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Fouché and Fontanes turned upon each other a be- regularly drilled, and ready to act, when called upon, wildered look. Boïste was set at liberty ; but it cost either as a police force to suppress internal tumults, or him the expense of the sheets that replaced the sedi
as an army to defend the country from attack. The tious page through the whole edition. And Boïste thought himself happy to get off so cheaply, now that
men to receive a small annual stipend, and in addition he began to perceive that his tribute to the Emperor's to be paid for their time when on duty; also to have a coinage was considered so equivocal a compliment. claim to an annuity when sixty years of age, if they
have spent twenty in the service. In the selection of
'the men, great regard to be had to the moral character ECONOMICAL NATIONAL FORCE.
of the applicant, and to his being strictly sober; and, Mr FREDERICK HILL, inspector of prisons, has pub- other things equal, a preference to be given to those lished a small pamphlet, addressed to the question of who possess some amount of property. Indeed it is so national defence.* He treats the subject with that prac. important that the members of the force should in tical sense and regard for the economical and moral good general be owners either of a house, a piece of land, a of the country which presided over the post-office reform stock of furniture, money in a bank, shares in a public of his distinguished brother. While regarding the late company, or some other kind of property, so that they outcry about national defence as uncalled for, and per- may have a strong interest in the preservation of order haps dangerous, we may go so far as to admit that, in the ---that if the proposed remuneration (together with the event of any need for additional force being experienced, other inducements which are likely to exist) be not Mr Hill's plan will be entitled to respectful consideration. found sufficient to cause persons of this class to enter More than this, a force such as he proposes might be the force, it would be advisable to increase it.' Parade substituted with advantage for a certain amount of the and drill at stated times, but so as to interfere as little present standing army.
as possible with the ordinary avocations of the men ; Mr Hill remarks very justly, that many circumstances every member to be obliged to reside within a certain tend to keep an army in a comparatively low moral con- distance of his place of muster, but to be enabled to dition, and thereby to act injuriously upon public morals. exchange from one division of the force to another when The early removal from parental influence—the reck- the interests of his trade or calling render it necessary. lessness frequently induced by the feeling that, in a Mr Hill roughly estimates the annual expense of this moment of anger or partial intoxication, an engagement force at L.900,000; and remarks that if the new force has been entered into fatal to the person's happiness, were found to justify a reduction of the army by 25,000 and which it is impossible to shake off-the forced asso- or 30,000 men, it would produce a saving. ciation with the rude, the violent, and the vicious—the • Without stopping,' says Mr Hill, 'to inquire whether idleness of the barrack life, with its temptations to men selected on the proposed plan could not, if it were drinking and gambling, alternating with the mad ex- | thought important, be readily made to equal ordinary citement, great bodily fatigue, and exposure to cold, soldiers, even in the minutest detail—without examinhunger, and sickness, attendant on most kinds of war. ing this point, it must be remarked that again and again fare—the thirst for plunder, excited by the opportunities has the proud general of a well-disciplined army found for military license, and the practice of giving prize himself wofully mistaken, and compelled to yield to men money—the improvidence arising from the irregular who, though less erect in their bearing, were animated gains of a soldier, and the constant feeling of the great by a high moral feeling, a strong love of country, and uncertainty of his life-the habits of licentiousness caused a determination to defend their homes and liberties. by the difficulties in entering into the marriage state-Witness the disgraceful defeat of the Austrian and and the little regard for character generally felt by those Burgundian armies in the war which gave Switzerland who are for ever moving from place to place-these, her freedom, and in which the power of infantry was and other causes, must act with baneful effect on the first taught to the well-trained and iron-clad warriors moral character of the soldiers themselves, and, through of Europe by a few mountain herdsmen. Witness also them, on the people generally.'
