« ZurückWeiter »
that I will well and truly serve our Sovereign Lord the the utility and interest of the little volume which has King (Queen) in the office of special constable for the afforded most of the materials for this sketch ; but we parish (or township) of without favour or affection, can say besides, that, independently of the information malice or ill-will; and that I will, to the best of my it affords, it is written with great tact, and even taste ; power, cause the peace to be kept and preserved, and pre- and although professionally careful in its references vent all offences against the persons and properties of his and other details, is perfectly well adapted for popular majesty's subjects; and that while I continue to hold perusal. the said office, I will, to the best of my skill and knowledge, discharge all the duties thereof faithfully according
to law-So help me God.' The persons summoned HOSPITAL FOR INFANT CRÉTINS. to take this oath must obey, under a penalty not ex. The unfortunate beings whose destiny forms the subject ceeding L.5. We have no room to describe the rights of this memoir are well known to travellers in Switzerand duties of special constables, but they are identical land, whose enjoyment of the beauties of that glorious with those of common law constables. They receive no salaries, but may be ordered allowances out of the country has often been clouded by the sight of what has
hitherto been considered as incurable suffering. The becounty rate. "Such,' says Mr Wise, in concluding the nevolent have sighed over their degradation, the political chapter he has devoted to them, are the provisions economist has calculated the dead weight that they must made by law for the preservation of peace and order by the civic guard, as they may be termed—a guard in- prove on so poor a population, and the Christian has
mourned over immortal souls enveloped, as it were, in a cluding within it all classes, binding all with equal chrysalis, which will open only when the cerements of the rights, imposing upon all equal duties, because all have tomb shall burst. the deepest interest in protecting each other. So will
They have existed for centuries-indeed no one in the they best protect themselves, and hand down that freedom to their posterity which their ancestors have accountry knows the time when there were no crétins in quired, of which the imperfection can be corrected by the land; they have existed as an unavoidable evil, and
no means had hitherto been sought to turn away so great earnest inquiry and manly energy, but not by wild vio- an affliction or modify its intensity, till one of those lence, nor by each class seeking to attribute all their noble and unselfish characters which the world sees from own difficulties to the faults of others, and not caring to time to time stand forth from the crowd, rose up to help think how far they may have been the architects of them, giving his powers of mind and energies of heart to their own misfortunes.'
the subject, and devoting himself entirely to the cure or The rights and duties of the military in cases of riot amelioration of infant crétins. appear to be very generally misapprehended. • The soldier,' says a high authority, is still a citizen, lying benevolent Dr Guggenbühl founded his asylum on the
It is now seven years since the simple-hearted and under the same obligation, and invested with the same
heights of the Abendberg, a spot which poets and painters authority to preserve the peace of the king as any other might choose as the scene of their reveries, and which is subject. If the one is bound to attend the call of the singularly well calculated to supply the wants of its in- ! civil magistrate, so also is the soldier ; if the one may mates for their physical and intellectual development. interfere for that purpose when the occasion demands A purer air cannot exist, nor a scene of more exqui. it, without the requisition of the magistrate, so may the site beauty. It is an open space three thousand five other too; if the one may employ arms for that purpose, hundred feet above the level of the sea, between the lakes where arms are necessary, the soldier may do the same.'
of Thun and Brientz, and overhanging the towns of InThe military, in fact, are called out simply as that class terlacken and Unterseen; below, the mountain is thickly of citizens whose services are likely to prove most covered by a fine forest, and opposite rises the giant form efficient.
of the glorious Jungfrau, a sovereign among the mighty With the magistrate of course rests the most impor- | Alps. The buildings which form the hospice are ex: tant duty of all; for in addition to his own powers as an tremely modest, but convenient; and on that height is individual, he has authority over all other individuals. to be found nearly all the necessaries of daily life. The He may either give firearms to those who assist him, produce of the kitchen-garden is, in general, very abun, or summon the assistance and advice of the military. dant; and Indian corn, and even other corn, grow well He reads the Riot Act. But it is no part of his duty to there. The inmates bake their own bread, and sometimes marshal and lead the constables, or ride with the mili- kill their own meat. Poultry and goats complete their tary. It is his province, in short, to give orders, not to stock. assist personally in their execution.
