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been conducted to connect the basin of the Danube valley between Toblach and Lienz, such a proceeding with the plain of Lombardy, whilst a readier access to is unnecessary, since specimens are well seen from the shores of the Adriatic, from the upper part of that several points of the vale; and at Innichen they come vast basin, has been given by the recently-formed road down, in eminences of moderate elevation, close to the over the Ampezzo Pass.
road. The path we are now describing leads right A glance at the map will show that, for the length of across the range, and its rocks are seen to great advanabout eighty miles, the southern part of the Tyrol is tage in all their varieties. traversed by a deep groove, running nearly east and Höllenstein being passed, we reach another sheet of west. This groove is termed the Vale of Puster; but water, through which the road is carried by means of a singularly enough, it is formed of two valleys. The raised terrace. By this time I began to feel the pangs whole may be compared to a long narrow trough, the of hunger, and a small inn presenting itself opportunely bottom of which slopes from the middle to each end; at a turn, I entered, and inquired what edibles could be and from the middle, therefore, the streams flow in procured. A mutton chop? No. A veal cutlet? No. opposite directions. At this point there is a mile or Nothing but boiled beef, and, as usual, boiled to rags, in two of elevated table-land, called the Plain of Toblach, the German fashion—a dish that for nearly a week I which is found noticed in the annals of the country as had been compelled to feed upon. No potatoes, or the arena of a bloody contest. Through the Puster indeed vegetables of any kind, were to be had, and valley runs one of the principal post roads of the Tyrol; even the meat looked so abominably like horse flesh, and one day last summer I travelled along it from that my knife and fork sickened at the sight, and in a Lienz as far as Niederdorf, with the intention of inves- hurry the dish was sent away just as it came. At tigating the branch road over the Ampezzo, which that moment a hen came hopping in front of the win. quits the former on the Plain of Toblach. Sleeping at dow, and a happy thought struck me-perhaps they had Niederdorf, I started betimes, and in less than an hour heard of eggs! Eggs, in fact, were found; half-a-dozen reached the tall wooden cross that marks from afar the ordered to be boiled ; and during the operation I looked point of divergence. The new road sweeps at once into forward with pleasurable anticipations to a tolerable the jaws of the mountains. In the first ravine lies a meal. Imagine my disappointment when the six eggs small shallow sheet of water, called the Toblacher See, were brought in rolling about on a plate, stripped of such as we should call a tarn in the north of England. their shells, and as hard as stone! But for an embankment at the foot, all the water would It was not long before I was treading the summit run out; and perhaps it is only retained for the sake of level of the Pass, which is gloomy, from the quantity of the fish, which appeared to be numerous. I turned pine-wood. There is a peak in the neighbourhood with aside a few yards in order to view the precipices at the deep stains of blood-red, as if the top had once formed head of the ravine, across the sheet of water, and I an altar for some sanguinary sacrifice. A gentle descent strongly recommend all travellers to do the like, for the leads down to some buildings called Ospitale, from their effect was very striking. Soon after leaving the lake having formerly been a hospice or place of refuge, chabehind, we pass through two magnificent portals of ritably founded, and tenanted by monks. The principal dolomite, bare rocks, rising to the height of several dwelling is now an inn. The chapel is yet in existence, hundred feet above the road, and then find ourselves swept clean, and garnished with a little furniture, and fairly admitted into the Pass, for we have now no longer the bell still hangs over the roof. How indescribably a view into the vale below. At Höllenstein, a name I solemn must its faint tones have sounded amongst the would rather leave in its original tongue, there is a neat- hollows of those gigantic mountains, when it called its looking inn and post-house standing on the margin of hearers, a few holy men, to join in the services of the a level green meadow. The rocks around this recess church, or when it knelled over the remains of some are uncommonly fine. The dolomitic peaks, for which storm-lost wayfarer as the brethren consigned them to this