the defeat of the chivalry of the first two Edwards in After illustrating this position by a variety of facts, their attack on Scotland, ending in their utter rout at Mr Hill goes on to discommend the raising of a soldiery the glorious battle of Bannockburn. Witness again the by conscription, as unjust to classes and individuals, and disgraceful defeat of our troops in the American war; an absurdity in itself, in as far as it disregards the and the discomfiture of the Austrian and Prussian special qualities requisite for the vocation of a soldier. troops in their unjustifiable attack on France in the He then asks if a body could not be formed 'consisting early period of the French Revolution, and before France of men prepared by nature for warlike encounter, and had exhausted herself and weakened the attachment of trained by art to military service ?— ready to resist her people by her atrocious invasion of other states, aggression of all kinds, whether of domestic or of foreign and her fearful conscriptions. Look also at the noble enemies, and yet with the interests and feelings of citi- struggle of Toussaint L'Ouverture and his negro assozens and yeomen ?-of men with homes, families, and ciates, and the triumph of Dessalines and his army, friends ?-of men who have something dear to them to formed out of men who had lately been groaning in fight for, and which would be perilled alike by the slavery, over Bonaparte's disciplined troops. And we anarchy of an ignorant mob, the tyranny of a military now see how the countless hordes of Russian soldiers despotism, or the successful invasion of a foreign foe?'
are kept at bay, year after year, by a few brave Cir
cassians. He thinks such a force might be raised. He suggests
"A consideration of these and other similar deeds it should consist of 100,000 men, under the name of the must, I think, convince almost every one that men National Reserved Force, “to be formed of men chosen with ordinary spirit and energy, who stand on their from volunteers for the service, and residing, under own soil, who know every yard of the country, who ordinary circumstances, at their own homes, in different have the sympathy and support of the people, and who, parts of the country.' These men he would have in their homes, their property, and their liberties, have
something worth fighting for, will, with a very mode* Economical Defence of the Country from Internal Tumult and rate amount of training, present an irresistible front Foreign Aggression. Ridgway. London: 1848.
to any invading army-a front, indeed, the very idea of which would prevent any but an army of madmen to the true cause—the healing properties of the plants from setting foot upon the coast; and shows, I think, that grow beneath his tread. To those, too, whose very that such a force has inherent advantages which can vocation would seem in a great degree to lie in a knownever be wholly possessed by troops collected even in ledge of the powers of the vegetable world, the medical the manner in which the English army is raised; and practitioners not only of Europe, but even those of the far less by foreign mercenaries or conscripts, animated large Atlantic cities of North America, of the very by no pure or noble motive, and in many cases serving land in which these plants are indigenous, they are against their will.'
generally as little known as they were to the distinThe objection, that soldiering should be a trade by guished philosopher above named.
We shall cease, itself, is met by the allegation that, in reality, it cannot however, to be much surprised at this fact, when we in peace be a trade, since it is then a life of more than consider for a moment the unvarying system of teachsemi-vacuity and idleness; a state of things not merely ing adopted at medical universities. Hear certain lectending to immorality, but to violent discontent, and tures, read certain books for a given time, answer cersometimes even mutiny. The gain,' he adds, to public tain questions which these books will teach : you have morality, by a decrease of drunkenness and prostitution, passed your examination — you are a qualified phywith their train of misery and crime, which would sician. result from a large diminution of the number of ordi- To the medical philosopher there are few fields nary soldiers, would be great; while the security for fraught with so rich a harvest of discovery as the inour liberties would be increased by the power of the vestigation of the properties of many of the plants army being in a great measure transferred to men of peculiar to the fertile districts of North and South superior education and morality, linked to society by America, in relieving and permanently curing many of the thousand ties produced by a family, the possession the most severe diseases to which the human frame is of property, and the exercise of an industrious calling.' incident. The ground for these investigations is already
By some, the employing of an armed force of any broken to some extent by the medicine-men of the diffekind, even for defence, may be objected to; but all rent tribes, whose rude experience and modes of pracexperience proves that peace-officers with staves are tice, which they are ever most willing to exhibit and powerless in suppressing tumultuary masses armed with describe, would be of great value in directing many muskets and other dangerous weapons, as was exem- apparently intricate or obscure applications, the modus plified in a striking manner on the occasion of the late operandi of which the light of science might afterwards riots in Glasgow. While there exist miscreants suffi- illustrate and explain. ciently daring to unite in forcibly defying the law, we Cancerous affections in stages of extreme malignity; fear that soldiering of some sort must be considered a the long train of obscure glandular diseases of more or lamentable necessity. Mr Hill's plan may be said to less severity; the multiform denotements of severe reduce this evil within the narrowest possible bounds. scrofulous affections; ulcerations of chronic duration ; His soldiers are to be only armed and trained civilians, cutaneous maladies of various and loathsome origin and ready at a moment's notice to assume a military cha- extent; tumours of indolent and malignant character ; racter; and we should suppose they are to have about rheumatism; epilepsy; spasmodic diseases ; lumbago; them as little of the pomp and buffoonery of warlike torpid action of the bowels or liver; incipient consumparray as the most sober-minded could desire.
