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most questionable thing whether we shall ever be per- circles, across a country, and they will form some idea of mitted to accomplish the other.

the plan proposed under this head. Two balloons were It is needless, in the present advanced state of infor- requisite also in this case : under the car of one was a mation, to go into any account of the origin or history long pole, with a couple of planes of canvas projecting of balloons. By the ingenuity of Mr Green and others, downwards from it. The other balloon was to be made the balloon has apparently attained perfection; but stationary, a brisk breeze was to blow, and the balloon with after all, it is nothing more than a toy-a machine help- the pole-planes to be hauled across the current. Thus less in the midst of the atmosphere. Unlike the ship at it would be made to describe a great semicircle—and in sea, it has nothing against which sails or rudder can be this way we were to fly across England! Wings and made to act. Theorising men of science, however, are oars filled with gas were also tried; but this proved a not satisfied, and new contrivances to guide the ma- vanity likewise. It was then thought that these erratic chine have been attempted. One of these consists of machines-- balloons--might be made available for the a sail placed horizontally, or vertically, in connection purposes of traffic by means of balloon-ways.' This conwith proper sustaining apparatus attached to the car. trivance was by fixing a number of posts, like the posts Mr Edgeworth first proposed the use of this resisting of our electric telegraphs, from one town to another; a surface to the Royal Irish Academy in 1795, but it long rope was sustained by these in a spring catch, which was principally for facilitating the ascent and descent ran through a ring in the bottom of the car. Thus the of the machine. A Mr Evans appears to have con- balloon was guided—that is, was to be guided—from place ceived the first successful method of directing the to place. flight of the machine. Using a small Montgolfier' Passing these fanciful contrivances, we may advert balloon, he suspended a large oblique surface beneath to one which, though discovered long since by Baldwin, it. When the balloon ascended, it ascended in the still keeps its place in aërial navigation. This is the direction toward which the upper edge of the oblique invention of kedging. Probably it derived its origin, surface looked, and descended again to the point to as well as name, from the artifice common in navigating which the lower edge was directed. Thus a sort of a vessel down a stream--which is by carrying an anchor aèrial tacking was attained. The course which a trailing under her bows; thus steerage-way is gained on balloon thus fitted would take in its ascent, might be the vessel. Mr Green, as a substitute, uses the long described thus ; then when it attained the highest rope, called the guide-rope. By allowing the end of this point, the edge of the plane would be reversed, and the rope to trail on the ground, rotation of the machine is balloon would descend thus ; or the whole course prevented, its course is retarded, and a guiding power is

It was proposed that two balloons should be to some extent established. It is to be remembered, used—a Montgolfier below, and a hydrogen a consider- however, that the rope, when long, is of itself a great able height above. Biot remarked, this was placing a addition to the weight of the machine. To meet this furnace underneath a powder niagazine. It was mani- objection, a tapering rope has been proposed, the thickest fest that aërial voyaging, if only to be accomplished by end being attached to the car. The rope thus acts also this means, had little to recommend it to the philoso- in some measure as a regulator of the height of the pher, and none to the expeditious traveller. This idea, machine. If it has a tendency to descend, more rope therefore, fell to the ground for a time. The motive is thereby supported on the ground, and the balloon powers of the steam-engine were then thought of, becomes more buoyant; if it rises, it has to carry more and it was proposed to place a light engine in the rope. A dangerous accident sometimes occurs from car, which should actuate a pair of vanes on either the end of the rope lashing round trees and houses; side. But the weight of engines, fuel, water, and this has been remedied by fastening a long rattan cane the necessary attendants, has hitherto been an in- to the extremity. After all, even the guide-rope, the surmountable difficulty. The lightest marine-engine, simplest and best of these plans, is of very limited applion the condensing principle, cannot be made under cation on land. At sea, possibly, it might prove of value. at least twelve or thirteen hundredweight per horse- Altogether, we cannot for ourselves look to the guidepower. Many ingenious plans were devised for reduc- rope for much practical benefit beyond its preventing ing the weight of the steam-engine. Mr Gurney rotation. The success of aëronauts in the air alone havinvented some engines, which, with their fuel for one ing proved so limited, many plans have been suggested hour, did not weigh more than 300 pounds per horse- for a union of aēro and hydro-nautics, and several hybrid power. Sir George Cayley, an accurate mathemati- machines were constructed. In some of these the cian and a sound philosopher, clung with invincible steam-engine was placed in a boat, which dragged the tenacity to the steam-propulsion idea, and proposed balloon after it. We are at a loss to discover any supethe use of a balloon made of Mackintosh's India-rubber riority over an ordinary steam-vessel in this whimsy. cloth, filling it with steam, and at the same time pro- Perceiving the futility of these schemes, some inpelling the car by a steam-engine beneath. He con- genious men first conceived the idea of forming a macludes by expressing his belief that Dr Darwin's lines, chine after the principle of a fish! Their reasoning so often quoted, and in our day in part so strikingly was ingenious. They perceived the fallacy of comparfulfilled, should yet receive their fulfilment in the ing a balloon to a ship; and adopting a juster argument, regions of air :

