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Formerly, the chief strongholds of this abandoned race ing draught. Alexander puts the warning into his were to be found in Borneo, and more especially in hands, and even while Philip reads, the king drains the the sultanate of Borneo Proper, or Bruni; but since the cup. When the tutor had ended his recital, he launched operations of the Dido, and of the squadron under Sir forth into warm eulogiums of the courage and intreThomas Cochrane, they have betaken themselves to pidity of Alexander. Though not at all pleased with their old haunts in the Sulus and Mindanaos.

his remarks, while sharing his enthusiasm, on different In spite, however, of all obstructions, a majority of grounds, I yet avoided making any objection likely to the native traders find, ultimately, their way to Singa- depreciate him in the estimation of his pupil. At pore, where they dispose of their cargoes at a profit for dinner, the boy did not fail to chatter away, his parents, the most part of two hundred per cent. The imports as is usual with parents in France, allowing him to into Singapore in this way are rattans, birds’-nests, bees'- engross nearly the whole conversation. With the livewax, tortoise-shell, gold dust and diamonds, trepang, liness natural to his age, and encouraged by the cerpearl and raw sago, camphor, rice and paddy, mother- tainty that he was giving his auditors pleasure, he of-pearl shells, garro and lakha woods, paper, seaweed, uttered a thousand absurdities, not unmixed, however, mats, ebony, and antimony ore. These are from Borneo. with some happy traits of artlessness and good sense. From Manilla we have hemp and ropes, cigars, sugar, At length he came upon the story of Philip, and told tea, and sapan wood. From Celebes, sarongs (cottons) it admirably. The usual tribute of applause required of their own manufacture, in addition to the chief pro- by the mother's vanity having been paid, some discusductions of Borneo, which last are likewise brought to sion arose upon what had just been narrated. The us from the other islands to the eastward and south- majority blamed the rash imprudence of Alexander, ward. From Sumatra, Java, and various other places, while some, like the tutor, were loud in their praises come bees’-wax, betel nut, coffee, cotton, raw sago, of his firmness and courage; but amid the different gold dust, copper, tin, rice, and spices. In return for opinions, I soon perceived that not one single person these articles, we distribute opium, iron, British cotton present bad apprehended in what consisted the real goods, China cotton goods, China crockery, raw silk, nobleness of the action. “For my part," said I, " it seems and spice.

to me that if there be the least courage in the action, Before the rise of Singapore into importance, a con- it ought to be regarded as a mere piece of madness." siderable trade was carried on between the Archipelago Every one exclaimed at this ; and I was about to and China, which is now merely confined to the few answer rather warmly, when a lady seated beside me, goods brought by Chinese emigrants. In like manner, who had hitherto been silent, bent towards me and the influence of the Anglo-Indians has nearly destroyed whispered, “Save your breath, Jean-Jacques ; they a commerce carried on with the Talingas of south-would not understand you." I looked at her for a mowestern India ; while that with the Arabs was greatly ment, then convinced she was right, I remained silent. injured by the discovery of a route to India by the After dinner, suspecting, from several slight indicaCape. The intercourse with Bengal and the Coroman- tions, that my young professor had not taken in a del coast is merely confined to the interchange of opium single idea from the anecdote he had told so well, I and cotton goods for gold, tin, and pepper. Attempts invited him to accompany me in a walk in the park ; have, within the last few years, been made by the and there, availing myself of the opportunity to question Americans, French, and Dutch, to share in the advan- him at my ease, I discovered that I was mistaken, and tages of this trade ; but hitherto without much success: that his admiration of the so highly-lauded courage of not that the field is incapable of being enlarged, and Alexander was genuine, and far exceeded that of any rendered more productive, but that the adventurers one else. But in what do you think he conceived the have gone injudiciously to work, partly through igno- courage to consist? Simply in the fact of his having rance, and partly through their reckless and expensive swallowed a nauseous draught at one gulp, without the habits. The native traders live in the most frugal slightest hesitation, or a single wry face! The poor manner, often taking along with them in their prahus boy, who, to his infinite pain and grief, had been made nothing more than a little rice and sago, with the re- to take medicine about a fortnight before, had the taste quisite seasoning; trusting for the rest to the fish, which of it still in his mouth, and the only poison of which he may everywhere in the Archipelago be found in inex- had any idea was a dose of senna. However, it must haustible abundance, and taken with the greatest faci- be owned that the firmness of the hero had made a lity. Nowhere in the world is fish so plentiful, or 80 great