Almost always the winter, which is severe in the ralIn conclusion, we have only to advert to the recourse ley, passes gently over the heights. Two unfailing springs which individuals who suffer in their property from a of water supply them amply with baths, as well as what riot, have against the community of the district to which is wanted for household use. they belong. In order to establish this recourse, the building or other fixed property must have been either coveries inspire genius, and the patience and affection
In this retirement, with all the ardour with which disentirely destroyed, or rendered unfit for its customary with which the love of his fellow-creatures has filled his use, or at least it must have been the intent of the rioters heart, the young and scientific physician we have named so to demolish it. The damages recoverable are the has resolved on spending his life, surrounded by objects value of the house, or other property, and also of the for the greater part of a disgusting nature, and without fixtures, furniture, or goods that may have been de companions of like education with himself, except in the stroyed at the same time. The object of this,' to use valley below. Before this living example of Christian the words of Lord Chief-Justice Denman, 'is to make love we bow with feelings of unmixed veneration ; for it the interest of all the inhabitants of a district to when he began his work, there were no admiring crowds exert themselves in the timely suppression of riotous to fan enthusiasm ; there was everything to fear from assemblies, and in the prevention of the serious loss that want of funds; and little co-operation to hope for from such assemblies may cause to the particular individuals the medical practitioners of the country. There were who are the first victims of their lawless outrage ; and deep-rooted prejudices to overcome : money never is not to stand quietly by, either through fear or indiffer- abundant in Switzerland, and one canton' takes but ence, while the property of a neighbour is destroyed, little interest in the institutions of another. and the rioters acquire that increase of strength which
Once inspired with this generous determination, and always accompanies unrestrained violence, until the evil prompted by scientific knowledge, Dr Guggenbühl gare extends itself, and in the end falls upon the heads of himself up to the study of the probable causes of this those by whose forbearance the strength and power of mysterious disorder, and of the probable means of curing mischief were permitted to increase.'
it. For this, he availed himself of the researches and There are few of our readers who will not perceive opinions of others, and also of what is always a sure guide
-the hereditary wisdom of the inhabitants of those places gymnastic exercises through the winter, whereas before, where crétinism is most prevalent.
they could only be performed in the open air. He has He found that from the celebrated De Saussure, down also added two or three rooms in the new building, which to the living physicians of Switzerland, all agreed that can be occupied by parents of the children, who may wish the disorder never showed itself above the height of four to remain with them for a longer or a shorter time ; for thousand feet on the mountains; and that children at- amongst the sick, whom Dr Guggenbühl's rising reputatacked by it, and immediately carried up into a purer tion has brought to the Abendberg, are some of high rank, and keener air, were sure to recover, and even to be more who, though not precisely crétins, were yet of that class lively and forwarder on returning again into the valleys, of patients in whom the brain appears not to hare been at the approach of winter, than the other children of those properly developed, and to these he has been of very great parts; but also, they easily fall back again into the same When we visited him in 1846, and fully enjoyed state as before, and require more than one summer spent the sight of so much natural and moral beauty, we saw upon the heights to free them entirely from all symptoms two titled little girls who had been taken to him from of the disorder.
Germany, to die, as it was thought, but who have, on the He found also that those who were rich enough sent contrary, lived and prospered under his roof. their offspring away while infants to healthier spots; and Of the number of children hitherto admitted, onethat the inhabitants of Sion, in the Valais, who possess third have been sent back to their families quite cured, mayens, or pastures, and chalets on the heights, send others more or less ameliorated, and some few have died. their wives up to them to be delivered there, with the In general, Dr Guggenbühl complains that they are not conviction that the infants so born are freer from attacks left long enough, and assures that a long space of time of crétinism than those born in the valleys. All these and continued care are absolutely necessary to insure undoubted facts led him to found his establishment at perfect success; not less, he reckons, than three years in the height so indicated, and in the healthiest spot pos- general. Some have appeared to baffle every effort, their sible, where the little crétins can spend the winter as well bodies presenting an ensemble of deformity, their tongues as the summer in comfort, and be not only under the obtruding from their mouths, their heads hanging down, care of nurses and physicians, but also under that of their skin wrinkled like a person of eighty, their limbs schoolmasters and mistresses, and so receive bodily care dwindled to nothing, their bodies enormous, and neither and intellectual instruction at the same time.
