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are the only foreign words, and they are all particles save one; the rest are found in the English of the present day. Grov is represented by grub, to dig. From this root we have grave, groove, graft, &c.; the b and v are convertible, being mutes of the same order (labials). Hvor, or where in English, is related to the Mæso-Gothic hwar, and the Anglo-Saxon hwer; the w and v, as observed (No. 2), are often similar, and always convertible sounds. The verb fandtes exemplifies the passive voice, which the Scandinavian dialects alone retain. The passive form of the verb is lost not only in the Germanic tongues, but also in the languages of the south of Europe—viz., those derived from the Latin. In the Danish verb there is no inflexion to point out the persons ; all the three persons have the same termination in each of the numbers. The passive voice is formed by adding s or es to the active forms; as han fandt (he found), han fandtes (he was found). Adel, Anglo-Saxon æthel, means noble.

7. Adel her, adel der, hvo ædelt giov adel er. Literally, “ Noble here, noble there, who nobly acts noble is.” Our Scottish proverb is equally expressive-viz., "Meat feeds, cloth cleads (clothes), but manners make the man.” It has the advantage of alliteration. The English version—"Manners make fortunes" has terseness, but little salt, as Howell would say. Her (here), der (there), and hvo (who), are English in pronunciation, though slightly different in spelling; the d in der is aspirated.

8. “ First come first served” is expressed by the Danes as follows:- Den som kommer först til möllen faar först sit gods maled; or “ He who comes first to the mill gets his grist first ground.” This was formerly the case both at mill and smithy; every one had his turn. In remote landward parishes it is probably still the custom for the miller to grind the farmer's corn, and to pay himself by taking toll or multure. The following proverb shows that the millers of Denmark were not more honest than their brethren in England :-Mölleren er aldrig saa drukken at han glemmer at tolde (han tolder togange (twice) for en feyls' skyld). • The miller is never so drunk as to forget to toll the grist (he tolls twice to be sure)." Möllere og bagere ere de sidste handverker som doe (die) af hunger.

“ Millers and bakers are the last workmen who die of hunger.”

9. Instead of saying “I have a crow to pluck with you,” the Danes say, “ We have a goose to pluck together.” Vi har en gaas at plukke til sammen. Vi (we), har (have), at (to), til sammen (together).

10. Kand jeg ikke gade saa vil jeg krybe, “If I cannot go I will creep;" literally, "Can I not go, so will I creep.” The Danish language strengthens many words terminating in n by adding d, as mand (man), spand (span), kvinde (queen or quine Scottice) woman, tand (dens, a tooth), &c.; gae and saa, or , are the Scottish forms of go and so. Krybe, Anglo-Saxon creopan, to creep, is another example of the sharp labial mute of the AngloSaxon and English being changed into the soft labial in the Danish ; as pipe, Danish pibe ; gripe, Danish gribe, &c.

11. “What can't be cured must be endured," has the following Danish equivalent: Mand made taale hvad mandey kand hielpe. “A man must thole (bear) what a man cannot help.” The Scottish dialect still retains thole from Anglo-Saxon tholian, Mæso-Gothic thulan, and Islandic thola, to bear patiently. Hvad (what), maae (may), need no explanation; ey, not, kand, can (see 10). The Scottish proverb,

“ He that tholes o'ercomes,” gives the exact sense of the Danish taale. Here it may be remarked that, of all the Gothic or Teutonic family of tongues, the English is the only language which still retains the aspirated dental mute th.

12. “Cut your coat according to your cloth,” is rendered in Danish by Du maae skiære kappen eftes klædet. This pronoun du thou, connects our aspirated form (see 11) with the Latin tu, in which t is sharp, our th is the aspirate form: 'sk in Danish is sh in English, and sc in Anglo-Saxon. The Danes have preserved the hard sound of the Anglo-Saxon c; skal, shall, sko, shoe, skovel, shovel, are examples of this mutation of sc (sk) into sh in our language. Klædet is another example of the change of d into th. The Scottish form claith, however, comes nearer to the Danish than our word cloth.

