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ral of the Saracens, to propose to him a single combat or to support the reserve. The combat was renewed with a general battle. His proud message was contemptuously fresh fury. Kilidj-Arslan, who had to avenge his former received by Kerbogha, and the Christian envoys made a defeat at Dorislaus, and the loss of his states, fought hasty retreat, to escape violence from the incensed Mus- like a lion at the head of his troops. A squadron of sulmans. The chiefs of the Crusaders prepared for battle three thousand Saracen cavaliers, all bristling with steel, on the morrow. The heralds and the priests ran through armed with ponderous maces, carried disorder and terror the streets to animate the soldiers; the night was passed into the Christian ranks. The standard of the Count in prayer and devotion; and the last grain of flour in of Vermandois was taken and retaken, covered with the the city was used for the celebration of the mass.
blood of Crusaders and infidels. Godfrey and Tancred, At length day rose on this scene of warlike devotion. who flew to the succour of Hugo and Bohemond, signalised The wounded Raymond was left to keep in check the their strength and prowess by the slaughter of numbers garrison of the citadel, and the rest of the army poured of the Mussulmans. But the sultan of Nice, whom no through the city gates into the plain. The sacred lance reverses could daunt, still bore up stoutly against the was borne by Raymond of Agiles. At the head of the shock of the Christians. When the battle was at its army a portion of the clergy walked in procession, chant- hottest, he ordered lighted firebrands to be thrown ing the inartial psalm, 'Let God rise, and let his enemies among the heath and dry herbage that covered the plain. be scattered.' The bishops and priests who remained in Soon à conflagration rose, which surrounded the Christhe city, surrounded by the women and children, blessed tians with whirlwinds of flame and smoke. For a moment from the ramparts the arms of the Christian host; and their ranks were shaken; they no longer saw or heard the neighbouring mountains rang with the war-cry of their chiefs. Victory seemed on the point of slipping the Crusaders — Dieu le veut ! -Dieu le veut!' As from the grasp of the Crusaders, and Kilidj - Arslan they advanced into the plain, most of the knights and already congratulated himself on the success of his barons on foot, and many of the soldiers in rags, they stratagem. seemed like an army of skeletons, so famine-struck were Then, say the historians, a squadron was seen descendthey all. The whole plain and mountain-slopes on the ing from the summits of the mountains, preceded by three north bank of the Orontes were covered with the Mus- knights clothed in white, and covered with dazzling arsulman battalions, among which that of Kerbogha, says mour. 'Behold,' cried the Bishop Adhemar, 'the celesan old writer, appeared like an inaccessible mountain.' tial aid which was promised you ! Heaven declares for But the enthusiasm of the Crusaders set odds at defiance; the Christians! The holy martyrs St George, Demetrius, the exultation of victory already filled them as they and Theodore, are come to combat along with us. Forthadvanced against the enemy. Two thousand Saracens, with the eyes of all were turned upon the celestial squadleft to guard the passage of the bridge of Antioch, were New ardour filled the hearts of the Crusaders, who cut to pieces by the Count of Vermandois. The fugitives were persuaded that God himself came to their aid; the carried the alarm to the tent of their general, wb
war-cry, 'Dieu le
ut!' rose again as loudly as at first. then playing at chess. Starting from his false security, The women and children, assembled on the walls of AnKerbogha beheld a black flag displayed from the citadel tioch, by their cries stimulated the courage of the Cruof Antioch (the preconcerted signal of the advance of the saders; the priests ran through the ranks with uplifted Crusaders); and ordering the instant beheadal of a hands, thanking God for the succour which he sent to deserter, who had announced the approaching surrender the Christian army. The charge again sounded along the of the Christians, he immediately set about issuing line; every Crusader becomes a hero; nothing can withorders for the battle.
