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BY BERTHOLD AUERBACH.-TRANSLATED BY META TAYLOR.
and some letters of that prudent monarch illustrate the the last remnants of this capricious taste-hoops, wigs, anxiety of the nobles to display jewels and diamonds of cocked hats, and all-passed away with the peace of great value in their caps. I send you,' writes the king Europe at the first French Revolution. But its portraits
, to his son, the unfortunate Charles I., who was then on like the literature of the period, indicate the general a matrimonial expedition, the three brethern that ye frivolity and emptiness of the public mind, and a state knowe full vell, but newly set, and the mirroure of of things in which real knowledge, or even thought, France, the fellow of the Portugal dyamont, quiche was confined to the few. The pictures of our own day I wold wishe you to wear alone in your hatte, with now meet us, having no temptation to linger among a little blacke feather.' The story of Louis XIII.'s the short waists and long skirts of the war. But it is queen bestowing her diamond epaulette on the Duke time to close our sketch, for we cannot anticipate the of Buckingham, which that luckless gallant returned verdict of posterity on the character of our own coswith expedition, on account of the wrath and jealousy tume. its absence occasioned, has a prominent place in the court scandals of the period. It was in the reign of the learned monarch that the
•THE DARK HOUR.' farthingale attained its highest magnitude-an article, be it observed, very similar in effect to the modern Most men, who live in the home-circle of their families, crinoline; and there is an anecdote on record which enjoy spending the dark hour' in quiet. Children might apply to the last-mentioned garment also, regard grow restless about this time, but the elder folks draw ing a Turkish sultana, who, when visited by Lady over the fire, and sit musing silently, or now and then Wych, the wife of the British ambassador, in all the exchanging a gentle word of affection. These are mo. fulness of her farthingale, seriously inquired if the ments when the mind receives and imparts the most peculiar appearance it gave to her ladyship’s figure refreshing and purest thoughts. There seems to be a were the natural formation of all English women; and general reluctance to break the approaching darkness when informed to the contrary, she exclaimed, ‘God is by lighting a candle ; for all, unconsciously, have a cergood, but wonderful are the fancies of the Nazarenes!' tain feeling of the holy power of nature, which spreads
With Charles I. came the cavalier costume, whose out before us, so oft unheeded, the wonderful phenomena abundance of lawn, lace, and ribbons, drooping plume, of light and darkness. Oh the cozy, comfortable chat short cloaks, and mingled grace and foppery, the pencil in the dark hour! One sits looking at another by the of Vandyke has made as celebrated as the events of the flickering light of the fire, and the few words spoken Civil War. Long doublets and starch were now dethroned, are caught attentively: the eye, too, has repose, for the after a reign which comprehended both that of James mind is undisturbed by the object on which it rests. A and Elizabeth. It is remarkable that the latter was of single word will often fall upon the ear like an impresall colours which prevailed in turn, the last of the band sive note of music, and convey a feeling which long being yellow; but the inventrix of it was executed for after finds an echo in the soul. poisoning Sir Thomas (verbury, it was said, in a Farmer Hagenmaier was one evening sitting thus in yellow starched ruff; and fashion could not tolerate the parlour with his wife, his son, and his son's wife
. the acquaintance of the gallows. The plain and serious The wedding of the young couple had taken place only fashions of the Puritan party stand out in strong the day before, and the joy occasioned by the event relief amid so much finery; and even in the portraits was fresh in the minds of all. For some time no one of the period, whether of Cromwell in his plain coarse spoke a word, and yet one feeling-perhaps one thought coat and sword, contrasted with Charles covered with filled their minds. Young Hagenmaier had hold of gold lace, and wearing a jewel in one of his ears, or a the hand of his wife, who sat beside him ; perhaps the court lady opposed by the russet gown and hat of a old man guessed the joy there was in his child's heart: parliamentary citizen's daughter, may be read the cha- he was ensconced in a dark corner, unseen, and thus at racter of the struggle which then excited so much length broke the silence : Ah, children, 'tis an easy warlike zeal, and since called forth so much earnest matter to talk of loving one another with your whole controversy.