part of the Tyrol is remarkable, are seen rising strange earth! above the pine forests on all sides. One mass in par- A short distance below the hospital, the ruins of ticular rivets the eye with its long jagged ridge, in the Beuklstein Castle are seen in relief against a mountain midst of which there is a deep notch holding a glacier. black with pines. The formation of the road has here These curious mountains have sadly puzzled geologists, been attended with great labour. It is supported along to whom they are a constant object of examination. the hill flanks by immense accumulations of earth, and Mr Murray has described their appearance so accu- is carried, by bridges of wood and stone, across divers rately in his . Handbook,' that I shall take the liberty of streams and gullies. One of the finest stations on the transcribing his words. The dolomite mountains are whole path is at one of the wooden bridges. On the unlike any other mountains, and are to be seen nowhere right hand, immediately above the spectator, but at a else among the Alps. They arrest the attention by the great height, the eye runs up a gully, and at length singularity and picturesqueness of their forms, by their reaches a huge hole in the rocky ridge, through which sharp peaks or horns, sometimes rising up in pinnacles the sky is plainly visible. In another direction there and obelisks, at others extending in serrated ridges, is a mighty pile of rock, which, by the illusion of disteethed like the jaw of an alligator ; now fencing in the tance, seems belted with spiral terraces, like another valley with an escarped precipice many thousand feet tower of Babel. When I had gained the neighbourhood high, and often cleft with numerous fissures, all running of the castle I quitted the road for the sward that slopes nearly vertically. They are perfectly barren, destitute gently up the nape of its peninsulated rock, and getting of vegetation of any sort, and generally of a light yellow over the outer wall, climbed to the highest fragment of or whitish colour.'Von Buch, the mineralogist, started the crumbling ruin. I shall never forget the singularity a theory respecting them, which has been adopted and magnificence of the scene from that point. My by many geologists, though others have dissented position commanded views in three directions : first, from it. He supposed that a bed of mountain lime there was the vale I had just travelled through; then, stone had been violently displaced, and thrown into deep, deep beneath, there was a recess that appeared to a vertical position, by an outburst from underneath be a common vestibule to several others that branched of melaphyr or pyroxenic porphyry-an igneous rock, off among the hills ; lastly, there was another vale, more which has a base of augite or pyroxene, holding crys- broad and open than either, along which the collected tals of felspar—and that magnesia in a state of vapour streams from the glaciers find their way into the was evolved by the melted rock, and penetrating the sunny Adriatic; and this last the route taken by the heated limestone, gave it the crystalline structure of road to Venice. The castle of Potestagno, as the Itadolomite. The guide-books recommend travellers to lians term it, has been built on the extreme verge of a visit the secluded valleys of the Gader and the Gröd- precipice at least one thousand feet high, a spur from ner, for the purpose of inspecting the dolomite rocks. the grand Alps. It stands at the angle of three radiatFor those, however, who have traversed the Pustering vales, and looks, like a wary warder, right down that along which an enemy from the powerful south pretty fiercely to one, and the noise caused a woman to might be most probably expected. The new road descend from the upper part of the house; but being down to this point has been several degrees removed unable to make her comprehend what I wanted, I from the perpendicular; in fact its gradient has been thought there would be no harm if I extended my easy. But now it arrives at the edge of a steep step, search above stairs. There I stumbled into a room and much circumspection is required to effect a safe where there were papers and letters scattered about, descent. That done, by means of a bold curve, followed giving the place an official look. A man was writing by some tourniquetting, it runs forward in a straight at a table. "Doubtless, thought I, here I have got into line from under the eye, until lost in the long-drawn the august presence of the post-master himself; and I valley. Lifting one's gaze from the vales to the tower- began a short address of deprecation and request, be ing peaks around them, we are struck