stand their impetuous onset. In a moment the Saracen Having forced the passage of the Orontes, the Crusaders ranks are shaken; they no longer fight, but in disorder. advanced down its right bank against the Mussulman In vain they strive to rally behind the bed of a torrent, host, which was drawn up partly on the slopes of the and on a height, where their clarions and trumpets sound mountains, and partly in the plain, stretching from their the assembly. The Count de Vermandois, quickly folbase to the river. The Christian army was wrought up lowing up his success, assails them in their new position, to the highest pitch of enthusiasm : the most common and drives them from it in utter confusion. Broken and occurrences seemed to them prodigies announcing the discomfited, they now only look for safety in flight. The triumph of their arms. A globe of fire which, after banks of the Orontes, the woods, the plains, the mountraversing the heavens, had burst over the Mussulman tains, are covered with fugitives flying in wild disorder, camp, seemed to them a foresign of victory: a gentle and abandoning arms and baggage to the conquerors. and refreshing rain, which fell as they were leaving Kerbogha made his escape to the Euphrates, escorted Antioch, was in their eyes a fresh proof of the favour of by a few faithful followers. Tancred, and some others, Heaven : a strong wind, which aided the flight of their mounting the steeds of the vanquished, pursued till darts, and impeded those of the Saracens, seemed to nightfall the sultans of Aleppo and Damascus, the emir them the wind of Divine wrath rising to disperse the of Jerusalem, and the broken squadrons of the Saracens. infidels. The army marched against the enemy in the The victorious Crusaders set fire to the intrenchments best order.
A profound silence reigned in the plain, behind which the Mussulman infantry had taken refuge, which everywhere glittered with the armour of the and great numbers of the infidels perished in the flames. Christians. No sound was heard in the ranks but the Such was the battle of Antioch, in which the Saracens voice of the chiefs, the hymns of the priests, and the left 100,000 dead on the field, while the Christians lost exhortations of Adhemar.
only 4000. Of a sudden the Saracens commenced the attack. They When the danger was past, the holy lance began to discharged a flight of arrows, and with barbaric cries bore lose its miraculous influence over the troops. It remained down upon the Crusaders. But despite their impetuous in the keeping of Raymond and his Provençals, and the onset, their right wing, under the emir of Jerusalem, was offerings which it brought to them as its guardians soon repulsed, and driven back in disorder. Godfrey expe- excited the jealousy of the rest of the army. Doubts were rienced greater resistance from their left wing, which raised as to its genuineness, and Arnauld and the Norrested on the mountains; but it, too, was ať length mans especially distinguished themselves by their veheshaken, and confusion spread through the ranks. At ment outcry against it. In vain miracles in its favour this moment, when the troops of Kerbogha were giving were got up by its supporters : nothing could silence its way on all sides, Kilidj - Arslan, the sultan of Nice, opponents, and discord rose to an alarming height in the who had advanced unseen on the reverse slopes of the army. At last Barthelemy, carried away by his fanamountains, suddenly burst upon the rear of the Chris- ticism and the applause of his adherents, announced his tian army, and threatened to cut in pieces the reserve intention of submitting to the ordeal by fire. In a mounder Bohemond. The Crusaders, who combated on ment calm was restored in the camp. The pilgrims who foot, could not withstand the first shock of the Saracen followed the Christian army were invited to witness the horse. Hugo the Great, apprised of Bohemond's danger, ordeal, and the host of the Crusaders ranged themselves abandoned the pursuit of the fugitives, and hastened back in a circle round the place of trial. On the appointed day (it was a holy Friday), a large pile of olive branches and peace! It would be well if, while forced in conwas raised in the middle of the vast plain. The flames science to condemn many of their particular acts, we already rose to a great height, when the spectators saw could truly and earnestly sympathise with the French Barthelemy approach, accompanied by priests, who ad- in the distresses which they have almost involuntarily vanced in silence, barefoot, and clothed in their sacer- brought upon themselves. Let there be no levity in our dotal robes. Covered with a simple tunic, the priest of remarks, much less any ill-considered reproaches; but let Marseilles carried the holy lance, decked with waving them see that our only interference is that of the beneflaglets. When he had approached to within a few paces of volent social feelings, and that the first wish of our the flaming pile, one of the principal clergy pronounced hearts is a good deliverance from their troubles. Such in a loud voice these words—. If this man has seen Jesus at least is, in our judgment, the duty of England on Christ face to face, and if St Andrew has revealed to him this occasion, under the constraint of the highest laws the divine lance, let him pass uninjured through the of our moral nature. The consequences are of inferior Alames; if, on the contrary, he has been guilty of false- importance to the performance of the duty; but human hood, let him be consumed, with the lance which he nature can never perhaps be too impressively told that carries in his hands. At these words all the assistants
as we sow we must reap. bowed, and replied together, ‘ Let God's will be done!' Barthelemy threw himself on his knees, took Heaven to
RELIEF FOR INDIGENT GENTLEWOMEN. witness as to the truth of all he had said, and recom
Among the many distressing visions of penury which mending himself to the prayers of the clergy, rushed meet our attention, one of the most distressing is that amid the flaming pile, through which an opening of two of the poor elderly female' who has seen better days.' feet had been left for his passage.