sign of intelligence nor any articulate sound to be drawn He began in the spirit of Franke, whose example he so from them. Even these, by his kind and judicious treatoften alludes to; and relying on the fulness of Christian ment, by unwearying care, by baths, by aromatic frictions, benevolence to realise what he felt sure of executing, by electricity, by goats' milk, by exposure to the air and were the means obtained. His difficulties were great, sun, by every means of infant development, playing, and the sympathy he met with at first amongst his own talking, laughing, by lessons with pictures, and by singcountrymen next to nothing; but we cannot but gard | ing-even these hare quired the use of their limbs, the the neighbourhood of Interlacken, which in summer is power of speech, the faculty of learning, and have, after filled with tourists from every country, as a most provi- a long stay on the Abendberg, been sent back as well as, dential circumstance for the success of the rising hos- and even more forward in most branches of instruction, pital.
than the generality of children of their age. Their proThe first news that we received of its existence was from gress is never uniform or regular, but always by fits and the graphic pen of one of the daughters of the Russian starts, and all at once, as if a cell were opened in their ambassador, the Baron de Krudener, then at Interlacken, brain, or a veil withdrawn from their understanding, and who had accompanied the Princess Rephin on a visit to that, too, when least expected. Parents and schoolmasters it, and who described its very infancy with enthusiasm. might learn many a useful lesson on that alpine height, Some time after, the king of Wurtemberg, while resident and find data which would save more than one dunce at Interlacken, inspected it himself, and gave substantial from the rod, and teach the master that he is far more marks of his interest; and the scientific of all countries, to blame than the scholar. as well as the philanthropic and the curious, who visit His great principle is to strengthen the body before he the Bernese Oberland, have spread a knowledge of its attempts to develop the mind. He even goes so far as foundation throughout the continent more rapidly than to say, that to venture on the second before the first is otherwise could ever have been hoped for.
accomplished, is productive of the most disastrous conseNevertheless, ill-natured doubts were thrown on the quences; and were his warning voice but listened to, how facts which Dr Guggenbühl published, and ridicule even many victims of precocity, how many little wonders, who was not wanting to dishearten and distress him. Some minister to parental self-love for a time, and then sink generous-minded persons were, however, to be found who into mediocrity afterwards, might be saved from subseheld out a helping hand, and assisted him to put his be- quent suffering and nervous irritability! nevolent designs in execution.
Dr Guggenbühl divides crétinism into several different As soon as the establishment was opened, the govern- species :- 1st, Atrophy, in which the spinal marrow has ment of Berne granted it a sum of six hundred livres; suffered mostly, and the extremities are nearly paralysed: and those of Fribourg, the Valais, and St Gall, sent crétin 2d, Raehitie, where the bones have become soft and spongy, children to be maintained there at their expense. The and out of proportion: 3d, Hydrocephalie; the disorder king of Prussia likewise took notice of it, and ordered being occasioned by water formed in the cells of the skull, two children to be placed there from the principality of which ought to be occupied by the brain : 4th, Inborn, of Neufchatel; the Countess of Hahn Hahn, who had taken which the germ is in the infant at its birth, and which her daughter to the Abendberg, in the rain hope of effect- presents any or all of the foregoing principles, and varies ing her cure (but her age, sixteen, rendered it impos- | in intensity, from the slightly affected, down to the mass sible), with a most natural sympathy for others similarly of animal matter which lies where it is placed, and can afflicted, requested that a Valaigan child should be always neither move nor speak. In this class are to be remarked maintained there at her expense, to be called her child, those who have imperfect bodily growth, and the head one succeeding the other when cured, and for which she out of proportion to the body; and also those who do not gave the necessary funds.
