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The Royal Library of Copenhagen contains 463,332 plaid and a set of Pandæan pipes, and solemnly dedivolumes, and about 22,000 manuscripts. After eleven cated himself to the duties of a shepherd.' years' labour, a catalogue of all the books, and of onefourth of the manuscripts, was completed by the con- colonist," the account which he gives of their outfit is

Considering that the author styles himself a 'poor servators, and published at the expense of the government. The catalogue itself extends to 174 volumes.

somewhat startling : it certainly does not come up, or The Royal Library at Stockholm, founded by Gus- rather down, to ordinary notions of poverty. “We had tavus Vasa, and greatly increased by Gustavus Adol- with us,' he says, ' a couple of servants; four rams with phus, is not so large as is commonly supposed ; its curling horns--a purchase from the late Lord Western; printed volumes scarcely amounting to 70,000, while a noble bloodhound, the gift of a noble lord famous its manuscripts are only 5000. It would have been for the breed; a real old English mastiff-bitch, from the much more extensive but for the plunder of Queen stock at Lyme Regis ; and a handsome spaniel cocker. Christina; for the ease with which she allowed literary men to take the books away; and for the great Besides this collection of quadrupeds, we had a vast fire which, in 1697, destroyed a great portion of it. In assortment of useless lumber, which had cost us many this library, the excellent system is adopted of giving hundred pounds. Being most darkly ignorant of everyto each class of books a distinct colour of binding thing relating to the country to which we were going, Among the manuscripts, the most curious is one brought but having a notion that it was very much of the same from Prague after the conquest of that city, and called character with that 80 long inhabited by Robinson the Devil's Bible,' from a fanciful representation of Crusoe, we had prudently provided ourselves with all that personage, though it is also known by the name of the necessaries, and even non-necessaries of life in such the Codex Giganteus;' and gigantic indeed it must be, to contain not only the Latin Vulgate, but the works

a region. Our tool-chests would have suited an army of of Josephus, some treatises of St Isidore, a Chronicle pioneers ; several distinguished ironmongers of the city of Bohemia, and several Opuscula.

of London had cleared their warehouses in our favour The most northern library in the world is that of of all the rubbish which had lain on hand during the Reikiavik, the capital of Iceland, which, nearly forty last quarter of a century; we had hinges, door-latches, years ago, contained 3600 volumes. About the year screws, staples, nails of all dimensions, from the ten1731, Franklin established by subscription the first public library in Pennsylvania. There are now many penny downwards ; and every other requisite to have public libraries in the United States. In most of the completely built a modern village-of reasonable exprincipal towns of New York, 'school district libraries' tent. We had tents, Mackintosh bags, swimming-belts, have been established by law, at a cost of about half a several sets of saucepans in graduated scale (we had million of dollars, and are exempt from all taxes. The here a distant eye to kangaroo and cockatoo stews), public library of Mexico contained, ten years ago, about cleavers, meat-saws, iron-skewers, and a general appa11,000 volumes; but four convents there possess libra- ratus of kitchen utensils that would have satisfied the ries the total amount of whose volumes is more than desires of M. Soyer himself. Then we had double and 32,000. In many of the Mexican provinces, libraries single-barrelled guns, rifles, pistols, six barrels of Pigon exist whose contents vary from 1000 to 3000 volumes.

and Wilkes's gunpowder; an immense assortment of

shot, and two hundredweight of lead for bullets.' Τ Η Ε Β US Η Μ Α Ν.