We can scarcely rank it amongst those which come For a moment he was hid from sight amid the flames. broadly under public notice: it is more apt to shrink Many pilgrims began to bewail him as lost, when they from the gaze of the world, and only to be discovered by saw him reappear on the side opposite to that where he accident by those who make it their duty to search into had entered. He was immediately surrounded by an the nooks and crannies of our complicated social struceager crowd, who wished to touch his garments, and who
ture. Scarcely any one, however, can have failed to exclaimed it was a miracle. But the object of their become acquainted more or less with some particular veneration had received mortal injury. He was borne dying into the tent of the Count of Toulouse, where to be pictured as one sustaining neat and clean appear
cases of the reduced gentlewoman; not always, alas ! he expired a few days after, protesting to the last his innocence and his veracity. He was buried on the spot senting herself at the tables of her old acquaintances,
ances in some poor lodging, and now and then even prewhere the pile had been raised. Raymond and the Pro- but often as the helpless bedrid creature, drawing out il vençals persisted in regarding him as an apostle and a
an attenuated existence on some miserable pittance, and 1 martyr; but the great majority of the pilgrims acquiesced dependent for half her living, and all the nursing she in the judgnient of God, and the holy lance, from that requires, on some sempstress niece, or old servant day forward, ceased to work miracles.
scarcely more vigorous than herself. For such persons,
the ordinary charities of the country, whether those OCCASIONAL NOTES.
established by law, or those which spring from special voluntary benevolence, are of no avail
, being destined
for totally different objects. There is therefore scarcely At the time when we write-nearly four weeks before any groan more hopeless than theirs; in no cases is the the day on which the present sheet appears-France is exigency of need more overmatched by obstructions to under the agony of a revolution, one of the immediate its relief-the chief of these being the delicacy which effects of which is, by the extinction of confidence, to forbids asking. disorganise the whole industrial system of the country, A sense of the need which everywhere exists for and put large masses of the people out of relation to charity meeting this peculiar form of wretchedness, their usual means of subsistence. The private suffering induces us to advert to an institution having that end from this cause must be very great, and it is difficult to in view, which has been in operation for about a year see where and how it is to end. What ought to be the in Edinburgh. It assumes the name of the ‘Benevolent conduct of England on the occasion ? May she allow. Fund for the Relief of Indigent Gentlewomen of Scot. ably exult in the distresses of a country which too land above Fifty Years of Age, and Unmarried.' The often has expressed jealous and hostile feelings towards mechanism for collecting funds very appropriately conherself? May she even congratulate herself on that sists for the most part of ladies; the annual subscripembarrassment which promises to make her neighbour tion (inclusive of donations) being half-a-crown. Thus for some time to come little able to act as an enemy to L. 1265 have been collected in the first year. It may other states? We would hope that those who feel thus also be remarked as a peculiar feature, that about one will be few, and that the bulk of our community will half of the established clergy of the country have interather be disposed to compassionate the unhappy case rested themselves in the collection of subscriptions. of the French, and to show that they do so. Now seems The expenses attending the starting of the society have to be the time for attempting to convince that people absorbed a larger proportion of the results than was to that England bears no malice towards them, and would have been expected; but nevertheless, sums varying from much rather be regarded as their friend than their L.5 to L.10 have been given to 154 applicants. We enemy. The French, let us remember, are now only find in the first annual report some brief anonymous in a new crisis of the transition which they have been memoranda of a selection of the cases, showing the age, obliged to make from the heartless despotism of their parentage, other resources, and general condition of the ancient monarchy, to such liberal institutions as we poor ladies who have been selected for the society's ourselves possess. For nearly sixty years has this charity-thus : "74; landed proprietor; about L.8; transition been in progress, and how much the coun- quite blind; occasional aid from friends not related to try bas suffered in that time need not be particu- her; no relations able or willing to support her.'. '60; larised. The case is precisely that which was our own lieutenant royal navy; 33. å week; nearly blind; in the seventeenth century. Had we then had a pre- weak in intellect; often without food or fire; no rela. decessor in the realisation of free institutions, and had tives.' •60; clergyman; subsistence only from knitthat state acted sympathisingly in the midst of some ting; no relatives. •76; merchant; taught a school such agony as that of the Remonstrance, or the treaty till 75 years old ; L.5 or 1.6 ; incapacitated by age for of Uxbridge, or even the settlement of the crown on labour..51; captain in army; L.6; Queen's bounty; William and Mary, how pleasingly must we have felt almost constantly bedridden; gets a little assistance it !-how apt would such conduct have been to wipe from a poor niece, who supports her own mother and out past offences, and induce bonds of fraternal alliance two sisters by teaching.' These are short and simple
THE FRENCH AGONY.