determined to construct an aërial machine on this novel Soon shall thy arm, unconquered steam ! afar

rule. Their machine was called the aëronautic fish. Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car;

It was first planned in the year 1789 : it contained many Or on wide-waving wings expanded, bear

ingenious contrivances: water was used for ballast: it The flying chariot through the fields of air.'

had wings working with cranks, by which its flight was The steam-engine being thus apparently a hopeless to be secured. But the most curious idea about it was drag, our aéronautic genii returned to balloon-ma- the plan for ascending or descending: The machine neuvering. A Dr Macsweeny of Cork has written a being built on the model of a fish, was long and sharppamphlet, in which he enters into a description of the pointed; underneath it was a weight, which was nov. aëro-tactics; and there are several curious modes of able from end to end by a series of ropes and pulleys. balloon progression described by this sanguine gentle. When it was desirable to ascend, the weight was pulled man. One method of navigation is called balloon-warping. down to the tail ; this made it heavier, and consequently It requires two balloons, which must be connected by a the prow rose up. If the machine would fly now, it long rope ; and after some perplexing fashion or other, it would take an upward course. But if the desire was to is stated that the aëronauts can by this means wind or descend, the weight was hauled down to the fore part, warp one another along. Another equally curious and and it followed, of course, that the direction would be whimsical, and, in our estimation, of about an equal downwards. The balloon was of a long, fish-like figure, feasibility, was called crescenting. Let our readers by which it was hoped that the tendency to rotation imagine the strides of a giant pair of compasses, in half / would be destroyed. The machine was constructed in France, and it is said that Marshal Ney, who took the diameter, which certainly did travel in any given direcdeepest interest in its construction, spent as much as tion in the still air of the great room. This he effected 100,000 francs upon it. It was launched, it floated, with by letting a guide-rope hang from the car, and attachfeeble powers it flew, but it would turn on one side. All ing to the car a pair of windmill vanes, which were the ingenuities were in vain; and after a long struggle moved by clockwork contained within. The direction of patience, talent, hope, and money against the diffi- of the aërostat was in a line with the guide-rope, and culties of the subject, it was thrown aside in despair. horizontally. In 1843, Mr Monck Mason effected the