heart, and to promise to hold fast your love through The low dresses and affected fuppery of Charles life; but when it comes to the point, and you have to II.'s court, in which that well-known superfluity, the yield to each other, to control the will for mutual imperiwig had its origin, also indicate the character of provement, 'tis often a difficult task, and words are not the reign as one at once servile, tyrannical, and coarse, then enough. There are times when a man is ready though covered with polish: but after the revolution to go through fire to serve his wife; but, without a of 1688, Holland begins to take the lead, and sober murmur, to drink a cup of coffee which she may have Dutch fashions come in with the Prince of Orange-the let heedlessly grow cold—believe me, that's a less easy stomacher once more makes its appearance, though not matter. The words of Scripture are full of meaning, with the diamonds of Elizabeth's day, and the head-dresses which tell us of the foolish virgins whose lamps were are built as high as lace and ribbons can make them ; extinguished when the bridegroom came: for many : but the periwig continues in its glory, and the chief heart is hardened by self-will, whereas every one ought accomplishments of a beau at the establishment of the to be prompt to catch and to enjoy the highest happiProtestant succession consisted of combing it in the ness. You see, children, in what love and harmony theatre or ball-room, and cocking his hat over it in some your mother and I live; but do not imagine that this particular fashion. Armour had dwindled down in the came without a struggle: I was especially obstinate days of William III. to a breastplate, a back-piece, and a and self-willed, for in my young days I led a careless, hat lined with steel; but the last remnant of old knightly independent life. Hark ye, I'll tell you two stories of fashions—the sword—was retained (a worse than useless the time soon after our marriage, and you may learn a appendage) at the side of every gentleman, amid the lesson from them, I warrant me you will. square cut coats, stiffened out with buckram and wire, * Well do I recollect my delight the Sunday when I the long flap waistcoats, and the abundant ruffles which was to go to church with my wife for the first time. distinguish the reign of Anne. As for the ladies, the We had been chatting away the time unawares that Spectator' and other popular works have kept alive morning, till starting up, I exclaimed, “ Come, quick! the remembrance of the hoops, patches, commodes, and we shall be too late for church.” My wife ran to her hair powder in whic they delighted to array them- chamber to dress. I was ready long before she was, and selves; and these fashions continue throughout the waiting for her : she had constantly some little matter greater part of the eighteenth century, about the com- still to arrange. At first I begged her, in a gentle tone, mencement of which snuff-taking is mentioned as one and jokingly, to be quick ; but presently I called louder, of the habits adopted by belles of the first water, and intreating and urging her to make haste. Three times broadcloth came into general use in gentlemen's apparel: I did I fill and light my pipe. Each time it went out, as
I stood kicking my heels impatiently, calling to her at kept on whipping the old mare, till she kicked fore and the chamber door. At such moments one feels as if aft. But when we got outside the village, your mother standing upon hot coals, or, in other words, in the began to weep, and said, “ For Heaven's sake, husband, fidgets. My face was as red as scarlet when she at how can you act thus, and put yourself and me both to length made her appearance. I could not speak, and shame before all the folks?" we left the house.
. These words cut me to the heart: I recollected our We had not gone many steps, when my wife recol- first walk to church-my wife was now by my side. I lected something that she had left behind. All the threw the reins on the old mare's neck, and stuck the keys had now to be got out — all the closets to be whip behind me: it was time to put reins upon myself ; opened. I stayed waiting in the street, and it seemed and I may say with truth that I have thoroughly reto me an age till she returned. I thought of going to pented my hastiness of temper. But you see how one church alone, but I was ashamed; and when at last she can tell, from such trifles as these, whether the true light appeared with a smiling face, and began to pull up my still burns in the heart. The few minutes that I had shirt-collar playfully, I turned angrily on my heel, and thus twice to wait proved to me hours of trial; and said in a gruff voice, “Go and dress yourself-you are thenceforth I learned to study the temper and enter long enough about it forsooth!” And we walked to into the wishes of others. Think of this, children, if church in this manner, without exchanging a word ever you meet with a similar trial.'