impression upon his young mind, and he had in / varied and excellent, as among the Twelve Thousand wardly resolved that the next time he had to take meIslands, where whole races of men might derive their dicine, he, too, would be an Alexander. Without enterentire subsistence from the sea alone. The example ing into any explanations, which might have served has been set by that strange race of men the Biajus, or rather to darken than enlighten his mind, I confirmed sea-gipsies, with whose history, character, and manners, him in his laudable resolutions; and I returned to the Europeans are so little acquainted. However, as our house, laughing internally at the wisdom of parents and commercial relations with that part of Asia are multi- tutors, who flatter themselves that they have been plied, our knowledge of the inhabitants will naturally teaching children history. It may be that some of my increase, though the history of the world furnishes readers, not satisfied with the "Save your breath, Jeanseveral examples of long-continued intercourse between Jacques," are now asking what it is, then, that I find distant countries, while each remained almost wholly to admire so much in this action of Alexander? Unignorant of the other.

happy dolts ! if you must needs be told, how can you understand when told ? I admire Alexander's faith

in the existence of human virtue, a faith upon which TEACHING HISTORY.

he staked his very life. Was there ever a more noble "While in the country,' says Jean-Jacques Rousseau, profession of this faith—a more sublime instance of 'on a visit for some days at the house of a lady who generous, implicit trust in another, than this potion devoted herself to the education of her children, I hap- drained at one draught?' pened one morning to be present when the tutor was giving a lesson in history to her eldest son. My atten

A VETERAN. tion was particularly attracted at the moment that he The following communication respecting an unfortunate was relating to him the anecdote of Alexander of Mace- veteran has lately been received by us, and is submitted don and his physician Philip. He told of Alexander to the consideration of our readers :being sick, and receiving a letter warning him that it

GLASGOW, February 9, 1848. was the intention of Philip to administer poison in the GENTLEMEN-I beg to bring the following case under guise of medicine. The really honest, faithful phy- your notice. The subject of it is an old naval veteran, sician approaches the monarch's couch with the heal. I whom I found on going into one of the cottages on an

estate in the vicinity of Glasgow, of which I have lately what it was they had found, one of them declared they had the management intrusted to me. His name is George would not save any more, as the boat was already too full : Robiuson, and he will be eighty-five years old next July, but one of my messmates thinking he knew my voice, while his wife is only three years younger. How they cried, 'Is that you, George?' 'Indeed,' said I, it is;' and manage to exist I cannot comprehend, except it be through they immediately drew me to them with a boat-hook, and the kindness of individuals in the neighbourhood. I have I was taken into the boat: it was during this night's attack never heard a word of complaint from them, and they are that Lord Nelson lost his arm. generally the first to pay their small mite of rent of any “After this engagement, we sailed back to Cadiz, Capof the tenants on the property, although they must have tain Montgomery having been in charge of the Theseus great difficulty in scraping it together, having no income, since Captain Calder's death. After lying there for about except the produce of a small patch of potatoes, which six months, we sailed to Toulon, and from Toulon, through George cultivates in a sort of a way; but having fallen off the Straits of Messina, to Malta; sailed again from this port the roof of his cottage when repairing the thatch two or to Alexandria, in Egypt, in search of the French fleet; but three years ago, and broken his left arm, which he thinks not finding them there, returned to Syracuse to take in had not been properly set, he is not able to do much. wood and water; and sailed from thence to Aboukir Bay, Could a trifle be got for them, I am sure it would be most where we found the French fleet lying at anchor. We gratefully received. The proprietor of the estate, much had our share of the battle that was fought there : the to his honour, generously agreed to remit the amount of first French ship that struck was the antagonist of the their rent for the remainder of their lives, and placed five Theseus, now commanded by Captain Miller. After the pounds at my disposal for their use, on my bringing their battle, we sailed to Lisbon with the prizes, took in stores, case before him. The following is George's history, in his and returned to Aboukir. own words :