with astonish- ginning, “Signor,' but could not muster another word; ment by the variety and strangeness of their shapes. so I repeated signor.' The man of office came to my Too grand to admit the feeling of grotesqueness, too relief by speaking in German. But when I began to fantastic to include a sense of the true sublime, they feel at my ease, and ordered some refreshment to be rise above the forests that clothe their feet in naked brought, I discovered I had made the old mistake of and inaccessible majesty, their white rocks exposed to taking a private house for a caravansary. The man the day, as if a thousand tempests had gathered their good-naturedly put on his hat and took me to an inn whole energies for a single stroke, and, by one explosion near at hand. By this time I had become acquainted of their wrath, had stripped the mountains of their with the fact, that the entertaining-rooms of the inns in covering, as the lightning strips a tree of its bark. this country were on the first floor, the lower rooms be
I left my precarious standing-place with caution: 1ing appropriated to domestic uses. At the Star,' then, did not see exactly where a slip would terminate. In- I proceeded at once up stairs, and soon had a savoury stead of rejoining the high road immediately, I made dinner before me. The rain descended in torrents, down a bank towards an old wooden foot-bridge visible and forbade the execution of my plan, for this day at from above. This bridge is placed across the stream least, of proceeding across the hills into the Gader valflowing from the Pass, shortly before it reaches the ley. There was no help for it but patience; and in the precipice whereon the castle is planted. I found it hope of the morrow proving propitious, I employed my so crazy an affair, that I had some doubts whether it thoughts upon the exceeding beauties of the path I had would be prudent to place my foot upon it; but I travelled over during the day. Broad enough to hold crossed safely by a hurried movement, refraining from five carriages abreast, it wound its way amongst the puzzling my eyes with the fearful gulf beneath. The hills, in spite of obstacles, with such easy inclinations, path on the other side was narrow, much broken away, that the traveller requires no extra horses to pull his and required a steady head, as it conducted along the vehicle up the steeps, and need scarcely have his wheels very brink of the ravine through which the stream locked once on the descents. True, the height of the wormed its way, at a dizzying depth below, to join the Pass is much lower than most of the other roads across Borta. I was rewarded, however, by the splendid view main ranges of Alps, for it does not leave behind the of the castled rock which it presented, seen hence in climate of pines: there are no tunnels, and little danger distinct profile. Two women whom I met on the high- from avalanches, the cause of so much damage to the way, in answer to my inquiry as to the distance of Stelvio and the Splugen; yet the Ampezzo Pass afCortina, said, ' Una ora. The first words of a new lan- forded me, with its extraordinary scenery, one of the guage always startle one; hitherto I had heard nothing most delightful rambles I ever remember to have taken. but German, and these were the first words of Italian When I awoke the following morning, the rain was that saluted my ear. On referring to my map, I saw falling in a calm business-like manner, as if it had made that the names of the bills and villages were all Italian, up its mind to go on for a month. It seemed quite clear and my guide-book informed me that the valley I was that I must continue upon main roads, and not think of now walking in—the Val Ampezzo-had belonged to mountain by-paths. Two courses were open-either to the Venetians, until the Emperor Maximilian took it pay a visit to Venice, about 110 miles distant, or to from them, and annexed it to the Tyrol. To my left return the way I had come. Venice had great attracwas a massive wall of dolomite, of amazing height, rent tions, but my wardrobe was not fitted for the inspection in several spots from top to bottom. When this ended, of civilised eyes, being confined to the smallest possible I looked into a side vale, and with some chagrin per- compass, so as to be easily carried in a single knapsack. ceived the mists creeping down it. Very soon they I gave up the idea of Venice with a sigh, and loitered appeared over other heights, and began descending into about until after dinner; then, like a discomfited 'vathe valley; but pushing forward to Cortina, I succeeded grom man,' I shouldered my pack, and marched with a in reaching it before the rain commenced.