In addition to the foregoing, they had supplied themÀ WORK bearing the title of “The Bushman, or Life in selves with no less than eighteen months' provisions, in a New Country,' would naturally be expected to con- pork and flour, so that, says the author, ‘from sheer tain a history-real or fictitious-of the adventures of a ignorance of colonial life, we had laid out a considerable colonist, either in South Africa or Australia, while en portion of our capital in the purchase of useless articles, gaged in creating for himself a “home in the bush.' and of things which might have been procured more This, however, is not precisely the character of a cheaply in the colony itself.' It is indeed surprising volume recently published with that title.* It is that, in spite of the warnings to the contrary, repeatedly rather a general description of Western Australia, by a and earnestly given in works addressed to intending gentleman who went out to that country in search at emigrants, this folly of providing an expensive outfit of once of health and competence. Mr Landor (who seems articles which can be purchased to much better advanto have been educated for the legal profession) was, it tage in almost any colony, should still be so frequently appears, a 'victim of medical skill; and having been committed. sentenced to death in his own country by three emi- It had been the intention of the author and his nent physicians, was comparatively happy in having brothers to invest their capital entirely in sheep, and that sentence commuted to banishment. A wealthy 'retiring into the bush for some six or seven years, to man would have gone to Naples, to Malta, or to Ma- gradually accumulate a large flock, the produce of deira; but a poor one has no resource save in a colony, which would soon have afforded a handsome income;' unless he will condescend to live upon others, rather the injudicious restrictions, however, which the home than support himself by his own exertions.

and local governments have imposed on the acquisition Mr Landor had the great advantage of being accom- of land, compelled them to renounce this project. His panied by his two brothers, who, with him, represented brothers took a farm at a bigh rent, “and wasted their all three of the learned professions—the elder being a capital upon objects that would never bring in a good disciple of Æsculapius,' and the younger · a youth not return. The doctor, however, seems to have resumed eighteen, originally designed for the church, and in the practice of his profession, as did likewise the author tended to cut a figure at Oxford ;' but who mo. himself; while the only one who actually carried into destly conceiving that the figure he was likely to cut effect his original intention of leading a shepherd life, would not tend to the advancement of his worldly inte- was the younger brother, who, in consequence, figures rests, and, moreover, having no admiration for Virgil throughout the book, and very amusingly, under the beyond the Bucolics, fitted himself out with a Lowland pastoral cognomen of Melibæus.

Mr Landor's impressions of the colony, and of colonial * The Bushman, &o. By E. W. Landor. London : Bentley,

life in general, do not seem to have been very favourable. He considers, indeed, that Western Australia, or


‘Swan River,' is quite equal, if not superior, in natural spirits, and vowing they have gallopped over on purpose advantages, to other portions of that continent about to ascertain whether the ladies were still living. Here is which much more has been said and written. The authority of undoubted value for everything relating to climate is most salubrious, and proves wonderfully re

the last ball at Government House; and the merits and storative to constitutions weakened by diseases of either appearance of every person who attended are soon the respiratory or the digestive organs. The soil is, in young people with a desire to dance ; so the table is

brought under discussion. This naturally inspires the general, as throughout Australia, rather indifferent; pushed aside, and papa being squeezed nearly into the some districts, however, are tolerably fertile, and others fire, mamma takes her place at the piano, and bursts off are well adapted for pasturage. Provisions are cheap, with the “ Annen Polka.” indeed too cheap for the cultivator's interest; while There are some entertaining chapters descriptive of manual labour is scarce and dear. To a really poor the exciting pleasures of wild-cattle hunting, the chase man, who is willing to work, and desirous of emigrat- of the kangaroo, and similar sports. Other portions of ing, Western Australia would seem to offer many in the work afford useful information respecting the climate

and productions of the colony, the local government, ducements. Its great disadvantage, in the author's the aborigines, and various other subjects of interest to opinion and one which, as he considers, it shares in a emigrants. We prefer, however, as more closely beargreater or less degree with all colonies—is its poverty. ing upon the avowed object of the work, the account of The colonist has either no market, or at best a very a visit which Mr Landor paid to his younger brother, the uncertain one, for his surplus produce. He may have a Shepherd Melibæus, ' at a squatting station on the substantial dwelling, abundant crops, numerous flocks Hotham, some sixty or seven miles south of York.' and herds, and plenty of good homespun clothing; but In the afternoon of the second day after leaving York, while he wants those elegancies and luxuries which can abounding with grass and scattered gum-trees. A large

continues the author, 'we descended into a broad valley, only be procured from abroad, he is, and must remain, flock of sleep were being driven towards the bottom of a poor man. From this account, it will be seen that the valley, where we could discern signs of human habithe author's ideas of poverty are those of a class, and tation. On arriving, we found a hut built of piles or that not the class to which the majority of emigrants stakes, interwoven with boughs, before the door of belong.