“ From Aboukir I was sent to Acre, and drafted into a "I was born in the month of July 1763, in the town of gun-boat, forming part of the squadron which was to attack Stirling; was sent to learn the weaving business at Latham, this strong fortress. We were ordered in this gun-boat to in the carse of Bothkenner, between Falkirk and the take up a position opposite Acre; but the wind shifting, village of Airth, when I was ten years of age, where I con- we could not double Cape Carmel, and had to anchor for tinued for four years, and then went to Paisley to follow the night. Next morning, about eight o'clock, our lieuthe silk gauze weaving. I left Paisley in the year 1793, in tenant spied some vessels in the distance, which he supconsequence of a great depression of trade, and set out for posed to be Frenchmen; orders us to put the helm hard Manchester : having got as far on the way as Carlisle, I up, and out with studding-sails, in the hope of escaping, as found my funds would not suffice to carry me to Man- the French fleet was coming fast up. I was sitting on the chester, I turned accordingly to Maryport, and entered end of the mainyard of the gun-boat, when a shot from one of the tender lying there. After remaining about eight days, the French vessels cut our yard brace through, and the yard was sent to Liverpool; and after a sojourn at that port of swung round; we then struck, and were made prisoners, about six weeks, was sent off to Plymouth, and drafted and drafted among the gun-boats belonging to the French into the Theseus, a seventy-four gun ship, Captain Calder, fleet. The French were very desirous to learn from us in which vessel I spent the first year, cruising in the what English frigates were at Acre; and on inquiry, some Channel. Next year was sent out to the West Indies, and of our men told them there were a number of corn ships remained there for eighteen months. From the West there, although they knew that the Tiger man-of-war was Indies I returned in the Theseus to Quiberon Bay, on the lying there. Next day, on the Tiger making her appearance, coast of France, and lay there all winter. In the spring, the French commander called me, as being the most sober we got orders to pursue the French admiral. We followed of the prisoners, and asked what ship that was; and on my him as far as the Canaries, then lost him, and came back telling him, he turned coolly round and said, “They prisoners to Cadiz, where, having discovered that our mainmast was to-day, we prisoners to-morrow;' which soon took place, as crippled, our vessel was sent to Plymouth to refit, where we were all recaptured, and our French captors made priCaptain Calder died. After refitting, set sail again for soners. After fourteen months spent at Acre, came home Cadiz with stores for the fleet; when lying there, two to Spithead, and the following spring was drafted into a Spanish frigates hove in sight, making for Cadiz, and pur- forty-four gun-store ship at Woolwich, and sailed out to sued by two English frigates, to which they very soon Egypt with stores; from thence we sailed back to Malta, struck.

and arrived there the same day that the corpse of Sir “ After lying some time at Cadiz, we got orders to cap- Ralph Abercromby came from Egypt. After spending two ture a Spanish galleon from South America, loaded with years about Malta, and various places in the Mediterranean, bullion, which we expected to fall in with at the island of came home, and was discharged at Deptford; and from Teneriffe. While at this island, we were landed to attack thence I made my way back to Paisley in the year 1802, and destroy the town (Vera Cruz), but had to abandon having been nine years at sea. I lived in Paisley till the the attempt for want of the necessary provision having year 1822, when I came to Springburn, my present resibeen made for victualling the troops. "It was afterwards dence, where I have resided constantly since. I had four resolved by the commander, Lord Nelson, to attack the of a family, two of whom are dead. I have one son, a fortification next night from the gun-boats.' I was drafted weaver, living in Glasgow, and another son, who went out into one of them, called the Fox cutter, having sixteen to America ; but not having heard from him for thirty sweeps. We left the ship about midnight, and were run- years, I suppose he must be dead.” ning right in shore, when a tremendous fire was opened *Such is the substance of the poor old veteran's narrafrom the Spanish batteries. When abreast of the fort, a