The next attempt had a similar termination. In the same object by affixing an Archimedean screw upon a year 1835 there appeared in the papers the advertise- spindle which protruded from the car. In both cases ments of the European Aëronautical Society. Men the result was only such as was to be anticipatedwere prepared for something wonderful, and they were aërial navigation was not advanced by either. not to be disappointed. In the Victoria Road, London, The ‘Ariel,' the far-famed invention of Mr Hensom, a dock was built, in which the lines of the first aërial is the first modern attempt to construct a machine to fly ship were laid down. The name of this machine was by mechanical powers alone. The idea was first started the 'Eagle.' Borrowing the idea of the fish aërostat, the about five years ago, and the interest and curiosity object of the inventors was to imitate a fish as far as produced will be well remembered. Even the legisla. possible. A vast curiosity was excited by this announce- tive assembly caught the infection, and the House of ment, and for a time the Victoria Road Dock was the Commons passed the bill for the constitution of the attraction of the learned and unlearned, the ignorant Aërial Transit Company. Sober expectations of seeing and the scientific. Time wore on, and the machine, when the Ariel sweep on rapid pinion over the top of St complete, may be thus described :-In order to obtain Paul's were raised in the minds even of thinking men ; the requisite buoyancy, a principal part of the Eagle and wondering crowds went down to Poplar to look at consisted of an immense balloon, in the form of a hori. something which popular report declared to be the real zontal cylinder, terminating in a cone at each end. This machine. The description of it is as follows :-It consisted part of the ship was one hundred and sixty feet long, of a large light frame, 150 feet in length, 30 feet in width, and sixty feet in height. It was of such dimensions as to and containing therefore an area of 4500 square feet. contain, by calculation, 200,000 cubic feet of hydrogen The frame was to be covered with varnished linen or silk. gas; consequently the floating capacity was sufficiently There was also a tail, which, turning on a joint, was to large to admit of the suspension of a long car. The direct the Ariel's flight. In the centre of the frame ingenious projectors, anxious to carry out their type, the car was attached. After the requisite arrangements had contrived a clever apparatus for imitating the air for passengers and the stowage of fuel, came the motive bladder of the fish. It is familiar knowledge that the power. This is said to have contained some remarkably fish is able, by the compression it can exercise over this clever adaptations. It consisted of a light and power. receptacle, either to rise to the surface or to sink itself | ful steam-engine, suspended in the middle of the wings. to the bottom. This idea was developed also in the It drove two sets of vanes, each twenty feet in diameter, Eagle. Along the car ran two iron pipes; these were which were placed at the hinder edge of the wings. The connected with an air, or in this case, a gas pump, which, boiler was equally remarkable. It was formed of fifty by means of a tube entering the balloon, drew out the hollow truncated cones, each one being three feet long, gas from thence, and pumped it into the iron pipes. In and five and a half inches in diameter at the base. so doing, the effect was precisely similar to that produced | These cones were arranged with the blunt ends down. by the fish: the machine became specifically heavier, wards, all round, and above, and below the fire, thus and sank down. To elevate it again, it was only need presenting a surface of fifty square feet to the action of ful to let out some of the compressed gas back into the flames. The steam thus generated was to supply the balloon, when, becoming specifically lighter than two cylinders of twenty - horse combined power, and an equal bulk of air, the Eagle rose. The next step after fulfilling its functions, was to be condensed in a was the propelling machinery. Keeping true to their number of small tubes, which would be kept sufficiently original idea, it was constructed so as to resemble, on a cool by the rapidity of the flight. Water was thus vast scale, the pectoral and ventral fins, and the tail of economised-only twenty gallons of which was said to a fish. There were four pairs of fans, two of which be sufficient for the boiler to work with. The whole were placed on each side of the car. They were made weight of this steam-engine of twenty-horse power was of cane and varnished cotton, by which it was hoped put at the fabulous figure of 600 lbs. The Ariel was the requisite strength and lightness would be secured. to start by first running down an inclined plane, the These fans were moved by a windlass, which was resistance of the air was to carry her off free, and then worked by the crew. Now the Eagle was to be a the vanes were to sustain and to propel her on her really useful invention. It was to make aërial voyages way. The main reliance of the inventor appears to to Paris and back. It was to carry seventeen indi- have been upon the large resisting surface his machine viduals, and to accomplish the journey in six hours! offered to the air in descending. Calculating the load It was not intended to fly at a greater altitude than at 3000 lbs., there was a provision of a square foot and three hundred feet, which would clear all ordinary ob- a half for every pound weight-that is, the area of stacles; and the machine could, on extraordinary occa- resistance was 4500 square feet. Now it is easily ascersions, easily rise by means of its compressed gas. tained that a weight equal to the above, under the most Neither was it intended to brave a storm: if the wind favourable circumstances, has a gravitating tendency were in favour, so much the better ; but if, on the con- equal to thirteen miles an hour, or eighteen feet a second trary, it was right in the Eagle's eye, it was not to be -all that the surface of resistance can do being to recontended with-she was to return, and wait for fair tard the fall. To sustain this weight, falling at this weather. The inventor of this machine is understood rate of speed, the power requisite amounts to at least to have been Count Lennox. In the year previous to that of sixty horses; and even then nothing would be its appearance in London, it is said to have been tried gained over an ordinary balloon, if we except a pretty in Paris ; but that city proving a bad starting-place, it rapid tumble should the engines stop work." Therefore was brought over to wing its way thither from London. / the engines of the Ariel must have been trebled in The Eagle never flew; the scheme proved an utter power before it could even float; while to fly at the rate failure; and the name and day-dreams of the European of fifty or sixty miles an hour, it would be necessary to Aëronautical Society are all that now remains of it. raise their power to that of two or three hundred horses.