which was a fire, with a large pot upon it, from which The following picture, however, of country life' at a powerful steam arose, that was evidently very grateful Swan River, among the class of settlers especially re

to a group of natives seated around. On descending ferred to, does not by any means convey an impression from the vehicle, and looking in at the hut door, we of very severe privations to be endured by such emi-posed of grass-tree tops covered with blankets and a

perceived, lying in his shirt sleeves, on a couch comgrants. It is a description of the fireside of a ‘half-pay rug made of opossum skins, the illustrious Melibæus officer or gentleman farmer,' who, though occasionally himself, with a short black pipe in his mouth, and a driving his own cart, or sowing the seed which he has handsome edition of “ Lalla Rookh” in his hand. Perpurchased in the market, 'is not thought less qualified ceiving us, he jumped up, and expressing his loud to act as a magistrate, nor is less respected by the great surprise, welcomed us to this rustic“ Castle of Indoand small in his neighbourhood.' 'Happy family!' ex

lence.” claims the author, ‘how pleasantly the evenings pass in and a squatting station is formed, the shepherds take

“When a large flock of shecp is sent into the bush, your society! Gladly would I ride many miles to spend the sheep out to pasture every morning, and bring them such pleasant hours, and witness happiness so unpre- home at night, whilst one of the party always remains tending and real. How cheerful looks that large room, at the station to protect the provisions from being stolen with its glorious fire of jarra-wood and “black-boys by the natives; this person is called the hut-keeper. (for it is the winter season), and how lightly those young His duty is to boil the pork or kangaroo-flesh, and progirls move about, arranging the tea-table, and preparing vide supper, &c. for the shepherds on their return at for the evening meal! The kind-hearted mother, re- night. Melibæus, who superintended this station, underlieved of all duties but that of superintendence, sits by took the duties of cooking and guarding the hut whenthe fire, chatting cheerfully with the guest, whose eyes, ever he did not feel disposed to go out kangaroo-huntnevertheless, wander round the room after a certain ing, or shooting wild turkeys or cockatoos. In all things, light and dancing shape; the host, a man of eld, but sports or labours, the natives were his daily assistants, stalwart in appearance, full of hospitality and noble and in return for their services were rewarded with the courtesy, appears in his easy slippers and an old and fore-quarters of the kangaroos killed, and occasionally well-worn coat, which formerly had seen service in with a pound or two of flour. There were some noble London ball-rooms. He discourses not only of the crops, dogs at this station, descendants of Jezebel and Nero; and colonial politics, but of literature, and the last news and my brother had a young kangaroo, which hopped from England; for, like many other colonists, he receives in and out with the utmost confidence, coming up to the English papers, and patronises the quarterly re- any one who happened to be eating, and insisting upon views.

having pieces of bread given to it. Full of fun and With what alacrity the old gentleman rises up and spirits, it would sport about as playfully as a kitten; welcomes a traveller, who has unexpectedly arrived, and it was very amusing to see how it would tease the and has just stabled his horse, and seen him fed before dogs, pulling them about with its sharp claws, and he made his appearance in the parlour. There is no trying to roll them over on the ground. The dogs, beating about the bush for a bed, or an invitation to who were in the daily habit of killing kangaroos, never supper. Of the latter he is certain, and indifferent attempted to bite Minny, which sometimes teased them about the former; for having slept the last night under so heartily, that they would put their tails between a tree, he feels sure of making him self comfortable on their legs and fairly run away.' the sofa, or on the hearthrug before the fire. During It will be sufficiently apparent that “The Bushman' the evening, the girls sing, and happily they sing well; is not exactly a work in which a really poor emigrant, and they take most pleasure in those songs which papa taking that term in its usual sense, will find the inlikes best to hear : and the poor bachelor guest, who formation best suited to his circumstances; there is, looks on, feels his heart melting within him, and reviles however, a large class of “poor genteel' individuals, who himself for the destitution in which he lives at home. are painfully struggling, with insufficient means, to mainSuddenly, perhaps, horses at a gallop are heard to enter tain themselves in the sphere to which they have been the yard; and soon afterwards two young fellows, fresh accustomed, and whose poverty, if not as real, is as from the capital, come dashing into the room, full of keenly felt as that of many with much smaller incomes