tion. If a condensed notice of it could be made in your slot went right through our boat, which immediately widely-circulated Journal, it might be the means of drawbegan to fill. The officer in command ordered the sweeps

a little assistance to the old couple, who cannot now to be put out, and the cutter run out to deep water. Ön have many years to live; and I shall be glad to administer examination, the pump was found choked; and as a last such aid in any way that may be deemed most conducive resource, I was ordered to cut the jaw-rope and topping to their comfort. And, apologising for the liberty I have lift with my tomahawk, for the purpose of easing the taken, I am, &c. cutter; but seeing her rapidly filling, and that she would

Thomas M'Guffie.' soon go down, every one endeavoured to save himself the best way he could.' I stripped off my clothes, except the

Mr M'Guffie's address is 125 Montrose Street, Glasgow, shirt and napkin, and jumped into the sea'among the and communications may be addressed to him by parties

interested in the veteran, whose eventful and ill-starred life sinking and drowning sailors, one of whom got hold of me, and down we both went; but having let go his hold, I rose

he has taken the trouble to record. to the surface again, and swam out from the wreck through the clearest place I could find. I continued to swim and make for the land so long as I had strength; but having

SNAIL GARDENS. become completely exhausted, I turned myself on my back, On this curious subject the following paper has been fally expecting that my glass was now surely run, and re- translated for us from the ‘Leipsic Illustrated Newspeated a verse from a well-remembered psalm. While doing paper: 80, I heard the sound of voices approaching, which turned In Vorarlberg, the collecting and rearing of the large out to be one of our own boat's crew that was sent to pick garden snails, which are so injurious to vegetation, forms a up any of the survivors who might be found floating on the peculiar branch of agricultural industry, and amounts even fragments of the wreck. When the boat's crew discovered ( to no inconsiderable trade. Whole cargoes of these snails are sent from Arlberg to the South Tyrol, where they are an imperial ukase having lately forbidden the sale of public consumed as dainties. The mode of procedure in collect- estates in the region of the auriferous sands of Siberia, ing and feeding them is as follows:-In various parts of justifies the inference that the government have made sucVorarlberg, from the beginning of June till the middle of cessful surveys in that direction, and anticipate a further August, the snails, which, as is well known, seek their profitable development of the gold-washings which have nourishment at this season in damp places, and creep been so fruitful during the last four years. Under these about gardens, hedges, coppices, and woods, are collected circumstances, it seems reasonable to expect an increase by boys and girls, and carried to the feeding-places, which of supply, of which, however, it is quite impossible to are commonly in the neighbourhood of the dwellings of estimate either the proportion or the continuance.--From the owners. These snail gardens have usually an extent a Statement drawn up by Sir E. Baynes, English consul in of from one to three hundred square fathoms of dry garden Russia. ground, are quite divested of trees and shrubs, and are surrounded on all sides by a stream of running water. The

THE FOOL'S SONG. stream, at its exit, is made to pass through a wooden grating, in order to prevent such of the snails as happen

[From ‘Der Templer und die Judiun' ('The Templar and the to fall into the water from being washed away. The

Jewess') of W. A. Wohlbrück.) grating is examined once or twice a-day, generally morning It will go better yet-it will go better yet! and evening, and the snails found there are replaced in The world it is round, and will roll if 'tis let! the interior of the garden; this is necessary, as they would 'Tis the word of a fool! but the word it is true; otherwise collect into too large quantities, and would And if you be wise, you will think so too. become weak and sickly by remaining long in the water. It will go better yet-it will go better yet! In the interior of the garden, little heaps of pine twigs, The world it is round, and will roll if 'tis let! generally of the mountain pine, mixed loosely with wood

This sighing, and moaning, and raging, and raving, moss, are placed on every two or three square fathoms,

But adds pain to pain, and new griefs to your grieving. for the purpose of protecting the snails from cold, and

Oh! shake not and shrink not in ill-look above ! especially from the scorching rays of the sun. When the

Time changes and changes wherever you rove. pine twigs become dry, and lose their leaves, they are

Oh! shake not and shrink not in ill-look above! replaced by fresh ones.