13. “ To dance after every man's pipe,” is the literal sense of the Danish proverb, At danse efter hver mand's pibe. This exemplifies the usage of the possessive or genitive case in both languages, in which construction they agree; and also in the usage of of, Danish ef, instead of the above form. Our proverb is rather more expressive than the above, viz.

“Who leaves certainty and follows chance, When fools pipe he may dance.”

Whether he dances or sits," he will have to pay the piper.”

14. The racy Scotch proverb, “Claw me an' I'll claw you,” is expressed by the Danish Gior du migen tienste, saa vil ig tiene dig igien, “Do me a service, so will I do (one) to thee again.” Mig and dig are the objective cases of jg and du. Dienst is the German word for servant, as dienen is to serve; hence ich dien, I serve, the motto of the Prince of Wales.

15. “ The nearer the church the further from God;" Danish, Io nærinere kirken jo længre fra Gud. This forcibly reminds us of the Latin form, Quo ditior eo miserior, “ The richer the wretcheder;" one of the many existing proofs that the structure or syntax of the English, and of course the Anglo-Saxon, and every other lineal or collateral descendant of the Gothic, is founded on that of the Latin and Greek. This opinion, which was formed long ago, on a comparison of the Anglo-Saxon version of the Gospels with the Latin (vulgate), is sanctioned by the high authority of the late Professor Rask, who maintained this view in an essay (1818) which was honoured with the prize conferred by the Royal Academy of Copenhagen for the best essay on this subject. There is one word kirken, the kirk, AngloSaxon circ, which strikingly exemplifies the influence which the Danish settlements in this country had on the language of Britain. In the south of England, or perhaps in the southern half of England, the term kirk is not found as the name of a town or village, and in the north of England and Scotland the word church does not occur. The modern German for church is kirche, and the ch has the guttural sound, not sharpened into tsh, as in English. The ancient German, or Francic, was chirihha; but how the initial syllable chi was sounded we do not know, for the Alemannic or Franconian language is nonextant; but if we assume that it was modified, as we believe the terminal syllable in kirche to have been, viz. into sch, we have the word chirich, or church, by the elision of the last vowel. But for our purpose, which is to show the relationship of the English and Danish languages, it is immaterial; for the fact bearing on our argument is indisputable, viz. that kirk, as a name of places, is common in the north, and church is as common in the south of England. It is also a fact that kirk exists in a living language, but that church exists in no language but in our own. Fra, Scottice frae, is another proof that the Danish element of our language is more prevalent in the north than in the south of England. We are ware that both fra and fro are forms of the Anglo-Saxon fram ; but the latter is a dead language, as much so as ancient Greek and Latin-our object is to exemplify the

coincidences of our languages with those of living tongues.

16. Where God has a church the devil has a chapel,” is an old proverb, much older than Defoe's time, who, in the True-born Englishman, thus paraphrases it :“ Wherever God erects a house of prayer,

The devil's sure to build a chapel there." Hvor Gud har en kirke der har fanden sit cappel. Fanden, the devil; our word fiend is derived from the same root, whatever it be. Feor means far; feor buend, or far-dwelling, a stranger. We know that hostis originally meant nothing more than this, viz. a stranger, and in process of time became an enemy: a similar change of meaning may have converted stranger into enemy or fiend. In those remote times, when many lived by plundering their neighbours, and the Scandinavians especially subsisted by plunder, it is not very remarkable that their term for fiend, enemy, and stranger, was one and the same. Sit cappel, his chapel. The pronoun has some resemblance to the Latin se, suus, &c. Cappel is an unmistakeable Latin word, only abbreviated. In the above Danish proverbial sentences, the subject of the second verb follows its verb, because the previous clause is conditional. The English will admit of either position. We can say as the Danes in the above sentence, “Where God has a church there has the devil a chapel;" or, "Where God has a church, the devil has there a chapel.”