annals, but how much do they reveal! The report study, to trace the coincidence that exists between the says very modestly, •The relief, coming to them, as it character of each succeeding century and the fashion of did, at an inclement season of the year, was most wel. its garments, from almost the dawn of our national his. come, and in many instances served to provide them tory to the reign of Victoria. In this respect costume with necessaries much required. The aid was in furnishes the most obvious signs of the times, in which almost all cases administered through the ladies' own the beholder may read their moral and mental characpastors, and the gratitude of all was unbounded. Some ter, even as the picture-lovers of some future generation of the openings of the hearts of the poor destitute ladies will speculate on the books of beauty, the fashionable to their ministers, when receiving from them the wel- magazines, and, should any be preserved, the photogracome allowances, were most touching.'
phic portraits of our own day. The earliest account of We would hope that a fund calculated to be so British costume is given us by Julius Cæsar and his conserviceable in the mitigating of human misery, will temporaries, according to whom it consisted of a beard, continue to be well supported, and will also not be reaching to the breast like a tangled mane; a mantle allowed to remain an example unhonoured by imitation which descended almost to the knee, made of the hide in other portions of the empire.
of a brindled cow, with the hair worn outwards, and fastened in front with a pin of bone or a long thorn; a
shield composed of wickerwork; a brazen javelin; and THE CHARACTER OF COSTUME.
the greater part of the body painted dark-blue, or some All who have exercised even a superficial degree of say green, the breast and arms being punctured with observation, must be aware how much their estimation the figures of plants and animals, like the tattooing of of a stranger is influenced by the habiliments of his the South Sea isles. This primitive fashion naturally outward man. The garnishing of a bonnet, or the represents a land covered with primeval forests, the pattern of a vest, can give curious hints on biogra- resort of the bear and the bison; huts constructed of phy; and Beau Brummell's maxim, that a man was wattles and mud, and thatched with heath and fern; esteemed according to the set of his shirt-collar,' is not gatherings for rude Pagan rites round the solitary without some experimental truth. Look out on a city cromlech, or in that puzzle of antiquaries—the circle thoroughfare, saunter along a fashionable promenade, of Stonehenge; and a savage veneration for the Druid enter a place of public assembly, and see what varieties and the mistletoe. of character present themselves to the mind through How the belles of Britain were arrayed in Cæsar's the different combinations of silk, woollen, and cotton time we are not informed, but the progress of civilisa
fabrics which form the staple of British apparel. Al- tion may be traced by the dress of the celebrated Queen | most involuntarily a spectator will discover and classify Boadicea, who lived more than a century later, as de
the accurate and inflexible in small ways, who would scribed by a Roman historian on a state occasion : her wage war for the size of a button or the position of a light hair fell down her shoulders ; she wore a torque, pin; the jumbled and disorderly, whose lives stumble or twisted collar of gold; a tunic of several colours, all on from one casualty to another; the strivers after in folds; and over it, fastened by a fibula, or brooch, a effect and show ; the servants of unembellished utility; robe of coarse stuff. We also gather from some remthe creatures of milliners, yea, and those of tailors also, nants of old Celtic poetry that at the same period the who live only from the fashion; and the few who use dress of the Druid was a long white robe, as an emblem the fashions of life, yet are not subject to any of them. of purity; that of the bards a blue one; and the proIt is not possible that impressions thus received could fessors of medicine and astronomy, which appear to be always correct: there are a thousand petty influences have been curiously connected in the minds of our that operate on the clothing as well as the conduct of Celtic ancestors, were distinguished by a garment of humanity, but they are generally entertained in lieu of green, because it was the garment of nature; while