Time changes and changes wherever you rove. Every day, and particularly in damp weather, the snails are fed with the kinds of grass found most suitable for

It will go better yet-it will go better yet! them, and with cabbage leaves. In harvest, at the return

The world it is round, and will roll if 'tis let! of cold weather, they go under cover-that is, they collect

'Tis the word of a fool ! but the word it is true ; under the heaps of twigs, and bury themselves, if the And if you be wise, you will think so too. ground under these has been previously dried, two or three It will go better yet-it will go better yet! inches below the surface, and there they seal themselves The world it is round, and will roll if 'tis let! up for the winter: when this is completely accomplished, And why should you sink in a fit of despair, they are collected, packed in suitably perforated boxes Because luck for a moment has planted you there? lined with straw, and sent off.

Or why thus complain that the night is so black, Careful foddering, and a good harvest season, are When the next morning's sun will bring sunshine back? essential to the thriving of the snails; and even in spite Or why thus complain that the night is so black, of this a great many are lost. Wood snails are larger and

When the next morning's sun will bring sunshine back ? more savoury, but are more subject to casualties. In each

It will go better yet-it will go better yet ! garden there are generally fed from 15,000 to 40,000, and

The world it is round, and will roll if 'tis let! these are sold at about three florins per 1000. This manner

It will go better yet-it will go better yet! of making use of the snails is of double advantage -- free

The world it is round, and will roll if 'tis let! ing, on the one hand, fields and gardens from burdensome

'Tis the word of a fool! but the word it is true; guests; and affording, on the other, to those so employing themselves, a considerable source of profit.

And if you be wise, you will think so too.

M.S. J.

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RUSSIAN GOLD MINES.

CHAMBERS'S During the en years ending with 1846, the total quantity of fine gold produced in the dominions of the Em- INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE. peror of Russia was 8,387.96 poods, or 368,063:69 British Of the new edition of this work lately commenced, four monthly pounds troy, the value of which, at the rate of 113.001 parts, embracing sixteen weckly numbers, have now been issued, grains troy weight per pound sterling, will be L.18,761,310. and the remainder are in course of publication. The present In 1837, the quantity produced was 402.68 poods, or edition, improved in typography and general appearance, may be 17,669-60 British pounds troy, the value of which is described as almost a new work—such is the extent of the alteraL.900,673. In 1838, the quantity was 448.93 poods, or tions which it has been deemed necessary to make, in order to 19,699.06 pounds troy, and its value was L.1,001,120. In

include the later discoveries in science and the arts, and also the 1839, the quantity was 448:6l poods, or 19,685:00 pounds freshest information on subjects of general knowledge. troy, and of the value of L.1,003,403. In 1840, it amounted With few exceptions, each number or sheet is a distinct and to 498.52 poods, or 21,875:06, pounds troy, of the value of comprehensive treatise, containing the substance of a volume ; and L.1,115,037. In 1841, the quantity was 588-66 poods, or the whole are written in a style suitable, it is believed, to popular 25,830:40 pounds troy, and its value was L.1,316,653. In apprehension. Care has also been taken to arrange the subjects as 1842, the quantity was 826.58 poods, or 36,270-33 pounds nearly as possible in a natural order, all treatises of a kindred chatroy, and its value was L.1,848,808. In 1843, the quantity racter following each other. The following are the contents of the amounted to 1,178-25 poods, or 51,78161 pounds troy, four monthly parts now issued :and of the value of L.2,635,386. In 1844, the quantity was 1,220-84 poods, or 53,570-46 pounds troy, and of the

Part 1. Astronomy - Geology - Meteorology - Physical Geovalue of L.2,730,647. In 1845, the produce was 1,248:34

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Part 2. Vegetable Physiology - Systematic Botany- Animal In 1846, the quantity produced amounted to 1,586-55 poods,