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and humbler pretensions. To such, “The Bushman,' setting on foot an institution like their model benefit notwithstanding its somewhat ambitious and over- society, the object they had in view might have been laboured passages, will be found to contain matters both served if they had endeavoured to diffuse among the of instruction and entertainment.

working-classes the advantages which the ordinary savings' banks offered for parties who had the oppor

tunity and the wish to save money, the savings' banks THE SOCIETY FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF being far superior to any private and kindred institu. THE LABOURING CLASSES.

tion that we know of, especially in the unexceptionable

security which they give to depositors for the safety of PERHAPS few of the readers of the Journal are aware their savings. of the existence of the society whose name is written With respect to providing the labouring classes with at the head of this paper. It has, however, been allotments of land, this is an object to which the society in active operation for the last two or three years, attributes much importance, and they have been at having its head-quarters in London, and numbering great expense and trouble in promoting it. On this among its most vigilant promoters Lord Ashley, the subject Lord Ashley observed that he believed the

society had brought the public mind throughout the Bishop of London, the Bishop of Norwich, the Rev. country to the conviction, that few things could so well Sir Henry Dukinfield, rector of St Martins; the Hon. conduce to the welfare of the agricultural population as and Rev. Montagu Villiers, and several other noble- the allotting to them portions of land to cultivate in men and gentlemen. With the laudable object in view their hours of leisure. The society itself, he added, had which its title imports, we purpose now to state what a very considerable portion of land allotted in that way; the society proposed to do at its outset, what it has and they would continue that system of things, not been able to do, and what it has failed to do. The only because it was part of the foundation of their sowriter of this paper had the opportunity of gathering tion that it was most conducive to the welfare of the

ciety, but because it would be a proof of their convicthis information at a late anniversary meeting of the labouring classes. The Bishop of London added bis society, held at the new model lodging-house in St testimony to the importance of this subject. He said Giles's (to which we shall shortly advert), and which the question of allotments was one in which he took a was attended by the several gentlemen whose names very deep interest, and the meeting would readily bewe have enumerated, and many others interested in the lieve him when he said he was one of the first, if not society and the object for which it was instituted.

the first person, to introduce the system into an agri

He The acting committee of the society arranged their cultural community more than thirty years ago. operations under three heads ; namely, to aid the la- allotted certain portions of land to a number of la