The most recent applications of machinery to bal. It need scarcely be added that the Ariel never fulfilled loon propulsion were two small models--the one by those highly-coloured expectations which were enterthe veteran aëronaut' Mr Green, the other by Mrtained of her. A small model was exhibited, which, Monck Mason. In 1840, Mr Green exhibited in the working by clockwork, and sustained at the end of a Polytechnic Institution a small balloon, three feet in balanced arm, certainly flew round; but this was all.

Now, the scheme just put forth by Dedalus Britan- arbitrary government, at first, of some individual who nicus has one merit—that it is a complete novelty, and has risen to this eminence by his talents or determinacan be compared in no respects to its predecessors of tion. Their love of strife can now be gratified only by any kind. Without meaning the smallest unkindness, national wars or occasional revolutions—the only other we cannot compare the representation he has designed bloodshed taking place in form of law, or by the conof it to anything more appropriately than a flying ventional tyranny of the great over the mean. But whale! It is composed of a stout horizontal frame although in this stage greatly advanced beyond saformed of fagots of bamboo, containing within itself a vagism, the original taint in their character is by no long silk balloon tapering to a point at each end. On means eradicated. It assumes, however, a new phasis. each side of the frame are two pairs of boxes, made It expends its vicious energies upon slave-combats and of sheet iron, supplied with movable lids, wliich are fights of animals; and the bloodthirstiness of the people connected with the main rods of four wings. The loses its character of wild courage, becomes allied to wings are to be formed of long and narrow silk planes cowardice and effeminacy, and paves the way for subor feathers, one to be circular in form, twenty feet in jugation, and eventually for a new regime, which is prodiameter, and so connected with the frame by joints bably destined to advance the race another step in moral and springs, as to make the upward movement in an progress. It is proper to observe, however, that civioblique direction, while in the downward action the lisation does not move like a fluid, overflowing a whole whole under surface will be exposed to the resistance of country at a regular level. On the contrary, it leaves the air. On the under surface of the whale-like balloon masses of the people comparatively untouched; and at is to be a car twenty-five feet long; and at one extre- this moment, the cock-fighting of the Malays is somemity a conic shield is to guard the balloon from injury; what more than paralleled by the cowardly brutality of while at the other a rudder or tail, twenty-seven feet the Welsh main of England. long, is to direct its flight. It will be asked, what is the We have been led into this train of thought by a demoving power? The answer will be heard with sur- scription, quoted from a Calcutta paper in the Indian prise: the successive explosions of a mixture of gas and News, of an entertainment recently given by the air in the boxes at the root of the wings, by which means king of Oude to the governor-general, at his majesty's they will be made to flap about twelve times a minute! capital Lucknow. It consisted chiefly of combats of The balloon, says Dedalus Britannicus, is not to be de- animals, which are not only interesting in themselves pended upon for its assistance; it is a mere reservoir for to the natural historian, but present some points to the gas. The explosion is to be effected in the four boxes by moralist well worthy of his attention. the electric spark. The inventor calculates on thus at- The exhibition, which was witnessed by the king and taining a power equal to eighty horses ! The weight is the governor-general, seated on raised tlırones above placed at 2000 lbs. The velocity he prudently declines the other personages, with the mob at a greater distance, to conjecture. "Judging from the analogy of our commenced with an abortive fight between two elephants. model aeronauts' (the birds] 'we may expect a rate of Two little partridges were now made to fight, and with progress almost unknown on earth. Were we to ven- difficulty only separated from a desperate struggle. Two ture an opinion upon the probable success of this ma- neelgas (a kind of antelope) were then set a-fighting, and chine, we fear it would be found at variance with the really never have I seen a more furious encounter. They sanguine expectations of its author.

fought most desperately, and it was a real herculean task To sum up. Willing as we are to welcome the to separate them. You will be surprised to hear the faintest dawn of any invention which will really and in names of the next combatants-a donkey and a hyena. every sense benefit our fellow-men, we must join in the The hyena had a rope tied round its neck, and from desponding conclusions of many fár better able to form each side of this extended another rope held by two a sound decision than ourselves, and say, that not