tion, and the various inflammatory affections of internal organs; the bite of venomous reptiles; tetanus; and a
host of less grave forms of disease, I have seen subdued THE MEDICINE-MAN, OR INDIAN CURE and cured by these humble pharmacopolists. FOR CANCER.
I will proceed now to relate a case. In a wigwam in
which I was for a time domiciled, a fine Indian lad Among all savage nations and tribes, the observance of of eleven years of age, in gathering berries, was bitten certain superstitious forms and ceremonies are inter on the back of the hand by a mocassin snake, which woven in almost every important event, whether civil, he had provoked; but which he at length succeeded social, or political; yet in none, perhaps, are these ob- in capturing, and bringing home in triumph. The servances more strictly kept up than in everything squaw, the only person except myself present, immerelating to the practice of the healing art.
diately bound the arm tightly just above the elbowExtensive means of observation, and some length of joint with a strong cord; upon the wound on the hand residence among various tribes of North American she applied a succession of plantain leaves (the Alisma Indians, particularly one called the Pottowatomie na- plantago), wetted with oil and milk; she then prepared tion, which, at the time I speak of, were a wandering a strong decoction of the Lobelia inflata, which she people on the great prairie lands of the state of Illinois, gave the boy to drink freely, and placed him in a warm now called the Wisconsin Territory, gave me ample bed. She then strewed some salt upon the ground, opportunity of observing many of their superstitious burnt a hank of flax in her hand, muttered a form of orgies, as well as their medical treatment in curing prayer to the Great Spirit Manitou, and then repeated many violent and severe diseases. When I say that at intervals to her patient copious draughts of the my only object in being among these rude people of decoction, notwithstanding the severe vomiting it occathe forest was that of acquiring a thorough knowledge sioned. This treatment was kept up throughout the of the virtues of the vegetable substances used among night, the plantain leaves being repeatedly changed for them as medicinal agents, being myself a physician, fresher ones. The following day the same treatment was and having, too, the sanction of the chief of the tribe followed with less vigour; and in the evening, a poultice, to dwell with them, it may be supposed that my oppor- made of the green leaves of the Geranium maculatum, tunities of observation were unusually great. How I was applied to the wound, and the patient placed in a have profited by it, many of my patients suffering warm water bath prepared with the balsam of the pineunder some of the most severe diseases incident to hu- tree. On taking him out, he was pronounced to be well; manity might testify; but on this head I must not and so in truth he was, excepting some degree of debienlarge.