bourers, and the only fault which he committed was in bouring classes in three important particulars—those of allotting to each labourer too large a portion of land. money, land, and dwellings. With regard to the first The good effects, however, of such a system, he was point, the committee had seen and lamented from the of opinion, could not be extensively felt throughout the commencement that in either the borrowing or saving country unless it was taken up by the proprietors of of money, the poor man had scarcely any of those facili- land; at the same time the society had done wisely in ties which were so abundantly within the reach of the fixing at different parts of the country model allotmiddle classes. He had to pay 15, 20, and 25 per cent. ments, in order that the success which would infallibly for loans of money; and the benefit societies of which attend them might stimulate others in the same prache was a member too often dissolved themselves before tice. The Bishop of Norwich also stated that twentyhe could reap any advantage from the sums he had five or thirty years ago he endeavoured in every posdeposited with them. With the view of obviating these sible way to introduce the allotment system. When he inconveniences, the committee set on foot a loan-fund, went to Norwich, he tried it there; and he was happy which failed, however, to answer the end intended by to say the system was answering perfectly well in that its formation. They thus explain the cause of its mis great and populous town. carriage. In their institution of a loan-fund, they On this subject we would only observe, that allothave seen it to be as yet impossible to overcome the ments of land are valuable merely when intended for difficulties peculiarly incidental to the metropolis. In a cultivation, as Lord Ashley observes, at leisure hours. village or a small town, where the real character, habits, If the people are induced to depend solely upon such and probable means of every poor inhabitant can be allotments, the result, as all experience demonstrates, easily and quickly ascertained, there is little difficulty will be deterioration and pauperism. in the management of such an institution ; but in Lon- A few words as to the localities in which the society don—where every office for granting pecuniary aid is are endeavouring to carry out the allotment systeni. sure to be instantly thronged by a crowd of persons of Previous to the annual meeting of 1846, they were in doubtful character, and whose real objects cannot be possession of land for that purpose at Yetminster in easily penetrated, and who, in this vast metropolis, find Dorsetshire, at Talworth and Long-Dilton in Surrey, at no difficulty in concealing themselves from their credi. Herne Bay in Kent, at Winchmore Hill and Edgeware tors whenever their claims begin to prove inconvenient in Middlesex; and at that time the society was in treaty -such an institution is beset with serious difficulties.' for the purchase of ten acres of a charity estate situate The committee, unwilling to give up this part of their at Cholesbury, near Tring. This latter piece of ground purpose, turned their attention to the institution of has since been put under the superintendence of the what they call a model benefit society; but here again Rev. H. P. Jeston, and at Michaelmas 1846 sixteen tean unexpected difficulty arrested their progress. They nants were admitted to allotnents, • to their great graticonsulted several eminent actuaries as to the scale of fication (as the committee observe), and with every payment which might safely be adopted, but those prospect of permanent benefit.' The society has also actuaries differed greatly from each other on this im- taken possession of twenty acres of land at West Malportant point. Under all these circumstances, the ling, the whole of which has been divided into allotsociety has not yet been able to deterniinc on any dis- ments. Upon this estate the committee contemplate tinct and eligible course of action in this matter.' the building of two model cottages for labourers. They “Nevertheless,' said Lord Ashley, who acted as chair- have also obtained a piece of land, part of a charity man, we shall continue our efforts on this point, in the estate, at Denton in Northainptonshire, which has been | full hope that we shall be able, before our next anniver- divided among sixty-four tenants. They have likewise sary, to state something satisfactory on the subject.' purchased a piece of land at Chatham, consisting of

It occurred to us that, so far as the saving of money eleven acres, but they had not, at the time of the meetamong the poor was concerned, instead of the society | ing, obtained possession of it.


The report of the committee was almost entirely a charge of 4d. per night, or 28. per week, which, silent as to the result of their exertions to establish the assuming it is fully occupied, will yield a return of allotment system; at least they entered into no details L.540 per annum. The structure is plain and neat upon that point. We could not help thinking that cir- in its design, is built of brick, and consists of five stocumstance indicative, if not of the failure, at least of reys, besides underground apartments. The basement the partial or small success of the project. We had storey is intended for the residence of the master and expected to find some reference made to the effects pro- matron. The underground apartments are to be fitted duced by the allotment system upon the occupants, or up as kitchens and larders, in which the lodgers are to some contrast drawn between their former and present be furnished with fire, and every necessary implement condition, or between them and the class of labourers for cooking and keeping their victuals. A hundred who have not hitherto participated in this way in the and twelve beds in all, each intended for the accommosociety's bounties ; but none such was ventured, and we dation of one person, and contained in a distinct apartcould not avoid the conclusion, that the beneficial re- ment, will be provided within the walls. Each of the sults expected by the society from their exertions in dormitories contains twelve of those separate apartthis direction were problematical, and had yet to be ments, divided from the adjacent ones by wooden parproved.