rebellious mind towards the north. I ought to mention, All through the Tyrol this had been the arrange- as a specimen of the low charges of the Tyrol, that my ment of rooms in the inns:-On one side of the bill at the 'Star' for two dinners, bed, breakfast, and entrance, and on the ground-floor, there was the guests' three flasks of wine, amounted to half-a-crown! With reception-room; and on the other side, or beyond, the maid who waited upon me, the landlord's daughter, were the kitchens and private rooms of the house. I was obliged to communicate by signs. She was atFrequently the entrance was a wide passage, paved tired in a peculiarly pleasing manner : her tight-fitting with stones, or flagged, into which carriages and carts bodice, laced in front, and little cloth cap with a long were wheeled out of the wet. At Cortina there was tassel, gave her so picturesque and classic an appear. a new order of things, and this, combined with my ance, that I lamented her nose was slightly, though ignorance of Italian, occasioned me much perplexity. I very slightly, retroussé, instead of the Grecian form; walked into the principal inn, a large building, highly and I lamented still more that I could not learn from recommended in the guide-book, but searched in vain her whether she had ever left her native valley, or for anything like a room that I could sit down in. A where she had studied the æsthetics of dress. As I servant girl came to me, and looked upon my wander- said before, I re-trod the road I had traversed the ings apparently with some amusement; but as we could preceding day. Stretching a black waterproof cape not understand one another, she threw no light upon over my shoulders, to the intense amusement of some the mystery, and I left the house with an indignation I little boys congregated under a gateway, I pushed over have now reason to be ashamed of. Trudging farther the hills without stopping, until I reached my night into the village, I encountered the post-house, and con- quarters in the Puster valley. All the beauty of the Pass cluded at once that it was also an inn, as post-houses was blotted out by low drooping mists. I hurried on, usually are. Again I endeavoured to find on the mortified by my total defeat. The evening had closed ground-floor the guests' salle à manger ; but, worse and in by the time I reached Niederdorf. After a twenty worse, all the doors were locked. "I applied my stick miles' walk, I felt much tempted to put up again at
my former lodging; and in truth it was hard work names of all the articles in the room, and of a great leaving the lights of the village for three additional number of animals. The latter I explained by imitatmiles of darkness; but I had fixed on Welsberg for a ing the sound of the animal: thus the word ox, moo, resting-place.
moo; sheep, may-ay; dog, bow-ow ; cock, cock-akoo-hoo,
&c. an exercise in which he delighted and excelled. The AKKATOOK, THE ESQUIMAUX BOY.
meaning of verbs I endeavoured to explain by going
through the action they express; but as may be supThe whalers of the port of Kirkcaldy, which make an posed, words expressing quality and manner, adjectives annual visit to the stormy, ice-bound shores of Davis' and adverbs, caused the greatest difficulty. Akkatook Straits, have often gratified us with live specimens of was a shrewd observer, and displayed remarkable probears, wolves, foxes, and such-like members of the infe- ficiency in the habits of native life. He knew the number rior creation; but last autumn they presented us with an of dogs belonging to every individual in his tribe, and importation of a different kind, being nothing less than most of their names. Nothing pleased him more than a fine Esquimaux boy, named Akkatook. His father pictures of animals with which he had been acquainted is, or rather was, chief of one of the small tribes who in the far north. On showing one day specimens of the contrive to pick up a miserable subsistence on the ptarmigan in its winter, spring, and summer plumage, western shores of these Straits, and hold occasional inter- he recognised it instantly; and lighting a bit of paper, course with the vessels when they happen to approach pointed out the different altitudes of the sun, to show the land. Yielding to the boy's curiosity, and influ- the season of each dress. A representation of the capenced no doubt by their notions of the wonderful country ture of a whale threw him into raptures, and he acted from which the large ships and fine things come, his the part of the harpooner to the life. He was admirable parents delivered him over to Captain Kinnear of the at finding and following the trail of an animal; and with * Caledonia,' with strict injunctions to take care of him, his bow and arrow, would pursue small birds for a whole and under a solemn promise to bring him back next day, along hedges, and through thorny brakes, with season. When received on board, the boy was covered wonderful success. As an instance of his quick-sightedwith the grease and filth inseparable from the native ness: I had lost a small key in the dusk of the evening, habits; but under the hands of the sailors, he soon and sent my own boys to find it; but in vain. Just as underwent a thorough renovation, and became a great we had given up the search, Akkatook made his apand general favourite. At first, the new dietary was far pearance. Taking another key from my pocket to show from palatable, and he might be seen making slyly free him what I wanted, he set out with the speed and keenwith such pieces of blubber and drops of oil as came in ness of a pointer; and beginning with a large circuit, his way; but be soon became perfectly reconciled to the he contracted it at each round, and in an incredibly change, and relished the delicacies of civilised cookery short time placed the lost article in my hand. His as much as any on board. His dress consisted of natural disposition was exceedingly amiable, and his tronsers, coat, hood, and boots, all of seal-skin, neatly filial affection strong. One night as he sat musing and sewed, and tastefully figured with threads and braid of melancholy, looking into the fire, his kind hostess, who sinew, the smooth glossy hair giving it a variegated felt a truly maternal interest in his welfare, asked what and very beautiful appearance. The skirt of the coat was the matter; when laying his hand on his breast, was of one piece, and descended almost to his heels, and with tears in his eyes, he said, 'Apukia-Apukia!' making him look like a large monkey.