lity occasioned by the treatment. To my own knowledge, Unknown to the classification and arrangement of he was in good health five years after this event. Now, the great Linnæus or succeeding botanists, many plants in contrast with this rude yet successful treatment by of surpassing power in these wild regions bloom, flourish, savage skill, let us place that of the regular faculty of and decay, whose virtues are confined to the knowledge the city of New York in a similar case. Dr Wainof the Medicine-man (as the doctor is called) of the wright of that city was bitten on the forefinger by a tribe, and who, in the wild superstition in which he rattlesnake; he was aware of the danger, and in a has been educated, ascribes the remarkable cures he situation to have the immediate aid of several eminent performs more to the influence of his savage orgies than physicians; but in vain : the life of this amiable and
talented gentleman was sacrificed for want of that in the neck, much as the European surgeon would, he knowledge of the curative properties of plants growing takes from his pocket an oval instrument, made of thin almost at their very doors. The death of Dr Wain- iron, about the size of a large tablespoon, and shaped wright occurred last December, and the circumstances somewhat like a trowel, which he heats to a red heat attending it were noticed in the London ‘Times. When in the lighted charcoal, and with a sudden and light it is borne in mind that the bite of the rattlesnake is far touch sears the open cancer, already in a state of ulceless dangerous than that of the mocassin, the value of ration, observing to touch the edges, and what he the two modes of practice will stand in still stronger pointed out to me as the roots of the cancer, but contrast.
which were, in truth, the deep sinuses occasioned by I will now proceed to detail the treatment of a severe the progress of irregular ulceration. At the touch case of cancer, occupying the whole surface of the of the iron, the woman shivered, and slightly shrank breast in an Indian female. This woman belonged to back, but uttered neither moan nor cry. Immediately a wandering tribe of Indians, whose nomadic habits had after this, the proper plants, in a green state, preheretofore prevented the necessary confinement and viously soaked in the blood of the calf, were spread attention to diet to effect the cure. The medicine-man, all over the cancer; the earth was then laid on the whose pupil at the time I was, having appointed his day plants about the thickness of an inch or a little more, for general consultation, and being aware, as in more having been made into a clayish paste by mixing the civilised conditions of life, of the vast importance of as- blood with it. Thus much for the treatment. For suming a great degree of consequence, had not failed to the prognosis, or probable result, three small peas throw around himself the utmost gravity and mystery had for a few days previously been placed in earth of manner on the days devoted to the public recep- and water, until they were just on the point of gertion of the sick. These days are always during the minating; being carefully removed, they were pressed time of the full-moon; and the one previous to re- down into the covering of the diseased breast, and ception the medicine - man observes strictly as a day the earth gently smoothed over them by the fingers. of abstinence, refraining from all food except bread, Suitable bandages, made of cloth and the inner layers water, and vegetables. Receptions usually take place of the white birch bark, were applied; and to insure the in the open air, under the shade of large oak-trees; earth keeping in its place, a pair of stays (or garment but in severe weather his own wigwam is chosen. of their precise form) was tightly secured round the Having divested himself of his ordinary hunting or chest. The woman was then delivered to her friends, farming dress, he robes himself in an external garment and placed in a recumbent position upon a species of made of the skins of various kinds of snakes sewed palanquin; orders were given as to her diet, which was together. This dress is girted tight at the neck, and strictly antiphlogistic, and she was then conveyed home, spreads loosely around him, reaching to his feet, and with a caution to remain in the same position until the rattling, at every motion of his body, with more noise visit of the medicine-man, to take place on the third than some of the venomous reptiles make when alive day after. and about to dart on their prey. The ground having At the moment the medicine-man commenced his been marked in a circular form with a spade, flax, treatment with the application of the heated iron, and pine-tree gum, and various aromatic herbs, are burnt during its continuance, until her arrival at the door of in an iron pot, and thrown around. The medicine- her own home, the following words were chanted, in a man, whose face is previously painted with red and slow mournful measure, by all who accompanied her. blue streaks, sits at a table, on which is placed various The translation has been furnished by a friend versed roots, herbs, and plants. In the centre of the table is in the language of the tribe :a large basin, made of the bark of the birch-tree, containing the blood of a new-born calf that has never
"Fertile earth and growing grain,
Ease this woman of her pain; cropped the herbage. Among some tribes, and formerly
Fire to purge thy pains away, with this, the blood of a new-born babe, slaughtered
Earth to cleanse and purify; for the purpose, was used on this occasion; but from
Sow the seeds in hope to grow, the progress of humanity consequent upon their fre
By thy blessing, Manitou.