titions, with efficient arrangements for warming and We shall now advert to the third object of the so- ventilating them. Each of the sleeping apartments is ciety's solicitude — namely, the improvement of the also provided with a small wooden chest, having a lock dwellings of the labouring classes; a point, as it appears and key, in which the occupant of the room may put to us, the most feasible of all their exertions, and one in and leave anything secure during his absence in the which they have been most successful so far. Their day. To each dormitory is attached a wash-room, efforts in this department, however, have as yet been lighted with gas at night, and fitted up with a series of confined chiefly to the metropolis, from the difficulty leaden wash-hand basins, and towels mounted upon they have experienced in obtaining sites, and in carry- rollers, with an arrangement for supplying and carrying on building operations in distant parts of the ing off the water with scarcely any trouble. There are country. At the time of their annual meeting in 1846, also arrangements for providing the lodgers with warm the society had just completed a range of buildings and cold baths on the premises. Besides all this, there near Gray's Inn Road, for the accommodation of work is a large, well-lighted, and well-ventilated apartment ing men and their families, a portion of the range set apart as a coffee and reading-room, and fitted up being devoted to poor widows and single women. Those with suitable benches, to which the inmates may repair buildings, the erection of which cost the society several for innocent and agreeable recreation before retiring to thousand pounds, were opened in the spring of 1846, rest. Eventually, a library is intended to be added to and, excepting three of the tenements, have been up the accommodation afforded. wards of a year occupied. The gross rental

The advantages of the institution are limited excluwhere about L.400 per annum, and at the time of the sively to single men, for obvious reasons. The great last meeting, a sum of L.7, 148, Od. only remained unpaid object of the establishment is to afford to poor single by the tenants. The committee do not state the terms men comfortable lodgings, and the means of cleanliness, on which these premises are let; we presume they are in such a manner as that they shall no longer have their more than ordinarily reasonable.

feelings unnecessarily offended by being compelled to The committee were of opinion that much good might herd in common lodging-houses with people of vicious be done to benefit the poor by taking some of their pre- character and lives, as thousands of well-disposed poor sent dwellings on lease, and effecting a thorough reform persons are driven to do in this great world of London, and improvement of them. In King Street, Drury Lane, whose straitened means admit of their obtaining no a house, usually occupied as a lodging-house, fell into better quarters, confirming the old adage, that “misery the possession of Mr Russel Gurney, an eminent counsel makes men acquainted with strange bedfellows.' We

the English bar, who determined up a thorough cannot help expressing a hope that the society may be reformation of it. After being entirely repaired, and induced to turn its attention to providing poor destimade clean and wholesome, it was used as a lodging. tute single women with some kindred shelter and house at the usual charge of 4d. a night, and has for accommodation. It is difficult to say how much of many months past been fully occupied with lodgers to the good would result from their doing so; how many number of twenty-four, the whole that it could accom- poor and defenceless, and homeless young women it modate. It is now under the charge of the society. In would rescue from ruin, to which they are constantly the summer of last year, the society was offered seven- exposed by the want of anything like a comfortable teen dilapidated houses in two or three different parts roof under which to lay their head at night in this of London, out of which they selected three houses lying great city. To return to the Model Lodging-House : together in Charles Street, Drury Lane, a district where the accommodation and comfort which it holds out lodging-houses for the lowest class of labourers most are offered to the recipients at the reasonable charge abound. They took a lease of those three houses, at a of 4d. a night, or 2s. a week, that being the charge rent of L.45 per annum for the three, and, from first to at all the common lodging-houses in St Giles's. But last, they have expended nearly L.900 in repairing, re- how much superior are the advantages in the former! building, and furnishing them, and in constructing baths When one thinks of the having all the means and and various other conveniences. They provided eighty facilities for washing, bathing, and cooking their food beds. The house was opened for lodgers, at 4d. a --above all, each man having a separate apartment night, on Monday the 31st May last- and on that and a separate bed to himself -- we cannot hesitate, night only eight poor people lodged there. On the nor will the poor hesitate, which to give the prefer3d of June there were thirty-five; on the 7th of June, ence to; whilst the consideration leads us to infer the forty-nine; on the 9th, fifty-nine; and on the 10th, happiest moral and social results from an institution sixty-six-being the whole number that the house was begun and carried out on such principles. Already then capable of receiving.