which was his mother's name. His father had two What were Akkatook's feelings when he arrived in wives, and it was remarked that he never mentioned this country it is difficult to conceive. A greater change the other. Thus in some traits at least, human nature than from the barren, treeless, houseless, snow-clad is the same amid the polar snows as in the more conshores of Davis' Straits, to the towns, gardens, and genial regions of the south. fields of Scotland, cannot be imagined. It was literally The favour which Akkatook obtained, especially a new earth' to him; everything wonderful, incompre- among the young, was as general as the interest he hensible; yet he deported himself with marvellous pro-excited. Wo to the luckless urchin who would have priety, and was scarcely less a wonder to us than the dared maltreat him! At the tables of the wealthy, far country must have been to him. Akkatook was thir- and near, he was feasted and caressed. A kind invitateen years of age, and of low stature, with a broad roundtion reached him from the Duke of Buccleuch ; and it chest, short neck, and long, lank, glossy hair, black as is almost needless to say he returned with substantial the raven's wing ; skin soft as velvet, of a hue between proofs of his Grace's kindness. The tact he displayed the negro and red Indian ; the eye dark and lively; and in conforming to our conventional rules of good-breedhis general expression highly agreeable. The foreheading was truly astonishing. The only habit he found it was rather low; but he was of quick apprehension, and difficult to overcome, was that of going away at meals his general abilities were good. I should say he was as soon as he was satisfied. The attractions of the deficient in bone and muscle, and proportionally in window, or rather of the moving world in the street, he strength, compared with our boys of his size and could not resist. On a fine day in early spring, a famous mould.
regatta was got up, in which our polar hero played a The best school for Akkatook was free and frequent principal part. Troops of the curious lined the shore intercourse with other boys. He necessarily wanted for upwards of a mile. Among a number of boats, all many of those elementary ideas which are acquired in gaily decked out, might be seen his frail bark canoe, childhood, and form the groundwork of all education. himself seated in the centre, in his native dress, having But it was deemed expedient to make some direct efforts a single oar, double-bladed, and poised before him, with for his improvement, and two gentlemen were selected which he struck the water on each side alternately, and for this purpose, of whom the writer was one. I con- impelled it along with amazing speed, to the infinite fess I had previously no idea of the difficulties that had amusement of the crowd. to be encountered. As my pupil's term was to be very As the time for his departure drew near, presents short, I was anxious to teach him all I could; but his poured in in great abundance and variety ; some of total ignorance of our language precluded all access to which, by the way, were sufficiently remarkable, conhis mind except by signs. I resolved to reach his under- sidering the country in which he was to live. It is standing in every possible way, and the expedients were worthy of notice, as a general rule, that the higher the sometimes amusing enough. After teaching him the station of the donors, the more appropriate were the letters, and exercising him in the more difficult sounds, I gifts, thus evincing proportionate judgment and taste selected a spelling-book which abounds with the names in the selection. He embarked in his old ship, the of familiar objects, in order to accustom him to con- • Caledonia,' whose officers tell us that his progress in nect the sign with the thing signified. With a multi- English during the voyage was matter of general retude of nouns I found no difficulty; he soon knew the mark and surprise ; and indeed it was evident, before his departure from Kirkcaldy, that his mind was full, long be eclipsed by the energy of some other maritime and just on the eve of bursting forth, like a bud in nations of the west of more large and generous views; spring. But the voyage proved unfortunate: the good and the Indian mariners will become merchants iostead old • Caledonia,' crushed between two floes of ice, became of pirates ; and instead of creeping within the circle of a total wreck, the sailors having just sufficient time to their thousand isles, their flag will be seen in the farthest save their lives and a few articles of clothing. In this emporium of the Asiatic and Australian continents. It disaster nearly all his valuable presents were lost. is supposed by some that these groups in the aggregate After this he was transferred to the Chieftain,' and-known to the Arabs under the name of the Twelve ultimately delivered to his kindred, with one or two Thousand Islands, and said by Marco Polo to comprise fowling-pieces saved from the wreck, and an ample | 7448 isles-contain a population of nearly forty millions, supply of ammunition from the ship's stores. His though the estimate of recent Dutch authorities falls father, Makkarook, had died during his absence. considerably short of half that amount. Even taking