Sow the seeds,' &c. quent intercourse with Europeans, the blood of a calf has been substituted, and found to be equally effica- The prognosis by the peas is much relied on. In cious.
truth, divination is peculiar to all savage tribes; and On the present occasion, there was placed on the though frequently deceived, they still adhere with table another vessel, containing a large quantity of strong tenacity to the ancient superstitious observances clayey earth, of a yellowish red colour, dug at six of their forefathers. If the three, or two out of the three feet depth from the surface of the ground. This earth peas continue the process of germination, so that the had been previously most carefully pulverised, and earth is slightly broken in their attempt to reach its passed through a fine sieve, every particle of stone surface, the result is predicted as highly favourable : and shell, or other extraneous substance, having been if one only, not so favourable ; still the woman will thoroughly excluded. An iron pan, containing a little recover, but slowly; and the prognosis would be doubtcharcoal, made from the wood of the yellow elm-tree ful as to the recurrence of the disease in after-life. (Ulmus flavius), in a state of bright ignition, was placed Should none of them germinate, which often happens upon the ground.
from accidental causes—such as changing the position The patient was brought in, carried in the arms of of the earth by the necessary movements of the bodyfour men, her relations, and accompanied by a mul- then an unfavourable conclusion is looked for, and the titude of neighbours and spectators, to whom these ex- patient and her friends are apprised that the Great hibitions are ever open. She was seated on a low cork Spirit Manitou needs her presence in the huntingstool within the circle on the ground, and facing the grounds of her forefathers, and bids her prepare for medicine-man. During a form of prayer or invocation death. commenced by the operator, and joined in by all pre- I should have mentioned, that after the third day, the sent, beseeching the Great Spirit Manitou to give medicine-man attends the patient at her own wigwam courage to the patient, skill to the doctor, and success at such times as he considers necessary, and the subto the cure, the eyes of the female were bandaged with sequent treatment is with the decoctions made from cloth, and her breast uncovered. The most perfect the plants useful in the case, together with medicines silence now prevails; every voice is hushed; and the given internally. In many cases, if not in all, I am medicine-man proceeds to his examination of the case. assured that the searing of the diseased surface with He puts no question as to the origin of the disease, or the heated iron has been attended with most injurious what applications have been used; but after examining results, increasing the inflammatory disposition, destroy. the state of the glands in the axilla (arm-pit), and those ing the vitality of the parts essential to the healing
123 155 181
process, and sometimes producing extensive mortifica- week; saves 10s., and interest, he has L.247 at thirty-one tion and sloughing. The earth, too, very frequently years of age. acts as an extraneous and irritating substance; and as At thirty-two years of age he has L.286; buys a plot of to the value of the pea prognosis, the less we say of it ground for L.100; expends L.150 in building his dwelling
house; so that he reduces his money at interest to L.36; the better.
saves his 10s. per week, and interest on L.36-L.27, 16s.;
making L.63, 16s. at the age of thirty-three. HELP YOURSELVES.
At 34 he has
At 35 UNDER this title a small pamphlet or circular was lately handed to us by a correspondent. Consisting of an address to workmen on the subject of economising means, it em
At 38 braces the history of an operative who, with no remarkable
• He now expends the interest, and saves only 10s. per advantages, and without change of position, was able to
week. attain a state of independence. In order to bring it under general notice, we give it a place in our pages.