speak, yet are not deaf, but who have great difficulty in Associations began then to be formed in many of articulating, and are too lazy to attempt it. the capitals of Europe, beginning with Hamburg, Am- We might give some striking extracts from the German sterdam, &c.; and finally, Dr Troxler, professor at report published by Dr Guggenbühl in 1846, illustrative Berne, gave the establishment the sanction of his power- of each of these forms of crétinism; but perhaps the
Subscriptions were made which have en- following case of the first-mentioned form of crétinism abled Dr Guggenbühl to extend his operations wider (atrophy) will be considered sufficient in a non-profesthan he possibly could have done ; and last year he sional journal like this: ventured to add a second building to the original one, ‘L-, a little girl of six months old, was brought to that the children might be enabled to continue their us. Her mother is strong and healthy, but her father
weak and scrofulous. Till she was four months old she but which the oftenest shows itself in the first few weeks, was in good health, but weaker than children of that age or months, or years of its existence: seldom or ever after generally. A violent cold was the beginning of her ill- the age of seven years; and if met by a change of air ness; and when brought to our house, her appearance was and diet, by strengthening and exciting remedies, by so wretched, as to procure her the name of the little worm, action on the nerves, the bones, and the muscles, can be from the Princess-Royal Henrietta of Wurtemberg, during stopped short, and finally cured if taken in time after her visit to us; and truly was she so named, for she was the moment when it first manifests itself, and if the frightful to look upo Her body was more like a skeleton treatment is continued long enough ; and which can covered with skin than anything else, and that skin was almost always be modified : thus differing entirely from cold and wrinkled. All her muscles were immovable, idiocy, which is incurable and unmodifiable. Crétins at and the extremities of her body like miniature hands and the highest point of the disorder never live longer than feet. Her face was deadly white, her forehead and cheeks twenty-five years, and pass, as it were, at once from childwrinkled like an old person's, while her black and pierc- hood to old age in their appearance. ing eyes had a singularly knowing look. She slept ill, They are, even in that extreme state of disgusting her pulse was feeble, and she had no natural heat. She helplessness, the objects of tenderness and superstitious came to us in July; the weather was beautiful, and the reverence in their families ; according to the beneficent keenness of our mountain air, the uninterrupted sunshine dispensations of a merciful God, who never permits a of our unclouded sky, the electricity which predominates want in the human race without implanting a feeling in the atmosphere, all which have so great an influence in the human heart which is to lead men to minister on our invalids, were furthered by strict regimen and unto it. Their heads are almost invariably larger than constant care. This delicate little creature, who so soon those of other men, and offer some singular and defective after her birth had began to lose all resemblance to a forms, through which one feature runs without excep human being, and that so rapidly, now made as rapid tion-the depression of the forehead. Unfortunately, strides towards recovery. In three months' time the those prejudices which exist everywhere amongst the deformities of her person began to disappear, her skin poor, have hitherto greatly hindered all anatomical rerecovered its natural warmth, the wrinkles vanished, and searches in crétins, and rendered the study of the causes her face grew young again, with the hue and the charm of crétinism so vague and unsatisfactory. of infancy; and at the same time her smile, and the We will now turn to the remedies which Dr Guggen. manner in which she took notice of those around her, bühl has employed with the greatest success, and which showed that the faculties of her mind were awakening he recommends to the notice and use of the scientific also. In the space of twelve months, she had lost the world. appearance of a little doll, and had regained that of
They are, in general, the same, with little variation; children of her own age-proof sufficient of the efficacy and consist in electric shocks on the head and on the of proper treatment begun without loss of time, and of feet, given during sleep or in the bath, where generally the disorder being more efficaciously treated in earliest the little patients pronounce their first distinct words; infancy than at a later period. It is now eighteen of aromatic frictions on the back, with baths of the same; months since she left us, and we have had the happiness of preparations of steel, bark; of the waters of Wiedegg, of learning from the Pastor Bitzius of Lutzelfück, so which are in the neighbourhood ; of cod - liver oil; of well known as a popular writer, in whose parish she is, iodine; of juglam regia; of a diet composed of goats' that she continues in perfect health, and can talk and milk, which is peculiarly aromatic on the mountains; of express herself well.'