Thus ended the visit of Akkatook, of which different the lowest estimate, however, the country must be conopinions will be entertained. Some will doubt the pro- sidered of high importance; and indeed, though compriety of bringing him to this country at all, especially paratively little has been done either to extend the con. when his stay was to be so short and unproductive; sumption of our own goods, or to stimulate the natives and we fear that prudent benevolence will pronounce to develop the resources of their several countries, a against it, as preparing him for discomforts and dissatis- pretty considerable trade is actually carried on with factions which otherwise he had never known; but articles produced in Great Britain, or in the British there can be little doubt that the partial training in colonies and dependencies, though not immediately by civilised habits which he enjoyed amongst us, and the our own countrymen. We have hitherto contented our smattering of our language which he was able to pick selves, however, with establishing at Singapore a mart, up, will prove advantageous as respects his own people where inexhaustible supplies might be obtained, and and their intercourse with whalers. His safe return have left it to the native merchants to distribute our will alone be useful as an instance of the integrity of commodities according to their own means and inclinathe English in keeping their promise. What was ef- tions. The chief persons engaged in this traffic are the fected for Akkatook's education may be said to demon- Bugis, natives of Celebes, who, ever since their first ap. strate the improvability of the Esquimaux, and how pearance in history, have been famous for their daring much could be done for them by a repetition of such and industry. Being almost wholly given up to mari. visits as that now described. The only subject for re- time pursuits, they possess numerous prahus, or small gret is, that Akkatook's stay in Scotland was so short. vessels, in which they fearlessly traverse the seas, and Had he remained for a few years, he might have been brave the worst system of piracy that, to all appear. rendered available as a missionary of arts and religion ance, ever followed in the wake of commerce. These to his tribe-one of that noble band who, in different prahus will carry cargoes varying in value from ten to parts of the world, are toiling in the cause of humanity forty thousand Spanish dollars; and as the Bugis are and mercy.
believed to possess several hundreds of such craft, some
idea may be formed of the extent of their mercantile THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.
Formerly, the native merchants resorted to Batavia Tas attention recently excited towards the Indian for their annual supply of European goods ; but since Archipelago, is owing to peculiar circumstances — at the establishment of Singapore in 1819, they have very least so far as the body of the public is concerned— much preferred dealing with the English, chiefly, permore of a romantic than practical nature. Perhaps a haps, on account of the freedom of our port and the reabrief sketch of the trade, resources, and business pro sonableness of our prices. This circumstance, however, spects of that great island country, may be considered has excited much jealousy and ill-will among the Dutch, an acceptable contribution to the general stock of who, having in vain endeavoured to allure them back knowledge on the subject, and one likely to strengthen, to Batavia, Samarang, and Somabaya in Java, have reand turn to useful account, the impressions left by more cently conferred the privilege of a free port on Macassar popular and exciting details.
in Celebes, in the hope of at least sharing the commerThe Archipelago covers an area of between five and cial advantages for many years possessed almost exclusix million statute miles, including land and water; and sively by the English. But there appears to be somelies directly in the ocean route between the eastern na- thing like caprice in the course taken at different times tions from the Arabian Sea to the Sea of Japan, and by commerce. The Bugis, having once forsaken the midway between this route and the Australian con- Dutch markets, are unwilling to revert to them, so that tinent. By sailing vessels, its eastern extremity is hitherto little progress has been made towards turning only three days from China, and its western only three the trade of the Archipelago into its ancient channels. weeks from Arabia. On the west it is entered by the Besides, the new settlement on Labuan will now confer Straits of Malacca, between the Malay peninsula (dotted on us additional influence, and greatly facilitate the with the British settlements of Penang, Malacca, and commercial speculations of our countrymen.. Singapore) and the island of Sumatra ; and the Straits The Bugis, in numbers varying greatly in different of Sunda between Sumatra and Java. On the east years, taking advantage of the easterly monsoon, usually there are various wide passages or channels, taking set sail for Singapore about the month of September. their names from the great islands of Luzon, New On their arrival, understanding the value of time, they Guinea, &c. On the south the inlets are narrow and diligently apply themselves, by barter or otherwise, to intricate ; and on the north and north-west spreads the the purchase of a suitable cargo, consisting of brightcontinent of Asia. The whole of the Archipelago is coloured cottons, firearms, gunpowder, cutlery, arrack, comprehended within the tropics, the equinoctial line and opium. It has been remarked that the natives of running through the centre of the region.