• Now comes the afterpiece!' cried the good woman. . My cheeks glowed with vexation and anger, both * And you have forgotten to say, husband, that from with my wife and myself, as I entered the church. My that time I never again made you wait, but was always wife went to her seat. Had she once turned round to ready before you. Come, now let us light the candles : look for me? I knew not. I leaned against a pillar, we have had enough of the dark hour.' and was as stiff as the stone itself. From time to time They did so: bright faces, lighted up with good resoI caught a word the clergyman said, but instantly for- lutions, gazed joyously one at another. got him again, and stood staring at the roof and walls, and thinking what a lofty and cold building it was. This had never come into my head before; and I was
LAND OCCUPANCY IN SCOTLAND. angry with myself that my thoughts were so distracted, Scotsmen are sometimes ridiculed for partiality to their and that I could pay no attention to the sermon. It native country. It was, after all, an amiable peculiarity, | now occurred to me that this was owing to the mis- appropriate to a time when Scotland required all the understanding with my wife: how indeed could I take affection of her sons to make her appear a tolerable to my heart what I heard at such a moment? I longed home. Now that industry and prudence have given
to make it all up, and looked round at her: she did not, her wealth and its enjoyments, we hear much less of !, however, raise her eyes, and this vexed me again. Was
not she in the wrong? thought I; and ought not she national partiality. There are, however, it must be therefore to beg my pardon for dawdling and wasting asserted in all seriousness, some institutions in Scotmy time in a way to drive one mad? Look ye, chil- | land either greatly superior to any analogous things in dren, thus it is with a man when he gets out of temper, England, or in which England is yet altogether defi. and deceives himself about his own heart and conduct. cient, and of which Scotchmen may therefore be allowI was angry with my wife, even for being able to say ably somewhat boastful. For example, a perfect system her prayers so calmly, since she had offended me; and for the registry of property, which makes all incum. in this manner I behaved like a good-for-nothing fellow, both before and during church time, and imbittered brances on land ascertainable by the public. England, that hour which might have been one of the brightest too, is only now struggling to obtain the public proseand happiest in my life. Our misunderstanding might cution of criminals, which Scotland has enjoyed for very likely soon have been at an end, if I could have hundreds of years. The tithe system, which was a taken my wife's hand, and spoken a kind word with bane in England till a few years ago, was settled in her ; but we were separated in the church, and it Scotland in the reign of Charles I. When one reflects seemed to me as if our quarrel had estranged our hearts on the period of the origin of many of the good institufor ever.'
tions of Scotland, he is tempted to think that the conThe good woman was bere going to interrupt her demnation of the Stuart dynasty, in which it is now the husband, but he said, “ Nay, nay, lovie; let me tell my fashion to indulge, is, to say the least of it, too sweeping. story out: I have another to follow; and then you may Many excellent laws were passed in Scotland by these have all the afterpiece to yourself. So you may imagine, monarchs, and generally, till the struggles of opinion children, that we soon made matters up again; for your which commenced with the Reformation, they stood mother, in her young days, was a inerry soul; and up for the commons against the tyranny of the nobles. whenever I put on a sour look, and was out of temper, To James II., an accomplished prince, who perished she would laugh at me so good-humouredly, that I was in his thirtieth year by the accidental explosion of a forced to laugh too. And then I could not understand cannon (1460), is due the credit of having ratified an how it was I had been so pettish-and all for the merest act of parliament giving tenants of land those securities trifle, not worth speaking of; but the fact is, when a which till this day are vainly contested for by leasehold man's anger is up, he does not understand this.