At 39 he has
L.233 * Englishmen have much to be thankful for, inasmuch as
259 there is probably no country on the face of the globe
In addition to his house and garden. where sober, industrious young mechanics and labourers These calculations have been made in consequence of the
can so soon raise themselves to ease, comparative inde- writer having been informed that there are at the present dipendence, and comfort, as in England. Many instances in time from 300 to 400 workmen employed by one company
real life might be given in proof thereof; yet our present in Hull, many of whom are earning great wages, and spend. parpose may be best answered by presenting the case of ing no inconsiderable portion of them in a manner which one who, having lost his father and mother in childhood, their best friends regret. It is with a view of directing has been indebted to the kind-hearted for the school their close attention to the great good that they might do learning he has acquired. During his apprenticeship he for themselves, by proper forethought, that these remarks gained little beyond habits of industry. In the seven years are penned. There is nothing in this calculation which 80 of his apprenticeship, his master fell from a respectable out of every 100, who earn from 25s. to 30s. per week, station to one of abject poverty, owing to his taking the might not effect, if they were wise enough to pursue the one glass, then the two, three, four, and onwards; tiil, by same plan. Mind that your houses be comfortable, wellsteps almost imperceptible, his business and family were furnished, supplied with useful books above all, the Bible, neglected, whilst he joined his associates at the alehouse and read a portion of it every day, with prayer that it may But let us not dwell on this sad picture. On completing be blessed to you and yours. Contrast, for a moment, the his twenty-first year, our orphan boy engaged in a situa- condition of those who thus rightly employ the means tion where he received 15s. per week wages ; 8s. of which placed within their power of providing comfortably for he appropriated to food and lodging, and 2s. to clothing themselves and families, with those who squander in and a few useful books to rub up his schoolday learning. thoughtless waste, first the few shillings, then the many Warned by the example of his late master, he shunned the pounds, in procuring that which yields no comfort, brings alehouse, and his steady conduct soon gained him the con- no health, affords no solace for declining years; then judge for fidence of his employer, who, at the end of the first year, yourselves which course you will pursue.' | raised his wages to 21 s. per week. At the end of the second
year he found himself possessed of upwards of L.40; 5s. per week had been regularly deposited in the bank for
WHAT IS EDUCATION ?--ANSWERED. savings during the first year, which amounted to L.13; and The inquiry as to what education really is-whether it in the second year lls. per week, which was L.28, 128. be verbal teaching or practical training-has been satisfacmore. We need not follow him, step by step, in his steady torily answered, as follows, by Mr David Stow, honorary but onward course. He has now been nineteen years in secretary of the Free Normal Seminary, Glasgow, in a his present situation ; for the last ten, he has been the small work recently published on the subject of National foreman, with a salary of 30s. per week. Twelve years ago Education:he married a virtuous young woman, and has now six fine • What the education is that will best enable a man to children. The house he lives in is his own; a good garden educate himself, ought surely to be the sovereign question. is attached to it, and a fruitful and lovely spot it is; it Is it instruction, or is it training? Is it the amount of eleserves as an excellent training-ground for his children, mentary knowledge communicated, or is it the exercise of whose very amusements in it are turned to good account. mind required by which the pupil may educate himself? The mother brought no fortune with her except herself. Till lately, the term used to define education was INSTRUCShe had, indeed, lived as servant some years in a respect- TION. Give religious instruction, it was, and is still said, able family, where she had high wages; but all she could and this will be sufficient. Teach the poor to read the spare was devoted to the support of an infirm mother, Bible, and forthwith you will make them holy, happy, and who, on her marriage, was received into her husband's good citizens-good parents-obedient children-kind and house, where the evening of her life is rendered happy. compassionate-honourable in their dealings-and crime How is it, you ask, that a man at forty years of age, will diminish. Hundreds of thousands have received such who has had nothing to depend upon but his own labour- an education.—Are such the results? We trow not. Have who has a wife and six children, and an infirm mother-in
we hit upon the right kind of education, or the proper mode law to support-can have bought a piece of ground, built a of communication ? Will all the instruction it is possible to house opon it, and can have it well furnished, and, after all, give produce the results which are so fondly anticipated ? has upwards of L.200 out on interest ? for he has been a
Will all the telling, or teaching, or instruction in the world, servant all along, and is a servant still. Well, let us see if enable a person to make a shoe, construct a machine, ride, we can find out how it is. In the first place (and which, write, or paint, without training-that is, without doing? after all, is the main point), he spends nothing at the ale- Will the knowledge of religious truth make a good man house ; the money which too many worse than waste there, without the practice of it? The boy may repeat most corbank of savings L.40. at the age of twenty-three, we found he had in the creation anderen understand in a general way, the precepts
, Avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath,
“ Render not evil for evil," " Be courteous ;” but see him at At the age of 24 he has
play among his companions, neither better, nor perhaps
worse, than himself, unsuperintended, and his conduct unAt
reviewed, by parent or schoolmaster, and what do these At
Scriptural injunctions avail him when engaged in a quarrel?