the kindred establishment set on foot by the society in We come now to speak of the New Model Lodging. Charles Street, to which we have adverted, has had House in St Giles's, which has been erected under a collateral effect not previously taken into account the auspices of the societ and to which they refer by its founders-namely, that of inducing the private with just pride, though it was not in operation at lodging-house keepers in the neighbourhood, in order the time of the meeting. The site of this structure, to enable them to compete with it, to improve the which is in George Street, St Giles's, and contiguous accommodation which they have heretofore afforded to to the French Protestant church there, cost the so- their guests, and to rival the efforts of the society in ciety L.1200 ; the builder’s contract was L.3930 ; this respect as much as possible. Upon the whole, we and it is destined to accommodate 104 inmates, at I cannot but augur the happiest results from the New Model Lodging-House, planted as it is in the very heart paper. In this way Marshall selected and preserved upof the dense and squalid population congregated in the wards of three hundred airs. Latterly, however, and when district about St Giles's.

a very old man, we find him throwing off melodies so rapidly, that we can scarcely think he was as fastidious as

in his younger days. As a performer on the violin, MarA SCOTTISH MUSICAL GENIUS. shall was a master. His correctness of ear was extreme; In a late number of the 'Inverness Courier' we find an precise and full; and his execution brilliant. As a per

his management of the bow perfect; his style at once interesting notice of one of the more fertile composers former, he became even earlier known than as a composer. of our national airs--the late Mr William Marshall, a far. He was on one occasion dining with a party of friends, mner in the north of Scotland. Any notice of this kind when a blind minstrel - probably more a lover than a should not be suffered to pass without attracting a proper master of his instrument-came under the dining-room share of attention. It is the misfortune of Scottish music windows and began to play. By way of a joke, one of the that absolutely nothing is known of the authors of the company told him that one of the party was a learner; most beautiful and popular airs: of the origin of many right that the loon” should give him a bar in return;

and as he (the blind man) had delighted them, it was 1 tunes, which are the delight of every domestic circle, there although it might neither be sweet nor tender. The old

does not appear to exist the slightest tradition. They man handed up his instrument; Marshall good-naturedly have sprung up in the course of ages, and been incorpo- took it, and played several strathspeys in his own perfect rated in the national music, without exciting any remark way. When asked what he thought of the learner's “quaat the time, and afterwards the authorship has silently lity," the old man earnestly replied, *Na, na! that's no a passed into oblivion. In numerous instances, we believe, loon's' playing; I'll wager a groat that's Mr Marshall o the composers have been persons moving in no high sphere like that but him!" When Marshall played strathspeys,

Keithmore, for there's naebody hereabouts that could play of life—not finished musicians, in the proper sense of the the inclination to dance was as irresistible as if the listener term, but geniuses inspired with an ardent love of melody, had been inoculated by the Tarantula. In his composiwhose name and merits have scarcely travelled beyond the tions—no matter by whom performed—there was a charm bounds of a limited rural range.

almost equally powerful. Writing from India in 1822 to The subject of the notice in question was one of these Mr Marshall, Mr John Stewart of Belladrum humorously geniuses. William Marshall, proceeds the narrative, was remarked, that “though he thought his dancing days were born in Fochabers, Banfishire, in 1748, and was the third over,” yet, in the house of a lady, both he and Mrs Stewart son of a large family in humble circumstances. While a had danced to some of his strathspeys “ with the thermoboy, he evinced considerable musical talent, which, if culti- meter at 85 degrees." vated, might have shone out with lustre; but this was not * Marshall left Gordon Castle in 1790 for a farm near possible, and all the education of any kind he received was Fochabers. Shortly afterwards, he removed to a larger, six months at school, and a few extra lessons he received Keithmore, and was appointed factor by the Duke of

from a gentleman at Gordon Castle. 'At twelve years of Gordon, from whom the farm was held. The situation of 11

age he entered the service of the Duke of Gordon, and in factor he filled until 1817. From his earliest connection

a few years was elevated to the post of house steward and with the Gordon family, Marshall was held in the highest Il butler. In this situation he remained for thirty years, estimation. Similarity of taste led to an early friendship

