekeeper for his name, in fact, has been badly chosen. Instead of sick. time at work converted into wages. By rigid economy, fund, it ought to have received the title of charitable or the amount of earnings might suffice to free a work-relief-fund, and gone to relieve cases of maiming or man in a couple of months or so from credit notes with destitution occurring amongst the men; no one having & store, but this is very seldom either attempted or any positive right to any stated weekly aliment when accomplished. If he manage to clear off old scores, and off work as an invalid, but relieved according to his have a few shillings over to expend in ardent spirits at necessities and the cause of his incapacity.' the monthly pay, he thinks he does well; and if advised, While sensible of the great national advantages of and referred to examples of workmen on the same work, the labours of the navies, we cannot shut our eyes to the with the same pay, who contrive to save from a fourth evils which have accompanied them in their movements. to a half of their earnings, he tells you the thing is im- Strangers in the scene of their labours, without domestic possible with him, and considers he does well if he keep ties, almost without a domestic existence, rendered rude clear of debt. But many of them do not even act with by the very nature of their work, they do not in general this degree of consideration : paying their way for a time, exhibit the virtues which we expect in a settled rural they contrive to run some way into debt, and at the population. Too often the settled people amongst monthly pay get up the residue of their wages, and slope whom they come are contaminated by the reckless _that is, abscond to some other distant work, probably debauchery of the navies. Much of the evil might to repeat the same dishonesty. There are honourable have been avoided if railway operations had been conexceptions, however, with the Irish, just as there are ducted with greater deliberation, so as to admit of dishonourable ones with the Scotch, the former occur- moral institutions attending those flying bodies of laring more frequently with those who come from the bourers. Unfortunately, in the eagerness of capital north of Ireland, and have been pledged by Father for a 'return,' all has been sacrificed to rapidity in the Mathew to teetotalism. These incline to indulge in a execution of the work. It is to be hoped that in the costlier diet, but keep a less comfortable dwelling than general slowing of railway works, time will be obtained the economic Scotch; yet, like the latter, they usually to make some arrangements for moralising this huge contrive to save a portion of their earnings, to transmit mass of unregulated human nature. to their relatives, or take home with them.'

The same writer goes on to make some general remarks :- Exposed,' he says, “as the navies must be, | HEART AND IMAGINATION; OR, THE POET from the nature of their employment, to accidents and

AND THE PEASANT. disease, and taking into account their usually improvident character, a question presents itself-How are A young man was rambling along the skirts of the they cared for in injuries or sickness? On the work forest which separates St Marie aux Mines from Ribauwith which I am conversant, it is compulsory for each villé, and notwithstanding the approach of night, and man to leave sixpence at the monthly pay for a medical the fog which was rapidly thickening around him, he fund, which entitles the subscriber, in the case of acci- strolled leisurely along without a thought of the latedent or disease, to receive medicine and medical at- ness of the hour. His green jacket, doeskin gaiters, tendance. A mere trifle from all thus insures to each, and the gun which rested on his shoulder, would have when incapacitated for labour, the skill, medicine, and pointed him out as a sportsman, had not the book attention requisite for his treatment till restored to which peeped from his game-pouch betrayed rather health; and the sensible benefit of this self-supporting the literary dreamer, to whom the pleasures of the medical institution amongst them is well attested by field were only a fair pretext for the indulgence of a the fact, that the men themselves have requested its solitary ramble. Even at this moment, the meditative adoption where it did not exist, and solicited its reorga- nonchalance with which he pursued his way, bespoke nisation where it had been discontinued.

Arnold de Munster to be less eager in his quest of In ordinary cases of injury or ailment, the relatives game, than intent in pursuing the phantasies of his and companions of the sufferer are usually kind and own imagination. During the last few minutes his attentive; but if affected with fever, or other con- thoughts had wandered back to Paris, and to the tagious ailment, the case immediately alters. The home and friends whom he had left behind. He picsympathies of their nature are forthwith sealed up tured to himself with regret the study, so tastefully by the terror of contagion, and the invalid is com- decorated with statues and engravings, the German monly either thrust out of doors or deserted. Many melodies which his sister used to sing to him, and the deaths for a time occurred amongst them from fever chosen society wont to assemble beneath their hospitthus neglected. In order to obviate this grave and able roof. Why had be given up all these enjoyments, growing evil, a temporary hospital was erected by and exiled himself in a country-house in the distant the contractors at their own expense, into which were province of Alsace? Was it needful thus to retrieve received all cases of fever occurring amongst the men, his fortune? Or would it not be far better to make where they were properly treated and cared for till re- any pecuniary sacrifice, rather than dwell among the stored to health. This has been a great boon not only coarse and vulgar beings by whom he was here surto the men themselves, but to the whole neighbourhood, rounded? While thus lost in perplexing thought, by lessening the sources of contagion, and diminishing Arnold had walked on without considering whither the virulence of the disease. The ill-ventilated apart- the path he was pursuing might lead him. At length ments of lodging-houses speedily concentrate the poison, his reverie was dispelled by the unpleasant consciousand multiply the means of its dissemination,

ness that the fog had melted into rain, and was peneBesides a medical fund for the care of the ailing and trating his shooting-jacket. He now thought of hasinjured, and as a succedaneum for personal economy, tening homeward, but on looking around him, perceived 50 wofully deficient in most of the men, a sick fund has that he had lost his way amidst the windings of the also been attempted, and attended with partial success. forest, and sought in vain to discover which was the The purpose of the latter-obtained also by monthly direction he ought to take. Meanwhile the daylight contributions of sixpence or more-is to furnish sup. was fading away, the rain became heavier, and he port to invalids till they are able to resume their wandered on in uncertainty through unknown paths.

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