farmers in at least one part of the United Kingdom. *Well, now for the other story: it is about just such This act of the Scots parliament was passed in 1449, another half-hour's trial of temper. The wedding of and forms the basis of the existing common law and our cousin at Lichtenau was fixed to take place; we usage respecting the tenantcy of land. It is interesting were invited to it, and were to be there punctually at a to observe that the act was expressly ordained for the certain hour. The day came, and it was high time to safetie and favour of the puir people that labouris the start—there was not a moment to lose. I had put to ground;' or, in other words, was a law to protect tenants the old gray mare (which we had at that time), and on lease against eviction and misusage in the event of stood cracking my whip at the door. Your mother proprietors wishing to oppress them, or in the case of seemed as if she would never come. I sent up every lands being sold or alienated. This law may be said woman that passed to help her to get ready. I knew to bave defined the leading points in a lease--the term she would not like this, and I did it just on purpose to of years, the periods of entry and outgoing, and the rent tease her. What business had she to keep me waiting to be paid.* there? When at length she did come, I rated her soundly. Your mother bit her lips as she got into the chaise, and she held her handkerchief up to her eyes going the ish, and the rent the mail. Hence a farm in Scotland The great attention bestowed on territorial manage- has no pretension to consider the land as his, or to say, ment in Scotland during the last hundred years, has I have a claim for making this property what it is.' served to consolidate the principle and practice of leas. True, he made a garden out of a wilderness; but he has ing lands, so that the process is now probably as perfect been more than paid for it. If he has been a sagacious as it is likely ever to be. The following is a familiar farmer, and not engaged to pay too high a rent, the account of the manner in which land tenantcy is con- land and he are quits. When the lease refers to land ducted and operates.
* In old language, the lease is called the tack, the period of outthe whole wbile we drove through the village; whilst I was called a mailing.
already improved, the nature of the tenure is not There are few or no tenants holding land by verbal altered: the lessee in such instances runs less risk, and arrangement; that is, no tenants at will. Every farm has less toil than on a highly-improvable farm ; but he is let by a written agreement or lease; and a note or pays rent in proportion, and looks alone to the fourmissive stating terms of lease is held to be equally teen or nineteen years' possession for a redemption of valid as a lease, if followed by possession, and that not all outlays. only against the granter of the lease, but his heirs and On every farm there must necessarily be improvesuccessors. Any shuffle by a landlord to oust a tenant ments or meliorations of a substantial and lasting kind, in occupation, on the plea that his lease is not tech- which the tenant cannot be expected to execute even nically correct, would meet with no mercy in the Scotch on the principle of self-remuneration. We here allude courts; and an attempt to do anything of the sort to the erection of a suitable dwelling-house, a barn, would incur universal odium. Leases, however, are thrashing - mill, and stables, the building of stone usually drawn up with great care and precision. The walls, planting of hedges, making roads, and so forth. document, of which each party has a copy, defines These things, which are of a permanent character, are mutual rights and obligations, specifies the date of entry always executed at the cost of the landlord, and to the farm, the duration of the lease, the annual rent remain his property, the tenant being bound only to to be paid, the routine of cropping, &c. Sub-letting is keep them in repair. In many instances, a landlord strictly prohibited, and the least approach to such an builds a new house for his tenant, on the occasion of a invasion of the landlord's rights would be instantly fresh lease with an advance of rent; and thus, from checked. The duration of the lease is ordinarily from time to time, the farm buildings in Scotland have been fourteen to nineteen years—nineteen, very probably, if renewed in a substantial manner, greatly to the imthe lands require much improvement: in either case, proved appearance of the country. There are few the lease is heritable, and its rights and obligations examples of Scotch farmers building houses entirely at descend to the farmer's family or heirs. Nineteen years their own cost. Occasionally, where the laird lacks form a reasonable length of time for a farmer to sow funds, the tenant will engage to pay part of the money, and reap in every sense of the word. Insured posses- but only on the condition of being repaid in the form sion either in his own person or his family, he has an of certain annual deductions from the rent; and it is so inducement to bring the land into the best possible expressed in the lease. When a new farm-house is to be condition, to drain it and to manure it at his own ex- erected, the tenant, if a