The hyena rushed on the donkey, who coolly withstanding that probably upon no subject has so turned round and gave his antagonist a kick on the much power of mind been concentrated as upon aëros- head. Not relishing such treatment, the wild beast tation, and that in a period altogether miraculous for few at the poor ass and pulled him over. The its mechanical attainments, the hopes that it will at donkey, however, soon recovered himself, knelt on the any time prove a practicable, or at least a valuable art, hyena in the most cunning manner possible, and appear few and faint indeed. The experience of storm- fastened his teeth in his enemy's shoulder, apparently driven aëronauts might have taught them ere this what grasping it with the greatest satisfaction. I believe the a toy is the most stupendous of their machines in the little fellow, who certainly raised the asinine species tumults of the aërial ocean. And if aërial navigation high in my favour, would have bit off a portion of it, is to be reserved for fair weather and prosperous gales, had not an attendant separated the combatants. I have our position is already proven.

not seen anything more amusing than this fight, and

less harmful in its result. Two terrier dogs next made INDIAN RECREATIONS.

their appearance; a bird was let loose on the water, and

they sent after it. Their part was soon played. Two The love of strife and bloodshed would appear to be an men next commenced their duties. The first comoriginal sin of humanity, which is only subdued by the batant was a man with a large sword, very heavy, with gradual influence of civilisation. In the state of nature,' a large handle. He wielded it about as if he was atas it was formerly called, this savage passion flourishes tacked by a host of enemies, groaned, advanced, rein its greatest energy; and in the wildest and loveliest treated, jumped, and flourished his weapon with fearsolitudes the ocean holds in its embraces, we find the ful rapidity, cut his neck, and eventually cut a melon human inhabitants inspired with the deadliest hatred in slices, as a feat of dexterity. Another succeeded him, against each other—family against family, tribe against who was in his movements as active as anybody could tribe, nation against nation. It would be agreeable to be. From his actions and motions, I inferred that he be able to set this down as the result of circumstances; was imaginatively attacked by a regiment. He cut, but unfortunately the same thing prevails throughout waved his sword, put his shield to every part of his the entire world, in paradises of beauty and plenty, as body, and, to say the least of it, was very well practised Fell as in those ungenial wastes where the shivering and in agility. Two athletic persons then performed some hungry savage murders for a meal.

surprisingly quick movements with weapons like twoIn process of time, when the state of nature proves pronged forks, and displayed the utmost nimbleness in to be no state of nature at all, but merely the im- | all their evolutions. They met, closed, overthrew each Perfect and rudimental condition of beings destined for other, seized each other's hands, loosened them, laid on a loftier rank, a change takes place in the aspect of their backs, and did everything surprisingly well and society—a portion of the warring groups are welded into quick. Two others then fought with each other for one, and form a barbarian state, probably under the about ten minutes, and performed some most admirable


maneuvres; neither, however, received many blows from his ambidextrous antagonist. A man with four

OGIER THE DAN E. swords next came forward, and gave us a specimen of

[BY W. MOY THOMAS.] his activity and nimbleness. He had two swords in

[Ogier the Dane was one of the most favourite heroes of the each hand, the handle of one touching that of the other. ancient Trouvères. Ariosto and other Italian poets have also given The next performer was a man with a bariat (a spear him a place in their poems. The stories that are told of him are with a ball on each end of it), who excelled in agility extended to nearly a century, without impairing the vigour and anything I have ever seen. He held it in the middle, bravery of his character. At last, on returning from the Holy and wielded it like lightning; I really believe it would Land, he is said to have landed by chance on an island belonging to have been impossible to have struck him with a sword. the fay Morgana. That lady, who was a kind of siren, conceiving One man of herculean proportions then displayed feats a strong passion for the ancient warrior, presented him with a

crown of three flowers inwoven, which had the power of impartof dexterity and strength with an immensely thick and ing to the wearer immortal youth, at the same time steeping his heavy club. Men and boys then carried on the sports. delighted senses in forgetfulness. How this charm was at length Elephant fights succeeded; and an encounter between broken is not now necessary to be known. His fabulous adventures two rhinoceroses next amused the spectators. After present, that curious mixture of northern chivalry and Oriental being urged for some time by their keepers, they met, superstition which is easily accounted for in the long connection of

the Moors with Southern Europe.] and made two or three pushes at each other with their horns ; when suddenly one, not liking the contest,

OFTEN the starlight have I seen,

And many suns go up the sky; coolly turned round, and, to my surprise, walked into

And long with thee I must have been, the water and quietly took a bath; the other seeing