meat, some few vegetables, with the entire exclusion of Dr Guggenbühl makes a wide distinction between potatoes; but above all, and the most important, is concrétinism and idiotism, and after illustrating his ideas tinual exposure to the air and sunshine-those who can. on the subject by the description of two brothers who not walk being laid out on the grass to inhale the wholeare in his institution—the one crétin, the other idiot, some breezes of that high, pure air;* cold baths they he proceeds thus :
cannot bear. Gymnastic exercises, which require the Crétinism shows itself sometimes in the physical daily use of every muscle, are also very important, and development, and sometimes in the intellectual, and excite the children to emulation in their feats; whilst sometimes in both, and to about the same degree. It is the exercise of the faculties of the mind are equally always accompanied by some great defect in the consti- carried on in mental gymnastics, according to the powers tution ; while the intellect is, nevertheless, capable of of each little scholar. Music has been found to be a being acted upon.
powerful aid, soothing, interesting, and refining; and we • Idiotism, on the contrary, is often found in a beau- can bear witness ourselves to the thrilling effect of the tiful, well-proportioned body. It is occasioned, without voices of the happy little group, who sang to us in their any exception, by a fault in the formation of the brain- infantine manner the praises of their God. Few persons, sometimes too large-or an organisation of it which ex- we think, could have restrained their tears while listencludes the possibility of any but a very slight degree of ing to that infant choir, and reflecting that but for the cultivation.
Christian love which has watched over them, their voices • Anatomical researches on the bodies of crétins have might still have uttered nothing but groans, and their shown that the seat of the disorder is almost always in souls remained ignorant of God their Maker. the brain. Sometimes its substance differs from that of Let us now turn to the difficult question—what are the healthy subjects by being too hard or too little, some- causes of crétinism; and set forth the various suppositimes it is watery, and sometimes its fibres are flat and tions which have been given down to the present day, small, as in animals. Yet a cause still hidden from us, From all the observations made by Dr Guggenbühl either before or after birth, hinders the proper develop himself, and collected by him from others, from those ment of the brain and of the spinal marrow, both so also published by the different societies which have exaessentially necessary to the growth and the progress of mined into it, there seems to remain no doubt that it the child.
arises from local causes affecting the state of the atmo* Crétinism is also closely allied to scrofula : the symp- sphere in which the children are born or live. That it toms of the latter being often, if not always, found in is necessarily hereditary, does not appear; for children of crétins, and the same remedies being generally good for parents half crétin, or with some signs of the disease
, both. (Goitres, also, often accompany or precede it, and often escape ; whereas very lively and healthy persons are sometimes enormous in old crétins.) Scrofula is often have crétin children, when living in a close, steamy frequent in the valleys, very fatal, and its effects dread- air, in valleys where there is not a thorough renewing of ful, even where it does not kill.'
Such, then, is crétinism—a disorder which is sometimes * Messrs Schublu and Buzzorini have shown by their experibrought into the world by the unfortunate child at its
ments that the human lungs absorb in the mountain air a much birth, and which in that case has a stronger hold over
greater quantity of oxygen than in the plain; for which reason the constitution than when it attacks it at a later period; I the nourishment given to the body more abundant.
the nervous system is more active, animal heat is stronger, and
the air, or where stagnant vapours remain on the sides of It is now time to close our humble tribute to the the hills, by the waters coming down from the heights, beauty and the importance of Dr Guggenbühl's bold unand being held in by a ledge of rocks or a belt of trees. dertaking in a medical, a scientific, a philanthropic, a We must add also the want of cleanliness and fresh air political, and, above all, in a Christian point of view; in the habitations, which are but too often devoid of a and we can fearlessly call on all those in our own happy suficient number of windows, and which are generally | land, where crétinism and goïtres are unknown, to whom omamented in front by a large dunghill, surrounded by the present and future welfare of mankind is dear, to a pool of infectious water, from which emanations exhale come forward with the abundant riches with which proswhich must necessarily form a part of the atmosphere of perity and commerce have blessed us, so different from the interior of the dwellings. Want of cleanliness in the scanty resources of poor revolutionised Switzerland, their persons also—the use of fresh water being no part and help one of the noblest and the most unselfish enterof their education; and lastly, the miserable food that prises that the age can boast of. the peasants in general live upon, consisting of salt meat Let not his confidence in the sympathy and the assistat times, black bread, hard cheese, and potatoes.