something more certain ; and those who will not go as those who aspired to unite the honours of those three far as character, occasionally inquire of beaver and vocations to their names, wore variegated dresses of the broad cloth regarding the wearer’s profession; not only three colours—blue, green, and white. where it bas appropriated some peculiar mode, as in the Pliny tells us that these divers-coloured garments cases of clergy and military men, but in the less con- were made of a fabric called braccæ, composed of fine spicuous vocations, where the matter is left entirely wool, woven in cheques, and evidently synonymous to individual selection. Thus poets and Blues were with the Scottish tartan. Several Roman writers add, believed to be recognisable in the days of our grand that of this chequered cloth the many-coloured tunic fathers, and some still pretend to discern the insignia of of Boadicea, and the entire dress of her most distinthose orders. We once heard a railway clerk assert guished warriors, were formed. From their description that he never was mistaken in schoolmasters or com- of the latter, it appears to have exactly resembled the mercial travellers; and among the anecdotes of the costume of a Highland chief, with kilt, plaid, and dirk ; French Revolution, is one concerning a countess who wanting only the plumed bonnet, and the tasseled attempted to make her escape from the Temple in the sporan or purse. These were the additions of afterdisguise of a charwoman, but was detected by the aris- times, which came with the pibroch, the fiery cross, tocratic fashion in which she wore a washed-out cotton and the black mail, to the Celts of our northern mounshawl. 'How were they dressed ?' is a universal in- tains ; but the days of which we speak were those of quiry; and the whole body of writers in travels, fiction, the plaided warriors, encountering the cuirassed and and history, seem aware of the fact, and describe the Latin-talking legions of Rome—the days of the hewing attire of their principal characters with minutiæ worthy down of old oak woods—the building of those Roman of the Court Circular. Nor is the idea of its import- forts and cities whose ruins and burial urns are turned ance unfounded. An old author remarks, that it is up by modern excavation. It is curious to consider not Quakers', millers', and bakers' boys alone that are that the chequered cloth, which was now regarded by distinguished by the cut and colour of their garments; the Romans as a savage dress, had once (if a modern | but individuals, nations, and times, because the habit and well-supported theory be true) been the costume of of clothing is one of the great particularities of man, a large part of the earth, including the countries afterwhich, if it be not common to all men, is shared in by wards inhabited by the Romans; and that, after surviving no other animal; and like the handwriting, or fashion eighteen centuries in one corner of the island of Britain, of speech, it serveth to denote somewhat of his proper it has come again to be a favourite wear over regions far personality. The truth of these observations is strik. beyond the bounds of the Scottish Highlands, as if the ingly illustrated by a gallery of old family pictures, or first fancy of the European races with respect to clothing those portraits of sovereigns and celebrated persons had involved some peculiar felicity, which was sure to which exhibit the costume of the ages in which they rekindle their affections on its being brought again beAourished; and it is an amusing, yet not uninstructive fore their notice. True it is the chequered braccæ, in which the heroic queen so nobly, though vainly strove to dently on the increase. As we descend to the Norman defend her country and people, is at this moment worn days, the robes are bordered with fringe of gold; cords throughout the British dominions--and they are wider and tassels are added to the mantle; but the Saxon than Rome ever dreamt of—in a thousand varieties, beard is gone, as well as the Danish long hair ; for a from the satins and velvet of court costume, to the complete exquisite in the reign of the Conqueror would coarse muffle cloak or plaid of the winter traveller; not suffer a single hair to grow on the whole expanse while the faith, the power, and the vices of the Romans of his countenance, and the entire back of his head, have long ago become but matters of dry and antiquated which had only a few short and straggling locks round history.