Morgana, dreaming pleasantly. which, followed his example. Elephant fights com:

Yet still the triple-flowered crown menced again; two of them fought so furiously, that

I wear, and in the marble font they were only separated with difficulty by men rush

I cannot mark a single frown

Whereby my happy years to count. ing between them with fireworks. There was also some graceful horsemanship exhibited by some men on the

What was I ere I came to thee ? opposite side of the water. One rode backwards and

I know not; but a dream I have

At times of moving on the sea, forwards with great address, fired a gun, and performed

Or fighting with a turbaned slave : admirable feats of dexterity. At eleven o'clock we

Of river-shadowing palm-trees near went to another place, to witness the tiger and buffalo

Great cities all of marble planned, fights. A buffalo, with a little calf, but not its own,

And wells of water cool and clear was the first that appeared on the ground below us.

Wide scattered in a barren land. Two tigers were then let loose upon it. A slight skir

Great crowds of people, too, I've seen, mish between the buffalo and a tiger took place, and an

Who called me Ogier the Dane, other royal Bengal tiger attacked the poor calf, and tore

And hailed me bravest Paladin, it to pieces. The buffalo once slightly struck one of the

That fought for knightly Charlemagne;

And seemed it something like a cry tigers and broke his teeth. The skirmishing continued

That once had stirred my quiet heart, for some time, when master Bruin made his appearance.

But now it passed unheeded by, He was a little fellow, with a great deal of courage;

As pass the summers where thou art. and though he retreated from the charge of the buffalo,

From these high towers of Avalon did not hesitate to attack a tiger, whom he severely

I see the waters every way, wounded. The latter, however, too strong for the poor

And the deep sky looks deeper on bear, seized him in his mouth, pressed his skull, and

The brinming surface of the bay.

Ah! I am safe in Paradise ; bit off the greatest part of the lower jaw. The bear

I know it, for it changeth not: retreated to the middle of the arena, staggered about

I will not fear where nothing dies, for some time, and then fell down; the eyes turned dim,

So bring light myrrh and bergamote : and he was taken motionless into the cage; a rope,

And bring me wine of sunny gold, however, prevented his having fair play. The buffalo,

And ope the silver-hinged door, meanwhile, smarting only from the wound made by the

And let the air blow soft and cold tiger, several times charged towards the tigers, but did

'Mong curtains rustling evermore : not assail them. Four tigers were then let loose, but

And my Morgana, come and sing

No hateful song of cruel wars, only crouched down, and dared not attack the victo

And thou shalt find me listening rious buffalo.'

When all the sky is full of stars. What we would point out as worthy of remark in this detail, is the comparative humanity of the sports,

And pleasant shall it be to take and the obvious change in this respect which has taken

Aside the flowerëd tapestry,

And see on the fresh-water lake place in the national character within no great space of

A circle of the dotted sky. time. In the travels of John Mandelslo we have an

And if the uncompanioned moon account of a dinner given by the native governor of

Come up, we'll watch her all the night, Ahmedabad to his Dutch and English friends, at which

From rising, till her silver noon,

And thence till morning drinks her light. the amusement was nautch dancing, performed by twenty girls. When these had danced themselves out,

So gazing with a dull blue eye, the host sent for another set, who, on refusing to come,

Entranced he listened, while the sun

Went down, and in the farther sky were dragged into the presence, and, as a punishment

A pale star twinkled all alone : for their insolence, beheaded on the spot before the

Then sad and weary was the gloom European guests! These were the Indian recreations

That spread upon the quiet sea, at the comparatively recent date when the English first

And still more sad and wearisome

Her low and thoughtful melody. appeared upon the scene. We have only further to remark, that the animal

And from the dull and lowly mood fights of the king of Oude, while betraying the low

These things within his spirit wrought,

He spake of how the fair and good status which the people hold as a community, are in

To evil suddenly are brought. comparably more humane than the amusements of a

Meanwhile deep thoughts enfilmed his eye, portion of the English people.

And felt they like a dreary spell,
The shadow of the misery

That on the morrow there befell.
Such is the extent to which vineyards liave been planted Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also
in New South Wales, that a single landowner, Mr M'Arthur,

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORR, has made in one year 17,000 gallons of wine, some of which,

147 Strand, London ; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, when bottled, has been sold for 20s. a dozen at Sydney, Dublin.--Printed by W. and R. CHANBERS, Edinburgh.

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