ance of the wise and the good of every country be disapWhat seems to justify this theory is, that along pointed, but let those who are unscathed by such afilicwith the advancement of civilisation (the consequence of tions build here an altar of thanksgiving to God !* long peace), of much travelling, of money flowing into places which formerly were never visited by strangers ;
THE PAINTER OF CORK. in consequence also of the progress made in comfort in the houses, of cleanliness in particular (partially intro- In a carpenter's workshop adjoining a small house duced), of drainage, of better roads, &c. it is certain that situated in a suburb of the city of Cork, a lad of fourthe very most disgusting form of crétinism has nearly teen was standing one day about sixty years ago. He disappeared. Those unfortunate beings, who could nei- was tall for his age, and slightly made, with handsome ther move, speak, nor show any sign of humanity, except features and bright quick-glancing eyes, that seemed to its most degraded form, are scarcely now to be met with. turn in scorn from the instruments of homely industry Such were those frightful objects which the French sol- that surrounded him, and to fix with a gaze of longing diers fired at on their first entrance into Switzerland, not love on the waving branches of a fine old elm-tree, that from cruelty, but from the horror with which they in- chequered with their greenness the laughing blue of a spired them. The inhabitants have also at the same summer sky. He stood lost in contemplation, till his time become more active, laborious, and sober by their reverie was broken by a rough voice behind him. intercourse with other countries;* and the great facilities * What, Nat! idling as usual, and staring out of the of land and water carriage have introduced the produce window instead of finishing the table for Mr Wilson. of the colonies, and substituted a much more wholesome You know it must go home to-morrow, and it is not species of food than the indigestible cheeses, curds, salt half made.' pork, and greasy bacon, which before constituted their
The boy sighed deeply, and without replying, took up only nourishment.
a piece of wood and a chisel which were lying upon the Formerly, also, crétins but a step removed from the ground, and walked slowly towards the working bench. state we have described were unfortunately permitted by The person who addressed him was his father, an the authorities to intermarry, and thus became the parents honest, hard-working mechanic, who, after watching of wretches yet more unhappy than themselves. Now, for a while his son's listless resumption of his task, marriages amongst near relations, especially where there sighed in his turn, and said — Well, Nat, if you don't is any tendency to disorder, are much discouraged, as wear out many tools by hard work, at least you don't being fatal to the health of their children. We may spare the chalk. I'm afraid all the furniture you have therefore hope that, if no great pressure of misery should made, or ever will make, wont pay me for all the lumps fall on the inhabitants of the Alpine valleys, every suc- of it you use in scrawling on the walls and timber. ceeding year may bring amongst them some of those You're now no longer a child; and tell me, in the name habits which are the best preventatives of scrofula, goître, of common sense, how do you ever expect to earn a liveand crétinism.