the forehead, and over the ears. Next come the Anglo-Saxon times, of which we have In the reign of William Rufus, lengthening and enlarge actual portraits preserved in some old illuminated ing seem to have been the mode; and under several of manuscripts, such as that of King Edgar in the Book his successors, long cumbrous garments, with immense of Grants to the Abbey of Winchester, A. D. 966. sleeves, were the gentlemen's attire, with shoes whose Here flax appears in full fashion—the monarch's dress toes turned up in a projecting peak to the height of consisting of a linen shirt, a tunic of the same material, twelve inches, and a chain at the top, which was fastened descending to the knee, having long close sleeves, but to the girdle above; and what progress they made in which sit in wrinkles, or rather rolls, from the elbow walking, history sayeth not; yet these days are memorto the wrist : it was confined by a belt or girdle round able for the introduction of the oft-denounced corset, as the waist; and the royal attire was completed by a pair part and parcel of the ladies' wardrobe ; female dresses of loose buskins, or rather stockings, wound round being then laced tight to the bust, while the skirts and with bands of gold, which the generality of his subjects sleeves were of such intolerable length, that it was necessupplied with leather, a sort of tiara, or crown, and a sary to fasten them up in huge knots, to admit of movshort mantle.
ing at all. In a manuscript of the close of the eleventh Similar habiliments were worn by the good King century, the satirical illuminator has introduced the Alfred, and the renowned Charlemagne; for all the father of all evil in female apparel, with the skirts as nations of Gothic or Germanic origin, who at that well as the sleeves of the tunic so knotted, and the garperiod occupied the continent of Europe, resembled ment laced up in front. each other in their customs, and even language. The What a contrast to these civil fashions is presented dress of the Saxon ladies appears to have been com- by the military portraits of the period ! — the knight posed of the gunna, a long flowing robe with loose in full panoply, with visor closed ! Yet both serve sleeves, from which the modern word gown is derived; to illustrate the barbarity, pomp, and luxury of the a shorter one called the kirtle; and the head-dress on period; the iron age of unlettered pride and despotic all occasions consisted of a long piece of linen, denomi- strength, when books were things known only to nated the wafles, in which the head and neck of the abbots and bishops, when lawsuits were decided by wearer were enveloped. These pictures remind us of single combat, and the wealth of a nobleman was the old Saxon chroniclers, with their simple faith and estimated by the number of peasants he owned, or the blunt sense; of the low solid Saxon arch; of rude amount of plunder his vassals could collect on the highhabits, primitive customs, and wild wars with the way; for such, in spite of all its tournaments and trouinvading Danes. It was in this period that our national badours, was the period of feudalism, romance, and language, our popular superstitions, and most of our chivalry. Yet even in these Gothic times, it appears rural festivals had their origin. Yet among the kirtles that fashion was scarcely less fickle than her followers in and wafles of the Saxon dames we find the curling- our own age have found her; and in the reign of Edward irons of modern fashion in full exercise. Adhelm, III., the gallant conqueror of Cressy, a monk of GlastonBishop of Therborne, who wrote in the eighth century, berg thus expressed his dissatisfaction: • The Englishdescribes a belle of the period as having her delicate men haunted so much unto the foly of strangers, that locks twisted by the iron of those adorning her;' but every year they changed them in divers shapes and disthe wearers of kid gloves among us little think how guisings of clothing—now long, now large, now wide, many efforts and ages were required to bring those now strait, and every day clothingges new and destitude indispensable articles to their present perfection. Till and divest from all honesty of old arraye or good about the end of the tenth century, the hands even of usage ; and another time to short clothes, and so straitEnglish royalty were covered only by the end of the waisted, with full sleeves and tippets of surcoats, and loose sleeve; but then some of the leaders of fashion hodes over-long and large, all so jagged and kuit on began to assume a small bag, with a thumb at the one every side, and all so shattered, and also buttoned, that side, the fingers being all indiscriminately confined, I with truth shall say they seem more like to torwhich certainly could not have had the effect of in- mentors or devils in their clothing, and also in their creasing their usefulness.