Celebes themselves prefer their own cotton fabrics, Such is the geographical position of a country which which are much stronger than ours, and of more showy would appear from its site and other natural advantages and brilliant patterns; but elsewhere throughout the to be destined for the seat of a great commercial empire. Archipelago, British goods are much coveted, partly for * Their boats and canoes,' says Crawford, “are to the their cheapness, but partly also for their lightness and Indian islanders what the camel, the horse, and the ox elegance. Our manufacturers, however, should be reare to the wandering Arab and the Tartar; and the sea minded, that if we desire to maintain our hold on that is to them what the desert and the steppes are to the rapidly-growing market, we must be careful to employ latter ;' and a more recent writer remarks, that the bright and fast colours, as the natives are at first taken seemingly permanent dominion founded there by the by show, but must be retained by the excellence of the mean and huckster-like policy of the Dutch, will ere articles we supply them.
Having completed their cargoes, the Bugis sail east- Kissa, of Gilolo and Oram, and of the Ky and Tenimber ward, distributing, as they advance, the produce of our groups, each in his own characteristic costume, and looms and forges, and other forms of industry, among prahu of peculiar construction. the innumerable islands of the Archipelago, receiving Over the whole of this motley assemblage the Bugis in exchange the gold, diamonds, and camphor of Kala- exercise the greatest influence, from the energy and mantan or Borneo, the rice of Bali, the eggs and fierceness of their characters, their knowledge of the poultry of Sanbock, the coarse sugars of Sumbawa, and world, and habits of command. The love of gain is the edible birds'-nests, trepang-pearls, tortoise-shell, their ruling passion, while the natives of the more ebony, nutmegs, cloves, and other spices of the Arru easterly groups appear to value nothing so highly islands and New Guinea.
as the enjoyment of ease. For this reason, the bold On almost every one of the articles just enumerated merchants of the west, placing no reliance on their & paper full of interest might be written. The tre- enterprise, hire and equip, immediately on their arrival, pang fishery, for example, which depends chiefly for its numerous small prahus adapted to the navigation of existence on the peculiar luxury of the Chinese, would the neighbouring seas, and send them forth in all disupply numerous striking pictures illustrating the man- rections in search of such articles as happen to be in ners and character of tribes in various stages of civili- most request, taking advantage of that season of calm sation ; so likewise would the occupation of searching and beautiful weather which occurs between the monfor the edible birds'-nests, exposed as it is to innumer
From the various isles and islets of the Arru able dangers on those wild and desolate coasts, where group they obtain pearls, mother-of-pearl, tortoisethe sea-swallow delights to build. The same remark shell, trepang, and birds of paradise. These birds are will apply to the working of the gold and diamond shot with arrows by the natives, who, having disemmines among the mountains in the interior of Borneo, bowelled them, wrap them in a thin leaf, and hang them by reckless Chinese adventurers, who exhibit the in- up to dry in the smoke of their fires, after which they genuity and daring of smugglers in the arts to which are fit for exportation. they have recourse for defrauding the several chiefs Along the coasts of New Guinea, familiar to those and governments under whose protection they labour ; eastern navigators, though not to us, the Bugis and the collection of the camphor gum in remote and un- their agents collect tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl, birds frequented forests; the cultivation of the spice-trees of paradise, ebony, ambergris, nutmegs, cloves, massay in the Moluccas; the preparation and pearling of sago, bark, rosamala, and odoriferous wood, and kayu-baknwith the great improvements constantly introduced into a wood much prized for cabinet-work. On the extent these processes.