lihood by wasting your time in such folly ?' The boy But to return to the history of the Abendberg. There cast a mournful glance round the walls of the workshop, have been founded two other hospices in imitation of it which were flourished over with designs of figures and -the one in Wurtemberg, by a few Christian friends landscapes. Though drawn with common chalk on the associated together, and which is placed under the di- stained plaster, they displayed a freedom of touch and rection of Mr Rösch; the other in Saxony, formed by beauty of expression quite marvellous for an artist so the unwearied efforts of Dr Carus, physician to the king. young and so untaught. Every picturesque form of In Austria, researches are making, under the superin- inanimate nature or grotesque living figure that met tendence of the Baron de Funchtersleben, but no estab- the eye of Nathaniel Grogan, was immediately trea: lishment has yet been made; and through the mountains sured in his mind, and his hand proceeded to trace it of Caucasus inquiries are going on by the great Russian visibly with the sole rude materials within his reach, oculist, Piragoff, whose name is so well known to science. impelled by an impulse of genius as irresistible as that The king of Sardinia also has taken up the subject which filled the birks and braes of Scotland with the with royal munificence, and ordered an investigation of untutored and undying melodies of Burns. The youth every parish throughout his dominions, which has been
we speak of is still remembered in his native land as now at work for many months, and the report of which is
an artist of no common order. Many exquisite engravexpected to be published speedily. Dr Guggenbühl's second report, as yet only published Had he lived under more favourable circumstances,
ings and original paintings remain to attest his skill. in German, is accompanied by a very large number of he might have achieved a European reputation; as it letters of affection and encouragement, addressed to him from all parts of the continent by men of science, learn- is, we are still proud to class him among the gifted ing, philanthropy, and Christian principle, many of whom artists whom our city has produced. Some passages in have visited the Abendberg, and give their witness to its his life deserve to be noticed, and with these we will success. They are in some instances accompanied by the
proceed. diplomas of different learned societies.
The boy loved his parents, and yet he was thoroughly unhappy: he felt wild longings and aspirations that
carried his thoughts far beyond his father's workshop, * It is a fact that since the opening of the route into Italy by the Simplon, the number of such wretched beings has much diminished
even while he was chained to unsuitable labour. He all through the Valais. Only since then the banking up of the
was wont to despatch his daily task as speedily as posRhone has taken place, and is still prosecuted by the authorities of the canton, by which the marshes, which formerly were under * A large number of the children admitted are very poor, water on each side of the river, are drained, and formed into a many pay nothing; the benevolence of the founder preventing his fertile and salubrious country.
turning them away from his door.
sible, and then, with a few rude materials which he in the foreground, but his face was not seen; for it possessed, pursue his darling studies. One fine summer rested on his mother's shoulder, in whose arms he was evening he was sent by his father on an errand, which locked, and whose meek countenance of wo was porled him for some distance along the river banks. The trayed with matchless fidelity. With clasped hands varied loveliness of the scene filled the boy's ardent and parted lips the old man gazed; he did not speak mind with rapture, while the peaceful calm of sunset or stir till Mr who had entered the room unpertended to soothe the repining emotions which were ceived, touched his arm and said, • Does that picture, ever ready to arise when he thought of his humble Grogan, remind you of any one?' lot. He had long contemplated leaving home, and Oh, sir, my boy--my boy! It was all he could say. pushing his fortune in a foreign land: the thought His chest heaved, and tears, such as poverty and sickrecurred now as he watched his own bright Lee gliding ness failed to draw, streamed down his cheeks. A sideon towards the ocean. But how could he leave his door opened, and a man rushed in. Who would have parents?— how tell them that he must forsake the recognised the slight pale-faced stripling in that tall humble occupation to which they had destined him ? An handsome figure? But the father knew the soft-toned opportunity offered sooner than he had expected. An voice that now, with touching gentleness, besought his ! American vessel was in the harbour, and the captain, pardon; and the father felt the quick bright glance of who was ready to sail for New York, wanted some addi- that eye meeting his, whose beams he had mourned as tional hands. He happened this evening to be taking for ever quenched. It was indeed his long-lost son, a stroll by the river side, and remarked young Grogan returned to comfort him and his wife in their old age. gazing wistfully on the waters.
Since we lost sight of Nathaniel Grogan he had " Holla! youngster,' cried he ; 'would you like to take passed through many vicissitudes. He had experienced a trip across the Atlantic this fine weather?'
in the new world all the varied chances of a wandering The youth started, and looked up. We do not know life, and suffered many and bitter privations, so that what reply he made, but it certainly was not in the often, in utter weariness of spirit and hopelessness of negative, for before two days had passed, Nathaniel heart, he felt almost ready to lie down and die. How Grogan was shipped on board the Ajax; and his weep- did he mourn over the wayward temperament which ing parents, after giving him their parting embrace and led him to forsake his parents and his country: yet he blessing, watched with anguish the swelling sails that shrank from returning to them a penniless outcast. He bore away their only boy.