shoeing and other array, than they seeme to be like The Saxon was succeeded by the Anglo-Danish men.' period, so called from the conquest of Canute the In spite of many such remonstrators, garments conGreat and his successors, some portraits of whom are tinued to increase in variety and expense. Indeed, if extant. Their costume was the same as that of the there be any truth in the censures of the clergy, and Saxons; but their chosen colour was black, like their the lamentations of the poets, in which Chaucer himnational standard—the raven; on which account the self unites, in his “Canterbury Tales,' public extravaSaxons called them the Black Northmen. But we gance in dress seems to have gone to a length scarcely find they also excelled them in civilisation, for the credible in our pinching times even to a London milliold chroniclers inform us that the Danes were effemi- ner. Grooms and servants are said to wear velvets and nately gay in their dress, combed their hair once a-day, damasks; the nobles had their robes bordered with preand bathed once a week; which seems to have been cious stones ; and one coat belonging to Richard II. is considered intolerable foppery by the honest Saxons. stated to have cost 30,000 merks. Similar fashions seem The Normans, who succeeded the Danes, under the to have extended to the court of Scotland, though at conduct of William the Conqueror, were of similar a later period. A portrait of James I., in the castle of northern origin, and, as might be expected, retained Nielberg in Swabia exhibits the peaks of the monarch's a similarity of dress. The earliest specimens of their shoes fastened by chains of gold to his girdle; and in costume are given in the Bayeux tapestry, one of those a wardrobe account of James III. of Scotland, A.D. 1471, immense specimens of needlework produced only in quoted by Mr Logan, occurs an entry of an elne and the middle ages ; being thirty-seven yards in length, ane half of blue tartane' [by which was understood not covered with scenes from the conquest of England, and the tartan of the country, but a kind of French serge, said to be the work of William's queen, Matilda, and so costly, that it was valued at sixteen shillings a yard] her maids of honour. Wealth and splendour are evi- l.to lyne his gowne of cloth of gold.' About the same time mourning first appears in England, but the colour remarkable for the resemblance which costume in geneof sorrow was as often brown as black; and Chaucer ral begins to assume to the most prominent of our mentions a widow's robe of brown. The quantity as well modern fashions. Were it not that we miss the ribboned as the quality of dress was a great object with our ances and flower-trimmed bonnet of the lady, and find the tors; their sleeves in particular frequently attracted the gentleman's head laden with plumes like a Russian legislature's attention, and the most stringent laws were field-marshal, some of them might pass for shadows of made to curtail their dimensions. One old writer de- the nineteenth century. The difference now becomes nominates them, when worn by servants, 'the devil's perceptible; men begin to wear tight garments, and the receptacles, into which all they stole was popped. Yet modern indispensable of pantaloons first become visible notwithstanding the overabundance of kirtles and hause under the sway of the Tudors. The old flowing Eastern lines, the skirts that required three pages to hold them style is still more forsaken as the Reformation apup in front and rear, the tippets worn round the head, proaches; feudal pomp and splendour are passing away; the different-coloured hose, with each side of the gown men have begun to put less confidence in armour, and to match, there was a stately grandeur about the Eng- less glory in pageants, though there is still an occasional lish costume of that period worthy of the romantic tournament; and the Field of Cloth of Gold, in which honour and high-flown courtesy of knights like the Henry VIII. and his rival Francis I. of France displayed Black Prince, and the first companions of the Garter. their vanity and magnificence, still prove how much Nor will the extravagance of all ranks in dress appear was sacrificed to empty display. Yet it was near the 80 far beyond belief, when it is remembered that, like time of the world's great discoveries-printing, America, all the productions of those ages, the velvets and and popular representation ; but in the matter of cosdamasks were intended to stand the test of time; and tume, we find the most striking was the display of in spite of the mutations denounced by the Glastonberg ladies' arms, which had never been seen since the days monk, gowns and kirtles evidently served the vanity of of the Norman Conquest. more than one generation, as we find them mentioned It was under good King Hal, as one would think he in wills as valuable bequests; and no wonder, when so was ironically called in history, that the inexpressibles much of individual property was vested in the ward of the gentlemen were stuffed to such an enormous robe. The prevalent idea of the feudal times was pomp size, according to one of their contemporaries, with and display, for which all the comforts and appliances sacks of wool and hair, that a species of scaffolding was of daily life were utterly neglected; and the merchant erected over the seats in the Parliament House for their or tradesman who appeared in ermine and gold, was accommodation, the ordinary benches being utterly content to sit on a three-legged stool, and sleep on a insufficient; and the fashion did not disappear till the