of the resources of Papua it may be rash to hazard an When they have made the circuit of the Archipelago, opinion, because by far the greater part of the island and reached the Arru group, the Bugis, and other na- remains hitherto unexplored. We venture, neverthetive traders, make directly for the village of Dobbo, less, to anticipate, that when Captain Stanley shall have erected on a spot of sand projecting northward from the surveyed the coasts, and examined the banks of the coast of Wama. During the rest of the year, this great rivers, it will be found that no island in the village, like Berbera, on the eastern coast of Africa, is castern seas is richer, or more deserving of attention. totally uninhabited. In fact the merchants and traders A large proportion of the slaves scattered through the Do sooner depart, than the islanders set fire to the eastern parts of the Indian Archipelago are thence obhouses which had been erected for their accommoda- tained, and it likewise supplies the native navigators, tion, in order to be next year employed in building who frequent it, with immense quantities of provisions. new ones. Immediately, however, on the appearance Its timber, like that of the Arru islands, is of the most of the first prahu in the offing, the Arrafuras of Wama magnificent description, particularly adapted for shipflock towards Dobbo, bearing along with them beams building; and we may, without a figure of speech, proand rafters, with an abundance of atap, or palm-leaves, nounce its forests to be inexhaustible. for the thatching of the newly-constructed dwellings. When the smaller prahus have obtained cargoes, they Where there was before the most complete solitude, return to Dobbo, where, on the approach of the easterly there is now the greatest bustle. Merchants and mari- monsoon, preparations are made for sailing once more ners throng the beach ; the prahus are drawn ashore, towards the setting sun. One feature observable in the and protected from the weather by sheds ; houses are aspect of this fair world greatly offends the eye of a run up as if by magic; and the goods of the seafarers European-we mean the number of slaves, particularly having been deposited in them, are defended by the women and children, kidnapped from the most distant guns of their vessels, which are ranged round the habi- isles, and assembled here to be speedily afterwards distations, loaded, and ready for use. Five or six thousand persed in servitude. On this subject a great difference strangers often find themselves thus suddenly encamped of opinion exists between English and Dutch writers; together, collected from the four winds, for the purpose the latter contending that slavery in the Archipelago of selling on that remote outpost of Asia the cottons of is not accompanied by so many evils as elsewhere, while Manchester and Glasgow to the crisp-haired blacks of the former maintain that the atrocities of the system Polynesia.
nowhere display themselves in a manner more shocking Nearly all the inhabitants of this suddenly-created to humanity. All the disclosures which have come to emporium are foreigners, who dislike the presence of our knowledge, incline us to take the latter view of the natives among them, either because they are ad- the question. But we shall not now enlarge on this dicted to pilfering, or for other reasons found good in unpleasant topic; though it may be permitted us to trade. The vessels which are too large to be drawn remark by the way, that a considerable proportion of up on the beach, cast anchor on the eastern or western the slaves are disposed of in the Moluccas, and other side of the sandpit, according to the monsoon which possessions of the Dutch. happens to be blowing. As the season for holding this The traders by this time have exhausted their stock great mart or fair is universally known, the dwellers in of European goods, and chiefly employ themselves in all the surrounding islands come in their prahus to disposing of their captives, for whom they receive in Dobbo, to exchange their produce for the European exchange the commodities of the several isles. But inanufactures. Thither comes the coal-black Papuan, their iniquitous proceedings are not carried on in com: in his long grotesque prahu, containing all his worldly plete tranquillity. As soon as they have passed the wealth, together with his wife and children, who in- longitude of the Moluccas, a danger is to be looked out habit two or three huts erected in the after-part of the for which they dread far more than typhoons or torvessel, and thatched, like everything else in those parts, nados—we mean those cruel and daring pirates, who, with atap. A railing runs round the prahu, to prevent under a variety of appellations-Sulus, Illanuns, Jakthe little ones from tumbling overboard. Thither also karans, and Sea-Dyaks-diffuse terror and desolation come the natives of Amboyna and Banda, of Timor and through the whole western division of the Archipelago.