17. "A heavy purse makes a light heart." En tung pung yior hiertet glad ; or, “ A full purse makes the heart glad."

18. “To buy a pig in a poke.” Danish, At kiobe katten i sakken, literally, “ To buy the cat in the sack;" the article en (the) is set after the two nouns, katt and sakk. The verb kiobe, German kaufen; Scottish coup.

From the root of these words we have the English words cheap, Cheapside (formerly a market), Chippen haus, &c. The Scottish chapman is a seller of goods; the English chapman a buyer; the German kaufman sells as a merchant. Kaufman harn (Copenhagen) is the haven or port of merchant-traders. In Scotland, those who deal in cattle, cows, and horses, are designated by the general term couper; the subordinate classes of dealers are cow.coupers, horse-coupers, &c. The Scottish proverb, “ To coup the muckle (great) dish into the little," signifies to deal to one's loss. As simple John, the hero of a German tale, did, who couped a lump of silver larger than his head for a horse; the horse he couped for a

24. “ One should not play with edge-tools." Danish, Mand made ey (not) spöge med (with) skarpt. Med, German mit, English with, is found in our English authorities in the same

sense.

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cow; the cow for a goat; the goat for a goose; and the goose for an old grindstone, which he let fall into a pond, and so brought his ninepence to nothing.

19. “They live like a cat and dog;" or, they lead a cat and dog life. Danish, De (they) forligges som kat og hund. Ligge means to lie in Anglo-Saxon. In Scotland the female camp-followers were called indiscriminately liggers. In old English it is not used exclusively in a bad sense.

In our more ancient English translations of the Bible the liers in wait, or ambushment of an enemy, were called liggers.

20.“ A bird in the hand is better than two in the bush.” Danish, En (a one) fugb (a fowl) i handen er bedre end ti i skoren. Better is bedre in Danish, by the common change of the sharp dental or lingual mute into the medial form d ; skoven, shaw, by the change of sk into sh, as above (see 12).

21. The Danes say, Rigtig segning holder lænyst renskab; or, “Right reckoning preserves long friendship.” English proverb, “Short accounts long friends.” IIold, bold, cold, sold, and similar words, are pure Danish; the corresponding Anglo-Saxon words are heuld, ceald, and skab, ship (see 20).

22. Bytte er ikke tyrerie. “Exchange is not robbery.” Bytte is only a modification of boot, a compensation; and tyverie thievery, which slightly differs from robbery. The Scotch, as usual, preserve the Danish form in their word beet. In Aberdeen, when they trok (exchange), it is said what beet will ye gie; and hence the proverb, “He's got the bect and the better beast (horse).” Diomedes cum glauco permutarit." The crafty Greck exchanged his brazen armour for his old friend's silver harness."

23. Erfarenhed gior darer rüse. “Experience makes fools wise," or "teaches fools." “She keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in no other." The Scottish term auld farrenness still preserves the old High-German root faren, the radical sense of which is progress. The German erfarrenheit has exactly the same meaning as the Scottish term farren-viz., learning gained by experience. The Danish affix hed corresponds to the German heit, and to the Anglo-Saxon or English ness, and also to our affix hood.

23. “Ill weeds grow fast.” Danish, Ukrud roxer altid fast. The prefix u corresponds to the English prefix un, but is rather more generally applied. For example, krud is a useful plant; ukrud, a weed: German, unkraut, a weed; kraut, a plant; vist, certain; uvrst, uncertain ; dyd, a virtue; udyd, a vicious habit, a vicc. Vorer, waxes or grows; altid, always. We retain the sense of this word tid in our term tide, as in the expressions shrove-tide, eventide, &c.