bundle of straw. Articles of dress were on this account beginning of Elizabeth's reign. On the whole, the ' regarded as presents fit for royalty to give and receive. caprices of its costume betray the age as one which,
We read of Richard III. presenting the Duke of Buck- though filled with great events, was neither good nor ingham with a velvet gown, which, adds the chronicler, grand in England, and characterised by bad taste and • made the duke_right joyful.' Imagine Queen Vic- worse morals. toria presenting Lord John Russel with a new paletôt, The dresses of Elizabeth's reign have found abundant just to illustrate the difference of our times! There illustrations. These were the days of starch and ruffs ; is another peculiarity remarkable in the ancestral and both articles furnished themes for vituperation to portraits of Britain, which is common to those of the reforming clergy, if their accounts may be relied on. all Europe to the beginning of the sixteenth century In the words of Beau Brummell, “starch was' then the -- the difference between male and female costume man.' Its introduction to the English public, like is scarcely observable. The Crusades, which com- that of silk-weaving and stocking-knitting, was owing menced about the time of the Norman Conquest, to the persecution of the Protestants of Flanders by doubtless contributed to this state of things, as the Philip II., which drove thousands of the best citizens flowing robes, as well as the coarse magnificence to seek refuge in England, bringing their arts and inof Asiatic nations, were brought back to Europe by dustry with them. Linen shirts also became prevalent the warlike princes and nobility. There is also some about this period; and some of them, according to confusion of terms in the matter of apparel, which Stubbs, cost, horrible to hear, no less than ten pounds! sounds strange to modern ears; a gown and a petti. Elizabeth is said to have never worn the same dress coat being mentioned as prominent parts of a gen- twice; and as her majesty knew the value of her robes tleman's attire in the reign of Henry V.; and about too well to part with them, the inventory of her wardhalf a century later, the waistcoats of the ladies cut a robe, at the close of her long reign, must have been conspicuous figure not only in the entries, but even the truly astounding; yet with all its cork-shoes, diamond
sermons of the day. Still greater causes of wrath were stomacher, stiff corsets, and frightful ruffs, there was a | the horned head-dresses which begin to figure in all degree of formal splendour and regal state about the female portraits after the battle of Agincourt. Mon- court strongly characteristic of the mind of Elizabeth, strosities of taste they are certainly, some having two and the history of her reign, in which there was much curved horns, like, as the old divines remark, to . ane strength, and little, though very obvious, weakness. lowing cow;' others standing erect on the
head, covered Nor must we forget that the modern hat owes its origin with linen rather loosely, and varying from two to three to this period. Stubbs speaks of them as 'head-coverfeet, according to the taste of the wearer. These are ings, made of a certain kind of fine hair, which they succeeded by another form, rising like a spire so far call beaver hats, of twenty, thirty, and forty shillings above the natural height, that history mentions the a-piece, fetched from beyond sea, whence a great sort doors of several churches and
palaces which required to of other varieties do come. Most people are aware that be altered, in order to allow the ladies of the court Elizabeth wore the first pair of silk stockings, and the entrance. But it does the common sense of the nation Earl of Oxford the first worsted articles of the kind some credit, that the monstrous things were generally ever made in England without a seam, the hose of all disliked. One monk in particular acquired consider- preceding monarchs being manufactured by means of able celebrity by preaching a regular crusade against the needle and scissors. How the art of knitting was them both in Britain and France, from which latter imported, has been already mentioned ; and the stockcountry they are said to have been imported by Catha- ing-frame was introduced some years after, it is said, by rine, queen of Henry V.; and with the habit of refe- the ingenious revenge of William Lee, who took this rence to Satan common to his age, he denominated mode of superseding the industry of a knitter, to whom them .ye devil's towers ;' but adds in one of his ser- his addresses had been paid in vain; but this cause of mons, rather ungallantly, ‘of a truth I do believe that the invention rests only on vague tradition. Belzebub hath more sense than she who invented such Under James I., we find the love of splendour and headgear.
The portraits of Henry VII.'s reign are pageant, which ruled the former reign, still prevalent ;