Reason is dormant, passion reigns for the time, and the 'He now marries, and expends on furniture L.40, re- repeated exercise of such propensities strengthens the disducing the amount at interest to L.166; but his wages are position, and eventually forms evil habits. The father cannow advanced to 25s., and his expenditure is increased to not be with his child to train him, whatever his business 20s, per week; his saving of 5s. per week and interest in or profession may be, during the day, and a healthy boy the year, amount to L.2i, added to L.166, makes L.187, will not be tied to the apron-strings of his mother-out he when twenty-nine years of age.
will go, and out he gets to the streets, to be with such com"At thirty years of age he has L.210; wages now 30s. per 1 panions as he can pick up.
25 26 27 28
102 135 170 206
'In education, as hitherto conducted in school, even they must starve, or emigrate to some distant lands, and under the most highly-intellectual system, we have had thus get bowstringed by savage men, whom they aim to instruction, and not training. Schools are not so con- serve. Adopt my plan, and it will be sure to answer. If structed as to enable the child to be superintended-tle you have a nest of partridges, also encourage them: all master has not the opportunity of training, except under the summer they live on insects, on wireworms, &c.; and the unnatural restraint of a covered school-room; and it is consider how many millions a covey will destroy in a single imagined, or at least stated, that children are morally summer. Again, always remember that moles feed upon trained without their being placed in circumstances where insects, and of which the wireworm is the chief; if you their moral dispositions and habits may be developed and doubt this, open a mole, and peep into his stomach. Again, cultivated; as if it were possible to train a bird to fly in a do not fear that moles injure your crops, either in a field cage, or a race-horse to run in a stable.
or in a garden: it is a low and vulgar error to suppose that * Man is not all head-all feeling-or all animal energy; they root up young corn ; they never go anywhere until He is a compound being, and must be trained as such ; and the wireworms have first destroyed the plants, and then, the varied powers of mind and of body, although distinct, innocent things, they are punished for others' faults! If so act and react upon each other, that it is difficult to say you do not like to see their hills, knock them about with where the influence of the one begins and that of the other a hoe, as I did; it is a healthful amusement, and they will ends. The intellectual, to a certain extent, influences the do your lands good. Do not despise my plan because the physical, and vice versa; while the moral influences both, farmers will not adopt it in your neighbourhood : farmers and is influenced by both in return. The most influen- adopt nothing till driven to it, and nothing that is new tial and successful mode of cultivating the child is, there and good.' fore, when his whole powers are daily and simultaneously
GLASS IN DAIRIES. exercised; and no injury can arise to his varied powers of body and mind, provided they be fed, and not stuffed called to the advantages of glass as a non-conductor of
The attention of dairyists has of late been pretty much trained, and not merely instructed.
How do we purpose morally, physically, and intellec- electricity, in the preservation of milk in glass pans. It tually to elevate the mass of our population, among whom
was only a short time since that we were shown a glass there is not, on the part of parents, either the opportunity bottle full of milk that had been preserved in India and or the intelligence to accomplish this object? If done at China, and when drawn, after eighteen months' preservaall, it must be almost exclusively performed by the school tion, was not only found to be perfectly sweet, but to contrainer. It is not now done by the schoolmaster, and cannot be tain, in a solid and coliesive state, a small quantity of exaccomplished by the parent. Therefore our youth are grow- cellent butter; while the milk preserved in a tin case ing up untrained in a moral, and even in an intellectual during the same voyage had gone to acid. It now appears point of view, although it is announced that “the school- that glass milk-pans produce almost equally remarkable master is abroad." In reality, we have much said, and results; and from an analysis we have seen of the cream little done. The truth is forced upon our attention, that which was thrown up on some of Harris's Compressed teaching is not training.'