vowed to himself that he would achieve honour and Ten years passed on, and the Grogans heard nothing competence ere he again trod the green fields of Erin. of their absent son ; they believed him to be dead, and That vow, through his own persevering endeavours, mourned for him as only parents can mourn ; but woes and the disinterested kindness of some rich country. of another kind came on them. The father one day, in men whom he met in America, he was enabled to keep. cleaving a piece of timber, cut his hand severely; he Having realised some money by the sale of pictures in did not at first attend to it properly, and the pain and the United States, he came over to his native city, inflammation in a few days became so great that a fever recommended to the kind and powerful patronage of ensued, and his life was in danger. After a long illness, Mr During the voyage, the vessel was for some he began slowly to recover, but continued for some time time becalmed, and Grogan occupied the tedious hours unable to work. All his savings were expended, and he in committing to canvas that parting scene, which the found himself and his wife reduced to the utmost po lapse of years had failed to efface from his memory. verty. Sometimes the poor invalid, when eating his Like the patriarch of old, his heart was bursting with scanty meal of potatoes, so ill suited to restore his the question, ‘Doth my father yet live?' and, like him, wasted strength, would say, with tears in his eyes, when the sight of that father once more gladdened his * Ah, if our poor Nat could only have contented him- eyes, ' he fell upon his neck and kissed him;' and then self at home, what a help and comfort he might be to • he nourished his father and his father's house with us now!' Then his wife would turn her weeping eyes bread.' towards a landscape hanging on the wall, which her son The subsequent career of Nathaniel Grogan was had placed there the day before he sailed, and say, respectable and tolerably prosperous. He taught draw. "God is good, James ; let us try and be resigned to His ing with success for many years in his native city, holy will
where, however, his talent failed to be appreciated as One day when Grogan was nearly recovered, he was fully as it deserved. Some of his paintings still adora sent for by a rich and benevolent gentleman residing in the collections of the gentry in the south of Ireland. the neighbourhood to execute some trifling jobs in his house. The carpenter's clothes were so old and worn, that he felt almost ashamed to present himself at the
FLYING MACHINES. door of a handsome dwelling. His employer, however, If the desire to fly conveyed the presumption that man received him most kindly, and ordered refreshments for was ever destined for its enjoyment, it can only be said him before he proceeded to work. After the poor man to be very lamentable that this long-deferred faculty had partaken of a hearty repast, Mr ---- called him, | has yet to be realised. But that it is the fascinating and said, 'I want to bespeak some deal tables and chairs occupation of some ingenious minds to draw plans and from you, Grogan; but first come into the drawing- devise machines for this end, the press has never long room-one of the window frames is strained, and I want suffered us to doubt. A modest, and, for a marvel, to have it settled.' The carpenter of course obeyed, and a sober-minded little book, by one taking the name of taking off his shoes at the threshold, entered a more Dædalus Britannicus,* is one of the most recent of such splendid apartment than he had ever seen before. records, and has, by its appearance, suggested the cur
Wait there for a moment,' said Mr ‘I will sory consideration we propose to bestow upon this subcome directly, and show you what to do.'
ject. We conceive, however, that there is a legitimate Left alone in the drawing.room, Grogan had leisure distinction to be recognised between the arts of Nying to look about him. At first he felt bewildered by the and floating in the air. The distinction is such as presplendour of the furniture and richness of the hangings vails between a rudderless, oarless, sailless boat, at the that surrounded him. He also remarked several paint. mercy of the billow on which it reposes, and a steamer ings; but one in particular arrested his attention. It full of volimotory powers. So here, ballooning-that was placed leaning against the wall an excellent light, is, being hauled up a certain distance into the sky, and and the old man started when he gazed at it. There let down again wherever the wind wills --- and aerial he saw his own likeness standing in his workshop, navigation are very dissimilar things, The one we everything in it drawn with the utmost fidelity, as it have attained to; but it is, to say the least of it, a appeared on the well-remembered evening when he bade his son farewell. The figure of the boy appeared | * Aerial Navigation. By Dædalus Britannicus. Sherwood. 1819.