man of capital and taste, may pense, and to subject it to the most approved routine of possibly offer to pay a certain share of the expense out agriculture. That he has his reward, is evidenced in of his own pocket, provided he is allowed to have a the position of respectability enjoyed by Scotch far- building to his mind. If the landlord agree to this mers generally. But does the farmer not scourge or proposal, it is on the express understanding that no exhaust the land towards the conclusion of his lease ? claim is in future to be put forward on account of such This is provided against in the agreement, and also by an outlay; nor is it to be handed down as a burden on common usage. He must leave the land unexhausted succeeding tenants. In general, the landlord is anxious and in crop, but the period fixed for leaving is usually to make the tenant comfortable, and to live on good in November, when there is little crop or seed in the terms with him ; and many examples could be given of ground. A proportion of the value of the lime and landlords voluntarily exceeding the covenants by which manures lately employed on the land is paid for by the they are bound. The farmer is for the most part incoming tenant. So far, therefore, the lessee loses equally, if not more, desirous of conciliating the good. nothing, and any selfish inducement to take scourging will of his landlord. The truth is, each has the power crops from the land is removed. The incoming tenant to serve and to annoy the other; and there are therefore is also bound to pay his predecessor for the seed sown the best reasons for adopting terms of mutual concilia. and unreaped ; that is, any crop at the time on the land. tion. The only source of discord may be said to be in But if the farm has proved a fair bargain during the the game-laws, which are rigidly maintained by some currency of the lease, the tenant most likely desires a landlords, greatly to the loss and discontent of their renewal. In perhaps three-fourths of all cases a re- tenants. newal is granted for a fresh term of nineteen years, Of the private relationship of landlord and tenant, and generally at an advanced rent, corresponding to however, we have here no special reason to speak. As the increased value of the farm.
respects territorial management, Scotch landed proNo Scotch farnier starting with a new lease, grudges prietors manifest a keen sense of what is economically that he has to pay a somewhat higher rent than for- proper. In late years they have disregarded the slow merly. This may seem paradoxical ; and yet there is process of melioration presented by existing leases ; nothing unreasonable in it. A lease for nineteen years that is to say, seeing that certain improvements are is understood to clear all scores. For the first few desirable, which have not been stipulated for in the years, nearly all is paying out; for the latter years, lease, or considered in the rent, they enter into a special nearly all is coming in—the cost of working the land agreement on the subject. It may be arranged that, being much more than covered by the large crops which for the sum which the landlord lays out, the tenant! are produced. It is very interesting to observe the agrees to pay interest at a moderate per centage during patience with which a Scotch farmer will wait for the remainder of the lease. By this means land is returns. For years, you will see him with his men brought at once into the finest state of tillage, and the toiling to eradicate huge stones from the ground, blast- landlord is certain of receiving an advanced rent next ing rocks, digging open ditches, draining with tiles, time the farm is to be let. levelling rude heaps, ploughing, liming, and otherwise It will be gathered from all we have said that the improving the farm. At first, the crops are poor; then Scotch farmer ceases to have any claim whatever on they begin to look a little better ; about the eighth or his farm when his lease expirés, excepting only what ninth year they are abundant. Now comes the period he may have to receive from recently laid down manure
, of repayment. Ten years of heavy crops, with little or the seed of unreaped crops. Houses, fences, drains, outgoing, set all to rights. At the end of the nine- meliorations of all sorts, become, as a matter of course, teenth year the land does not owe the farmer a penny. the property of the landlord; because all have been Such, in usual circumstances, being the case, the farmer executed either directly at his expense, or in virtue of
a covenant, by which the tenant has been requited for was demanded, for such improvements, on a farm yieldhis personal toil and pecuniary outlay. No tenant ing only L.64 of rent to the landlord. The annual farmer in Scotland, therefore, ever asks a sum for interest of L. 1800 being L.90, it thus happened that, • good-will' from his successor : the idea of such a thing according to tenant - right, the landlord would have would be looked on as preposterous and impudent in had to pay L.90 a-year to get tranquil possession of a the highest degree. With his successor he has nothing farm yielding only 1.64 a-year. Was this at all reasonto do, except to settle for the transient matters above able ? Certainly not; but the error fundamentally lay alluded to.