Physiology. or 66,985:01 pounds troy, and of the value of L.3.414,427. Part 3. Zoology-a comprehensive treatise, in four numbers. The above return comprises the whole produce botlı of the

Part 4. Natural Philosophy-Mechanics-Hydraulics-Optics public and private mines. The Russian government levy a

and Acoustics. duty of from 12 to 24 per cent. on the produce of the private Electricity will follow; and so on. The work will be completed mines; the rate being subject to no rule, but varying in 100 numbers, or 25 parts, forming two handsome 8vo. volumes according to localities and other circumstances. During a densely-packed Cyclopædia of Useful and agreeable Information. the ten years ending with 1846, the return of produce

*** The work is sold by all booksellers. Price of a single | shows-first, that there has been scarcely any difference

number 14d.,

of a part 7d. in the supply from the Oural Mountains; secondly, that the produce of Siberia has increased more than tenfold; Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also and thirdly, that there has been an augmentation of nearly sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORB, four to one in the total annual supply. It is said that new 147 Strand, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, 21 D'Olier Street, mines have been discovered in the Qural; and the fact of Dublin.---Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.

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JOURNA

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF 'CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE,' CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

No. 222. New SERIES.

SATURDAY, APRIL 1, 1848.

Price 11d.

charity (nobody ever scruples to beg for a school), PAY AND DECORATIONS.

and the poor pedagogue suffers by the association. Gn Blas tells us that Don Hannibal de Chinchilla, Snubbed by the parson, patronised by the squire and after trying for years in vain to get some consideration his daughters, interfered with at every turn by both for his warlike services, in the course of which he had papas and mammas, who would be a schoolmaster that

been reduced to a very fragmentary state, was like to could be anything else? But is the schoolmaster the i go mad when a poet was gratified with a present of only sufferer by this anomaly? Not likely.

fire hundred ducats for an ode on the birth of an The public is tenderer towards the armed force of Infanta. In sober reality, in our own time, we have the country, perhaps from the sympathy we naturally seen a painter of undoubted merit pass into a fatal in- feel for those who expose themselves to danger. Yet sanity on seeing the exhibition of his pictures neglected, here, too, there are anomalies. Our partiality goes all while unreckonable wealth was poured upon one whose in the form of empty honour; in point of pay, the case sole merit consisted in his being about two-fifths of the of the soldier is not greatly different from that of the ordinary stature of mankind. These are types of a teacher. Perhaps the case is all the worse of the whole host of cases. Literature, history, and common honour, since it unavoidably lead to falsity of position. conversation are full of the disproportion of dignity and If not endowed with independent means, there must reward to desert. It is a system, after all, not without always be an unpleasant contrast between the external some redeeming traits; but on the whole, the unsound- pretensions of the poor officer and his actual circumDess and injustice are its prominent features.

stances ! View him in the management of his little Among authors, who are the honoured and the income. Study his ‘lady,' if he unfortunately has one. rewarded ? — not the writers of laborious instructive | The army, we suspect, is only sustained by an endless works, not the profound students who develop new and series of individual delusions, concluding in disappointbeneficent ideas for the regeneration of society, not ment. Always looked forward to as a position of diseven the bards who excogitate that which is to purge tinction ; always found, in reality, a routine of meanthe soul with pity and terror unto all time. Well off | ingless duties and a struggle with sordid circumstances; are these if they escape persecution and starvation. terminating at the best in something only a little above The coin and cheers of mankind are reserved, in great penury. Grant that money ought not to be an exclu. measure, for those who merely amuse their passing sive object, the poor officer cannot help contrasting his hours. The lighter, the more superficial and evanes- own life with that of his prosperous mercantile brother, cent the literature, the better the remuneration; the whose spendings throw ridicule on his own empty purse, more certain the ovation. Even in the division of re- and whose ultimate fortune makes half-pay sound like a sults, the immediate bit of bread is usually the author's byword and a reproach.