Register, it appears that the difference is in favour of the * The Sabbath school was, and still is, too weak and glass, as compared with the wooden or wedgeware pan, by powerless to contend with the sympathy of numbers; there at least ten per cent.-Scottish Farmer. being, even when best conducted, only the teaching of one day set against the training of an opposite tendency during the other six days of the week. "In the Sabbath school
EGYPT there was the teaching of the master, without sympathy set
* Dinanzi a me non fur cose create, against the sympathy and training of the streets, and fre
Se non eterne, ed io eterno duro. quently even of the family. Need we wonder, then, that
DANTE. the one day's teaching or instruction was (and still continues to be) overborne and counteracted by the six days'
On the deep rock of Ages have I set training?'
My everlasting Pyramid, and look round In other words, the conviction at which Mr Stow appears
From its great throne on oceans without bound; to have arrived is this—that no mere teaching, no learning
Time shoreless, shifting sands, and realms as yet of lessons or catechisms, no mere putting on the memory
Growing to being. Of all here who meta large variety of psalms or other exercises, is education.
Persian, Greek, Roman, Arab-who hath stood ? Besides technical instruction, training is indispensable.
All, all have drifted onward by my base, Good habits require to be enforced and confirmed by
And here I hold amidst their surge my place! practical acts—by doing that which is right, as well as
Before me things were not, or such as could merely knowing what is to be done. For saying as much,
Endure like me, eternal. The broad Nile, educationists have for many years suffered abuse. It is
Young as the day it leaped to life, and made gratifying to find a person in Mr Stow's position vindicat
Life wheresoe'er it moved—the godlike sky, ing so sound a principle in education.
Star-written book unfathomablethe pile
Of mountain-walls around these shall not fade.
They were and are and shall be !-So shall I!
M. S. J. The ' Essex Herald’ publishes the following letter from the Rev. G. Wilkins to a farmer, who wrote to him in
JOHN RAY. quiring how the wireworm had been exterminated in the reverend gentleman's land. It contains much sound, though, A CORRESPONDENT obligingly forwards the following note :- As we daresay, unpalatable doctrine to the owners of smooth an Essex man, I hope to be forgiven for mentioning that a slight lawns and trim-bedded gardens :—Some ten years since, error has been committed in a recent article in the Journal in when I came to my living, and commenced cultivating the reference to the life of John Ray. Braintree is stated to be a vil. little land I hold, it was, I may say, full of wireworms. lage in Suffolk, whereas it is one of the chief towns of the northern Nothing could have been worse, for my crops were in some
division of Essex, possessing an endowed grammar school, at places ruined by them entirely. What, then, did I do? | which John Ray was educated. Black Notley is the adjoining I adopted a plan which I recommended and published in village to Braintree, and the churchyard in which John Ray lies periodicals many years since--namely, encouraging moles buried is about three miles distant from that town. The Essex and partridges on my lands. Instead of permitting a mole folk are proud of John Ray. His tomb is within a pleasant walk to be caught, I bought all I could, and turned them down of Braintree, and is occasionally visited by botanists. I have even alive ; and soon my fields, one after another, were full of known pilgrimages to be made thither, on which occasions ferns, mole-hills, to the amusement of all my neighbours, who at mosses, and wild flowers, gathered by the way, have been duly first set me down for half a lanatic ; but now several adopt and reverently laid upon his grave. John was evidently fond of my plan, and are strenuous advocates of it. My fields be. Essex ; and were he alive, I hardly think he would be pleased came exactly like a honeycomb ; and this continued even with the notion of transporting his remains to Suffolk.' among my standing and growing and ripening crops ; not a mole was molested, but I still bought more. This sum
Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also mer I had fourteen brought, which I turned down; but sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. One, they were not wanted : I have nothing for them to eat- 147 Strand, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, all that moles live upon is destroyed-and so, poor things, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.