in the landlord not taking care to lease his lands on a Such are the rational, the simple, and satisfactory sound principle, not looking after his property till it usages in Scotland respecting lease-tenure. In that was too late; and we can scarcely pity him for the country there are no agrarian disturbances; agriculture charges to which, by his negligence, he had exposed is pursued as a profession by men of skill and capital; himself. and while the farmers benefit themselves, they also The clamour for tenant-right originates in a sense of benefit the public, by throwing into the market the wrong and suffering. Without any distinct definition abundant produce of their highly-cultivated fields. All of rights and obligations, the Irish farmer improves his this, however, could only have been brought about by land, and builds a house upon it, and then all at once he the care and enterprise of the landlords. If the landed is turned abroad on the world, obliged to lose all he had proprietors had hung back, either through perversity or expended. Can we wonder that this injustice should negligence—had they left tenants to do anything they excite commotion ? Making every allowance, however, liked—the face of the country would have been alto- for the hardships endured under the present system, we gether different.
do not think that the imparting of tenant-right, as it It is melancholy to reflect on the condition to which is called, is the proper method of rectifying affairs. The a fine country may be brought through the inattention right way of going to work seems to be as follows :of landlords ; it is chiefly in consequence of such inat- 1. The nature of the claim of each tenant should be
tention that the present outcry for ‘tenant-right' in examined; what has been expended superfluously should | Ireland has arisen. We can sympathise with this out- be disallowed ; and the balance, if any, for real improve,
cry, for it never would have been heard had Irish pro- ments should be paid by the landlord. If the landlord 1 prietors done their duty. In Ireland, leases of land cannot pay this balance, his property ought to be sold
have never been conducted on that uniform and satis- to the amount. factory principle which is customary in Scotland. In
2. But in many instances the lands are in the hands many instances their stipulations are broken with im- of mortgagees ; in such cases the balance to be a charge punity by both parties. We have heard of landlords
on the property after the mortgagee's claims are satisbreaking them on the plea that they were invalid, fied. A sale, with count and reckoning, would speedily
though they must have been parties to that invalidity and satisfactorily settle the matter. 1 The English law, we fear, has much to answer for on this account. Its cumbrous machinery, and unintel. of their properties, they ought in all cases to be com
3. Solvent landlords being now placed in possession ligible technicalities, are unsuitable to Irish capacities pelled to grant definite leases, briefly and simply ex: and Irish feelings. To turn a poor and ignorant man pressed; and no lease should be valid which has not summarily out of his farm, to break or trample on his lease, and leave him to seek legal redress only for the purpose of summarily settling disputes as to
been examined and certified by a public officer appointed by a suit'in Chancery, is nothing short of oppression. land in every county. Evictions, of course, do not usually take place without some grounds of procedure - bad farming, sub
4. Every lease should be drawn up in the name of the letting, non-payment of rent, and so forth—but is not actual proprietor of the land, or at least with his sancthe habitual inattention of landlords to their estates tion, and the actual farmer. Subletting to be a valid 8 very common cause of abuse? Tenants have been ground of ejectment. allowed to go on for years as they liked ; they have
5. A register of leases to be kept in every county, been permitted, without challenge, to make improve open to public inspection. ments during their leases, and to receive payment 6. No ejectment to be legal except between ten from their successors at the close. In this alone there o'clock A.M. and two o'clock P. M.; and not without a are the elements of inextricable confusion. An enter- previous notice of ten days in a metropolitan and pro. ing tenant will be seen paying to the outgoing tenant vincial newspaper. L.100 for possession of an improved farm; and to this He would be a bold man who said that arrangements sum the new tenant will perhaps add as much more for of the above nature would give peace to the rural disfresh improvements, as if the property were his own. tricts of Ireland ; but they at least aim at disentangling These sums may be expended for substantial and affairs, and placing them on a permanently sure foundarational improvements, or they may not. They may
Will the landholders, however, agree to such be paid for perishable acquisitions, for embellishments trenchant measures, even with the view of relieving of little practical utility, or they may be paid for mere themselves from the effects of their heedlessness ? and "good-will;' but for all these the tenant considers he will they turn over a new leaf, and in future, like their has an equitable claim either against the landlord or brethren in Scotland, pay that degree of attention to against the succeeding tenant. Farther, he considers their properties which is alone calculated to prevent that he is entitled to sell his right to whom he pleases, agrarian disturbance ? and to induct whom he pleases, as if he were disposing of an established business.