accompanying the family wherever they went. Marshall betwixt him and his Grace; and time, as it went, revealed also displayed a taste for architecture, astronomy, mathe- so much and so varied talent, with such private worth,

maties, and mechanics, and in all these sciences he made that Marshall advanced higher and higher in the esteem of 1 astonishing progress. Land-surveying was a favourite his patron the duke. His personal merit procured him

amusement ; and in later years he laid down meridian respect-- his musical powers constant admiration. At lines upon which he built the houses of Keithmore and Gordon Castle, the fruits of his genius were always first Newfield. Of his mechanical skill he has left a wonderful displayed and appreciated; and from the hall they rapidly evidence-a clock he constructed and presented to the spread into every corner of the district, and latterly over Duke of Gordon, which indicates the months and days of the land. With the extension of his works his popularity the year, the moon's age, the sun's declination and time increased, until it reached London itself, where, in the of rising and setting daily, with many other astronomical Opera House, several tunes of his became favourites. It phenomena. This curious clock is preserved at Gordon was no longer left to him to give the name of some imaCastle.

ginary gentle one, or fanciful title to his compositions. He Marshall was above the middle size, compactly built, ran no hazard in coupling with his strains the names of the and handsome in his youth. He was, as we may easily noblest of the land ; for the fair sex of the higher classes believe, an excellent dancer. He understood the craft of paid the composer considerable attention, and were emulous falconry, was an excellent angler, could throw the hammer, of having their names united to his melodies. As his years leap, and run with a dexterity, agility, and speed, against increased, so did his popularity ; and in his later corresponwhich few could successfully cope; and, to add to his ex- dence, scarcely a tune is embodied for the name of which traordinary doings, in his age he made roads, constructed he had not been solicited long before. In the collection of bridges, and administered the law of the land. It is as a his hitherto unpublished airs, for example, only three out musician, however, that we have more immediately to deal of upwards of eighty tunes occur to which the name of with him. At Gordon Castle he employed his leisure in

some fair creature or noble personage is not attached. the practice of his favourite art, and among his earlier Frequently, and long after Marshall left Gordon Castle, his compositions were “ The Duke of Gordon's Birthday," music was heard in its halls. The duke still acknowledged "The Bog of Gight,” “ Miss Admiral Gordon,” and “Johnie the charm of his compositions; and frequently Marshall's Pringle.” To the last, the facetious author of "John o' successor (Daniel Macdonald, also a composer and perBadenyon " set the song " Tune your Fiddles ;” and to former), and the musical retainers, were called upon to “Miss Admiral Gordon," Burns wrote the words “ of a'the perform his music to his Grace's guests. The duke, of all airts the wind can blaw.” The air is one of the sweetest Marshall's tunes, had one particular favourite_“ The Marin the whole range of Scottish melody; and it is united to chioness of Cornwallis;" and he showed his partiality for it one of the tenderest of lyrics: both became at once, and on such occasions by calling specially for it as the wind-up have ever continued, universal favourites. Like the songs of of the entertainment.' Barns, Marshall's airs were all the result of mere momen- Marshall was repeatedly urged by his noble patron to tary whim or fitful inspiration. They cost him no labour; collect his compositions for publication, but without effect. and when once he had mastered the rhythm, it is said he Unlike the common herd of composers, whose notions are seldom retouched it. He did not trust wholly to his own everlastingly of copyright, and who tremble at the idea of partial judgment. At the age of twenty-five he had mar- one of their airs being played in public without a consideraried “a winsome wee thing," by name Jane Giles--who, tion, Marshall--as Burus had done with his lyrics-threw although no musician, possessed a fine natural taste. That off his airs without a thought as to personal remunerataste was the ordeal he chose for his airs. In the evenings tion, and could with ditficulty be persuaded to give them he would take his fiddle, and while she listened, he would to the world in a regular collected form. “At length, when go over with a delicate hand the air he had composed many of them had become known and admired, his reluctduring the day. If she disapproved of it, the piece was ance was overcome by the duchess, to whom all lovers of rejected; what she admired, he instantly committed to Scottish melody must feel indebted. The first volume ap

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