It would be better to have share, while in the event of the speculation being suc. humbler ideas as to a red coat at starting-to know that cessful, there is reserved for the bookseller the felicity the brilliancy of a military career means guarding carts of battening on the long-drawn copyright:

of corn to the mill or the port in Ireland, serving as an * The court awards it, and the law doth give it.'

armed police over refractory operatives at Birmingham,

and becoming constables to protect New Zealand settlers Perhaps this is an extreme way of stating the case ; from the unruly natives. Were it regarded as simply but undoubtedly the temptations presented to the man a position of usefulness, like that of the professional of letters are not to great, but to trivial works, and the man or tradesman, it would call forth a different class book tradesman has ten chances of thriving for one of minds; and there is no reason to suppose that these within the hope of the mind-devoting author.

would be less fitted for the purpose. Mankind have a perfect sense of the absurdities in- It is one of the good traits of the system that the volved in such anomalies, but they seem helpless to productively useful, as a class, and as against the classes remedy them. Since ever we can remember, the small which are not productively useful, are, when they congains of teachers, as contrasted with the immense fine themselves to practical objects, well rewarded. utility of the men to society, have been heartily and The world has never known such wealth as industry universally acknowledged. , It has been a case like that has within the last century brought to England. Even of Dolph Heyliger's mother, for whom people always the landed aristocracy have derived their noted wealth, said that something ought to be done, but yet never and consequently no small part of their importance, did anything. The point of credit and dignity seems from the value which the industry of the country has to be in as sad a state. All admit that the teacher conferred on land. This is so far gratifying. In the case should be held in honour ; but nobody ever acts on of the individual, our sympathies will sometimes prethe idea. There is an inveterate tendency to look vent us from seeing the matter clearly ; but when the on schooling as something necessarily connected with general case is presented, and we find that services tending to a practical and positive good are more sure means, is an astounding consideration for modern men. of high remuneration than services which merely gra- For the warlike fame and force which made one master tify the violent passions of mankind, or at best remedy over others in the middle ages, there now comes the their consequences, we feel as if a great requirement in power of Capital, the command of the lockers and storethe fitness of things were yielded to, and a great law houses in which the food and raiment of mankind are observed. Perhaps the triumphs of all occupations and accumulated. The possession of a key to these recepprofessions could be shown as founded remotely in a tacles is what makes thousands fall under the will of one, principle of philanthropy--the thriving being in propor- helping him to store still more and more up in reserve, tion to the good design kept in view with regard to the till his puissance attains a pitch almost fearful to look public, or the good actually effected towards the com- upon, by reason of the contrast it presents with regard munity. Thus a mass of manufacturers who should, by to the laggard fortunes of those who daily spend the their ingenuity and industry, cause clothing to be twice daily gain. How far the actual merit can be said to go as easily obtainable by the masses as it had formerly been, hand in hand with the increased power, need scarcely would have a good chance of exceeding all their com- become matter of discussion. The two things are notopeers in prosperity. And such would relatively be the riously independent of each other. case with the practisers of a system of agriculture causing If absolute merit be little regarded in the distribution two blades to grow for one, and thus cheapening food. of pay, it is no better kept in view in the matter of It is essential, however, to all such benefactors of their honours. A man is more apt to fall at the feet of a kind, that they see to their own special remunerations dog which has saved his own life, than to pay homage in a purely commercial spirit, and in accordance with to the greatest of sages, who never conferred on him commercial methods; for society has as yet no regular any particular obligation. The army is here in luck; or consistent means of rewarding great benefactors of for we appreciate, as matter for approbation and honour, the disinterested species, and no one can doubt of it as the services of those who take risks in our behalf; and a possible event, that a man who had devised the saving accordingly no small portion of the honours which the of annual thousands of lives, should yet be allowed to state can confer, is reserved for the military, while breathe out his own in hopeless penury. Bating this sages and gentlemen of the pen are left to obtain, if drawback, it is so far satisfactory that lines of vocation they can, distinctions wanting the government stamp. which clearly and directly contemplate the wellbeing It were foolish to rail too violently at such things, since of mankind, are those which it is safest and most pro- it must be a deep-seated tendency of human nature to fitable to have to do with.