These claims are clearly erroneous to a very great extent; and yet they are not only contended for by ten- Every young man in this metropolis, if he will only atants in Ireland, in memorials to government, at public tend to his business, whatever it is, and keep out of scrapes, meetings, and defended and enforced by clergymen and is a rising man, and has all the prizes and honours of the other influential persons ; but the principle is also upo nation before him, if not for himself or his children, at held in parliament, and sought to be embodied in public least for his children's children. There is no reason to
We have no exclusions acts. Upon such a principle, a landlord might be im- complain when this is the case. proved out of his estate, not only without his consent, at the east or the west end of London; take them in a club
of race. Take any dozen men in good circumstances, either but against his will, and in defiance of all propriety. in Pall-Mall, or in the Exchange, and inquire into their Farm-houses might be turned into mansion houses, origin. One is an Irishman, another a Scotchman, another wholly unsuited to the size and value of the farms; and is a Welshman. Perhaps half of them can show a Celt in common fences made into handsome park walls. In a his pedigree. The same number can produce an ancestor late case, the sum of L.1800 had been expended, and driven to this country by the revocation of the Edict of
A HINT TO YOUNG MEN.
Nantes, or a foreigner of still more recent date. So much gardeners — that effective means of destroying noxious for race. As for condition, the great-grandfather of one species-one of the main objects of entomology, taken in was a labourer; of another a gentleman's butler, of another its widest scope--can be looked for. Such objectors should a weaver, of another a journeyman blacksmith, of another be referred to a paper read by M. Guérin-Méneville to a hairdresser, and so forth. So far from the trade and the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris in January 1847, coinmerce of London being at all a monopoly, it is noto from which it appeared that while the cultivators of the rious that nearly all the tradesmen of London, or their olive in the south of France—who in two years out of three immediate ancestors, came from the country. In the lost oil to the amount of nearly 6,000,000 of francs annumanufacturing districts, these examples of successful in-ally by the attacks on their olives of the grub of a little dustry are still more numerous. Manchester, for example, fly (Dacus olea)—were utterly unable, with all their 'pracis made out of nothing. Now this state of things suits tical skill, to help themselves in any shape, M. Guérin. the British taste very much better than any scheme for Méneville, though no cultivator, applying his entomological making and keeping all men equal. The fact is, that we knowledge of the genus and species of the insect, and of don't like equality. Saxons are a spreading, a stirring, its peculiar economy, to the case, advised that the olives an ambitious, and a conquering race. We prefer hope should be gathered and crushed much earlier than usual, to enjoyment, and would rather look forward to be some and before the grubs had had time to eat the greater part thing better than to be always the same. Englishmen of of the pulp of the fruit ; and by their adoption of this any thought have just the same feeling about their pos- simple plan, the proprietors of olives in the years they are terity. They hope to rise in their offspring. They also attacked by the dacus, can now obtain an increased annual know that they will do so, if they are steady and indus- produce of oil, equal in value to L.240,000, which was trious, and train up their children as they ought to do. formerly lost, in consequence of their allowing the grubs Every working man with two ideas in his bead knows to go on eating the olives till they dropped from the tree.very well that it is his own fault if lie does not thrive, live Mr Spence's Address to the Entom. Society, January 1848. in a comfortable house, rented at more than L.10 a-year, have a little money safely invested, and before many years, find himself and his family safe at least from the work
LOOK FORWARD, AGE! house.-Times newspaper.