26. “I shall make him turn over a new leaf.” We have several proverbial expressions of this form, and all of them express a change for the better-an amendment. For example,

I will turn over a new leaf;" "I will take a leaf out of your book.” The Danes say, Ig skal lære ham en anden tone. This is exactly rendered in Scotch by “I will learn him another tune.” The verb learn, in old English, signified to teach, or to cause to learn. This causative sense it retains in German, in Danish, and also in the Scottish dialect. Anden (other) has andre in the plural, and in the compounds hinanden, each other (when two are spoken of), hverandre, one another (when more are spoken of).

27. Man skal æde en skiep (bushel) salt med en for man gior renskab med ham. should eat a bushel of salt with one before trusting him.” The word man, both in Danish and in German, precisely corresponds to the French on, and sometimes to our one: for example, on dit, people say; German, mum spricht; Danish, man taler, or they (indefinite)

Oede, eat, exemplifies the change of d into t; med, d into th, and sk and b into sh, and p as above noticed.

28. Paa en mörk morgen folger gierne en klar aften. “A dull morning is often followed by a clear evening.” Mörk is preserved in murky. · Now murky shades surround the pole.” The Scots say a mark night for a dark night; and this is the exact sense in Danish. Our word eren approaches nearer to the AngloSaxon æfi than the Danish often does.

(To be continued.)

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LITERARY NOTES.

to convey an extensive and important meaning in these expressions; if he did, it would perhaps have been in good taste to have spoken plainly instead of oracularly. The book 'altogether is rather deficient in explicit declarations of opinion on subjects interesting at this juncture. On one point, however, there can be no mistake-that the author looks on the present government of Greece as being not so virtuous, capable, or well adapted as it might be. The well-known graces of Lord Carlisle's style of composition shine to great advantage in this Diary.

The present is an eminently appropriate period for the appearance of the History of the Hellenic Revolution, * hy M. TRICOUPI, Greek Minister at the Court of St. James's.

We say appropriate, for the truth is, that the natural enthusiasm in favour of Turkey at this moment has led to some degree of extravagance in our depreciation of the character of all who are supposed to be favourable to the ambitious designs of the Czar; and if the Greeks are not so, they are much wronged by report. Meanwhile the general run of travelled authors, falling into the popular feeling of the moment, are in the habit of describing the Greeks as being, one and universally, a compound of every base, vicious, and despicable quality which disgraces poor human nature. No doubt this strain of writing is carried too far. The Greeks, as a people, have grave faults - very grave faults ; faults partly, beyond all doubt, the offspring of their base position, during long centuries, under the brutal and disgusting tyranny of the old Turkish régime. Still, that they are not all vileness, that they really do possess some national virtues, the heroic

pas. sages of their revolution have signally proved ; and it is well, for the sake of truth and fair play, that the fact should be understood. If, at the successful close of the revolution, the government which the powers of Europe imposed upon the Greeks had been of a more healthful description, their pro-Russian sympathies might not have so strongly developed themselves. M. Tricoupi writes with great force and eloquence-occasionally with some passion ; and his work, so far as it has proceeded, is certainly the most complete and satisfactory history of the Greek revolution that has appeared. We shall be glad to see a translation published under the author's sanction in England, where we feel sure it would have thousands of readers.