be actuated more by its feelings—we might almost say It is, on the other hand, distressing to consider, that its instincts—than its intelligence; and who is to arbiwithin the range of these productive and useful occu- trate between a writer and his race? Let us live in pations, the success, in special cases, does not depend hope, nevertheless, that something like a regulation of on the highest and noblest of human qualities, but the impulsive by the reasonable will come in time, and partly on a group of faculties and feelings which are no that decorations, as well as pay, will be distributed more than secondary in the great scale of humanity, more in accordance with justice towards real, though and partly, and perhaps in a superior degree, on mere not immediately operative or significant merit. good fortune. Many men of very noble qualities are undoubtedly engaged in industrial pursuits; but they

GOSSE'S BIRDS OF JAMAICA. would all acknowledge that, for the transaction of business, they have to place in abeyance both their best in- | This is the work of a minute and faithful observer of tellectual faculties and their loftiest moral aspirations, nature. Mr Gosse appears to have studied the birds of and call forth into exercise mere sharpness or clever Jamaica in their woodland homes; like Wilson, he has ness, and consult acquisitiveness and love of approba- shot and described for himself; or at the most, he has tion somewhat more than benevolence or justice. We only accepted the assistance of one or two enthusiastic have known many successful men who had the grace to resident naturalists of his own stamp. The result is a acknowledge that it was even so. We have known book composed wholly of original observation, and more others who had the manliness to admit how much they readable and entertaining than books of natural hisfelt to be owing, in their case, to chance, even while the tory now generally are. Jamaica possesses, besides a world gave them credit for an unusual display of the moderate show of the swimming and wading birds, and personal qualities which are most likely to promote a small group of the accipitres, a great variety of the prosperity. Such being the determining conditions, it perchers and climbers—comprising not merely the crows, is not to be presumed that the most successful are the starlings, thrushes, finches, and swallows, which are commost worthy, or the least successful the least worthy. mon with us, but sundry species of parrots, fly-catchers, The fact is, that all occupations call for a modification honey-suckers, and humming-birds, which we only know or adaptation of human nature for their own needs or

as strangers, or from their appearance in museums. Reduties. The requirements of mercantile life are some garding the last of these families, Mr Gosse presents & thing not perfect as to absolute human nature, but per: while devotedly fond of the juices of flowers, and will

great deal of new information. He has discovered that, fect as to mercantile life. There must be good, but not brilliant ability ; enterprise, but not rashness; and so

eagerly suck dissolved sugar, they look chiefly to minute forth.. Often, too, it must happen that the dullest insects for their sustenance. qualities, exercised with quiet perseverance and cau

The fine woods of the Bluefields range of mountains tion, make in time that result which even more perfect

are a favourite haunt of the long-tailed humming-bird mercantile character will forfeit by one false or unfor- | (Trochilus polytmus). To pursue our author's description, tunate step. So, then, distribution may be faulty as

Not a tree, from the thickness of one's wrist up to the to persons, even where it is most just as to classes.

giant magnitude of the hoary figs and cotton trees, but There is even an inequality with respect to the diffe- is clothed with fantastic parasites : begonias with waxen rent portions of one career. Commencements are usually flowers, and ferns with hirsute stems, climb up the trunks; attended by immense difficulties. The saving of the

enormous bromelias spring from the greater forks, and first sovereign costs a fearful struggle, not merely with fringe the horizontal limbs; various orchidea with matted appetite for expense, but with necessity. The first few roots and grotesque blossoms droop from every bough, and years may be passed in the greatest prudence, but they loftiest branches, or stretch from tree to tree. Elegant

long lianes, like the cordage of a ship, depend from the only serve to overcome the general disposition to fear tree-ferns, and towering palms are numerous; here and and suspect the untried. Afterwards, money, almost there the wild plantain or heliconia wares its long flagsaves itself, and character flourishes, although the primary brightness of virtue may have been dabbled a little in the muddy ways of the world. The might that lies, Richard Will, Esq. of Spanish-Town. London: Van Voorst,

* The Birds of Jamaica. By Philip Henry Gosse; assisted by for the control of human destiny, in the first savings of 1847. Pp. 448.

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