BY CALDER CAMPBELL.
SALE OF BOOKS.
Thy youth hath long been passed-
Life's sunny smiles, amassed
Live but in memories, that make them look
In the year 1511, eighteen hundred copies of Erasmus's work entitled ‘Encomium Moriæ'(The Praise of Folly') were sold ; and in 1527, twenty-four thousand copies of his * Colloquies' were disposed of. In the sixteenth century, sixty editions of the Orlando Furioso' were published. It is stated that as many as eighteen hundred editions of the 'De Imitatione Christi’ of Thomas-à-Kempis have been issued. Such was the popularity of Daniel Defoe's satire, called • The True-born Englishman’ (1708), that more than eighty thousand pirated copies of it are believed to have been sold in the streets of London. In 1732, Franklin began to publish, in America, . Poor Richard's Almanac,' the demand for which became so great, that ten thousand copies were sold in one year—a very large number, considering the comparative paucity of readers in the new continent at that time. Richardson's novel of 'Pamela' met with great success, having gone through five editions in the course of a year. When Dr Johnson's 'Rambler' was first published, the sale seldom exceeded five hundred ; and it is curious that the only paper in the series that had a prosperous sale, and may be said to have been popular, was No. 91, which Dr Johnson did not write, but is said to have been written by Richardson. So popular were the essays published under the title of 'The Craftsman’ (1726), written by Bolingbroke, Pulteney, and other writers, in opposition to Sir Robert Walpole's measures, that ten or twelve thousand were frequently sold on the day of publication. The first edition of M. Thiers’s • History of the Consulate and the Empire of France under Napoleon,'consisting of ten thousand copies, was exhausted in Paris on the day of publication, within the space of a few hours; and orders were soon received for six thousand copies of the second edition. Of Hannah More's religious novel, ' Cælebs in Search of a Wife' (1809), ten cditions were sold in the year of its publication. Constable calculated that nearly fifty thousand copies of Scott's ‘Lady of the Lake' were sold in Great Britain, from the time of its first appearance, in 1810, up to the middle of 1836. The two thousand copies of the first edition of Marmion' were all sold, at the rate of a guinea and a-half each, in less than a month; and up to the middle of 1836, it is computed that about fifty thousand copies had been sold. In the ten years that have elapsed since this calculation was made, the aggregate number of copies sold of both these favourite poems has considerably increased. From the fact of one hundred and thirty editions of “Hoyle on Gaming' having been published, and only sixteen editions of The Whole Duty of Man,' an unfavourable estimate has been drawn of the morality of the times.
PRACTICAL VALUE OF SCIENCE. Many ignorant despisers of systematic natural history reproach us with wasting our time on nomenclature, or in watching and describing the metamorphoses and general economy of insects; and contend that it is only from what they call ‘practical' men—that is to say, farmers and
Pain, more than pleasure, dwells
To dive within the cells
Nor ransack records, 'mid whose mildewed leaves
Canst thou thy youth restore,
Which may not ever more,
The waters gone to waste, no longer run
The gray hairs on thy brow,
Are with the Long-ago,
Over the past, through which all things appear
And nimbler grow thy feet,
Undreaming that deceit
Pause ere thou try'st youth's dance with limbs that tell
Then gaze not on the past
Or thou wilt find at last
And, like the reed that shakes to every wind,
But to the coming look-
See where the gushing brook
Read back no leaf, but turn the onward page,
NOTE.-The individual who wrote a tale in the Journal a few years ago on an incident in the history of the Tankerville family, is requested to correspond with the editor.
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