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Monsieur Nicholas NICOLORDAT, who is well known by the peculiarity of his opinions on sundry subjects, with respect to which he has “agreed to differ” from the world in general, has, in his recent work, Domestic and Monetary Affairs of Pol. taire, drawn a picture, the painful truthfulness of which, in many points, must be confessed even by those who, as to other subjects, are toto colo at variance with the author. The great sceptical or intidel “philosopher," as it has been the absurd fashion to designate persons of his class, was, beyond doubt, in his private relations one of the most thoroughly worthless human beings whoever existed-false, fickle, ungrateful, malignant, licentious, avaricious. But we need not pursue the interminable concatenation of the faults of this reformer of society—this zealous enemy of the “superstition of Christianity," as he had the blasphemous audacity to term it. The present work is the result of a controversy which has arisen upon a prior production by M. Nicolordat. The author now renews, with increased fire and energy, his onslaught on the personal memory of Voltaire; and we feel bound to say that whilst there is no denying the general truth of his strictures, there is something repulsive in the savage satisfaction with which he appears to exult over his work. By all means let the character of Voltaire the man, as well as of Voltaire the philosopher, be known at its real wortlı; but do not indulge feelings of vindictive triumph at the discovery of weaknesses, some of which, be it observed, have been imputable in no slight degree to persons who have passed in the world as pretty good Christians. The circumstance that Voltaire was chargeable with them, forms no logical argument for or against the theories of which he is the lasting imper.

M. Nicolordat, who appears to be an admirer of the order of Jesuits, is particularly severe against all who had any hand in the socalled persecution of which these personages were the objects in the course of the last century; and his chapter purporting to describe the

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That amiable and accomplished nobleman, the EARL OF CARLISLE, has devoted some of his recent leisure to a southern tour, of which we are presented with the result in his Diary in Turkish and Greek Waters."'t Though war and politics are of course the all-absorbing topic in men's minds at this moment, Lord Carlisle, who is an eminent classic, has found time to bestow on the pursuits and studies nearest to his heart; and a considerable portion of the work is occupied with an erudite and interesting essay intended to fix the site of ancient Troy. On this subject his lordship argues with the authority of a scholar; but as to his success, it would be presumptuous to express a confident opinion, seeing that the very existence of old Troy is, by a certain school of sceptics, set down as a poetic“ myth.” We make a brief but interesting extract relative to the personal appearance of the present Sultan. “ The impression” (says Lord Carlisle) “his aspect conveys is that of a man gentle, unassuming, feeble, unstrung, doomed. No energy of purpose gleamed in that passive glance, no augury of victory sat on that still brow.” It is probable that the earl intended

* courts and salons of the eighteenth century," gives a some what unsavoury representation of sundry roval and illustrious personages—a representation which is highly tinctured with the author's prejudices and prepossessions. The work contains a certain amount of curious interest for those and they are an increasing circle—who are fond of studying subjects kindred to such as,

1 are introduced into it. But in order to furnish information unmixed with prejudice, it must be read with care—we may add, with jealousy.

sonator.

propos de Volaire,

• Published at Athens. | Loudon : Longman and Co.

In all probability the eminent career of Douglas JERROLD will have closed and distant be the day ! -long before the world has settled with itself the many controversies and differences of opinion which exist with respect to the distinctive characteristics of his genius. One thing, however, is admitted by the most unfriendly of his critics, as by the most admiring of his disciples, that that genius is of a brilliant and truly original order. His merits and demerits are all his own, and whenever he passes away from us, he will leave no one to occupy the vacant chair. He is one of the men who are so fortunate as to have a worthy monument erected to them in their lifetime. Jerrold's monument-a noble and enviable oneconsists in the Collected Edition * of his writings, which has just made its appearance in eight handsome volumes; and sincerely we trust that it will not be the last “collected edition,” by several, which may yet appear whilst the gifted author is moving and acting amongst us. We undertake to say that the wide realm of British literature presents no other bevy of writings from the pen of one man, developing so many variations and peculiarities of style and thought—so many passages, and sentences, and entire chapters, reminding one of the several great“ schools” of European literary excellence; yet all, if examined, actuated so visibly and vividly by the same idiosyncracy. Various as are the themes, and widely differing the styles, pursued in Cakes and Ale, l'he Hermit of Clover nook, St. James and St. Giles, &c., no intelligent reader would fail to perceive that one mind ordered and pervaded all. Fierce and playful, tender and sarcastic, solemn and irresistibly comic by turns, the one genius, the one purpose is visible; and clothed though it may sometimes be in garb of mockery, of invective, of stinging, contemptuous disdain, that purpose is a purpose of benevolence and good intent towards mankind. We do not care to discuss the noot-questions respecting the temper of Mr. Jerrold's writings. Those whose foibles the barbed arrows of his satire probes to the quick may, naturally enough, object to the “ temper” which subjects them to so smarting a process. But it may reasonably be considered whether, instead of writing in “ill temper” with his neighbours, Mr. Jerrold do not write rather in a temper of indignant remonstrance against faults and crimes which have been the fruitful sources of woe to the whole human family. It is perfectly probable that he may sometimes be egregiously mistaken,---no man ever wrote so much and so earnestly without making mistakes. Nay, it is possible that his satire may not be always of the sharpest, that his wit may not be always the most pellucid. But notwithstanding the absurd charge of misanthropy which has been made against him-notwithstanding the tone of something like cynicism which his strictures on social anomalies do sometimes present-more especially when the wealthy and powerful are the sinners-few, we feel persuaded, will rise from the perusal of his works without having imbibed some new and salutary impressions on subjects the most important to the well-being of individuals and of society.

and not to allow his laurels to lose their freshness from want of ventilation. From the German of Wägner, and from some secondary sources, he has compiled or composed a book which, under the quaint designation, The Tricolor on the Atlas, or, Algeria and the French Conquest, gives, in guise somewhat theatrical, much practical information respecting the career and present position of the French in Algeria An influential contemporary has propounded, though with only the faintest colouring of truth, that Algeria is to France, on a small scale, what India is to England on a large scale-an outlet for restless spirits, &c. Now the analogy, or comparison, between the two cases will not hold good beyond a very limited extent. Our Indian possessions, from the first, sent enormous wealth to this country, and, were it not for the long reign of misgovernment to which they have been subjected, the vast and fertile territories in question would have been a permanent source of strength and riches to us. Algeria, on the other hand, has been to the French a source of constant unproductive expenditure of blood and treasure. It is only lately-very lately—that the exhausting drain has been even partially arrested. Another contrast is presented in the fact that, whilst the embarrassments of the French in the government of Algeria diminish in proportion as the armed opposition of the natives subsides, the British embarrassments in India seem to accumulate ; and, if the declarations of a very influential class of economists at home are to be credited, grow more perplexing and inextricable as our predominance over the native races becomes absolute and undisputed. That the battle-fields of Africa proved a godsend to the dynasties both of Orleans and Louis Napoleon, by drawing off some of the “restless spirits,' who would otherwise have been troublesome, is quite certain ; but when it is gravely set forth by a high critical authority, that India performed a similar service for the governmental power of Great Britain, we beg to dispute the parallel; for we cannot perceive that there is here any need of such an “outlet.” Having disposed of this specimen of the impertinences of quasi-criticism, we may observe that the French have long since begun, with that pliancy under altered circumstances which is one of their characteristics, to make themselves at home in their new possession. It is not a quarter of a century since the unfortunate old Dey (who, with respect to pecuniary matters, was rather shabbily treated by his conquerors), was sent about his business; and already, in all the “home” districts of the colony, traders, shopkeepers, merchants, and farmers, from France, and indeed from other European countries, are to be found transacting their affairs, travelling to and fro in the country places, selling their wares, cultivating their farms, building their houses, cheating and being cheated by the natives, in as matter ofcourse a fashion as if the scene of these operations was within sight of the Seine. It seems to be taken for granted that after Abd-el-Kader's submission, but especially since the enthusiastic demonstrations of affectionate reverence made by the Emir towards the Emperor, all serious danger from within the province is at an end. Whether this supposition be correct, or the contrary, a few years more will decide. Meanwhile, the transitory state of society is remarkable and interesting, and well worthy the contemplation of thoughtful and philosophic travellers. That the French are not

Mr. Francis Pulszky appears determined to turn his literary reputation to profitable account,

* London: Bradbury and Evans.

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