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District of Massachuselts, io wit:
DISTRICT CLERR'S OFFICE, BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the thirtieth day of L. S.
August, A. D. 1819, in the Forty Fourth Year of the
Jodependence of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, C. Bingham and Co. of the said District, have deposited in this Office the Title of a Book the Right whereof they claim as Proprietors in the words following, to wit: “The American Preceptor improved; being a new Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speaking. Designed for the use of Schools. By Caleb Bingham, A.M. Author of the Columbian Orator, Child's Companion, &c. "Train up a child in the way he should go.” Sixty first (First Improved) Edition.
In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such Copies, during the times therein mentioned;" and also to an act entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled, An Act for the encouragemant of Learning by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned ; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical, and other prints."
J. W. DAVIS,
Brutus' Speech on the Death of Cæsar
HISTORY OF THE ORATOR DEMOSTHENES.
DEMOSTHENES, having lost his father at the age of seven years, and falling into the hands of selfish and avaricious guardians, who where wholly bent upon plundering his estate, was not educated with the care which so excellent a genius as his deserved, and the delicacy of his constitution did not allow his masters to urge him in regard to his studies.
2. Hearing them one day speak of a famous cause that was to be pleaded, and which made a great noise in the city, he importuned them very much to carry him with them to the bar in order to hear the pleadings. The orator was heard with great attention, and having been very successful, was conducted home in a very ceremonious manner, amidst a crowd of illustrious citizens, who expressed the highest satisfaction.
3. Demosthenes was strongly affected with the honors which were paid to the orator, and still more with the absolute and despotic power which eloquence had over the mind. He himself was sensible of its force, and unable to resist its charms, he from that day devoted himself entirely to it, and immediately laid aside every other pleasure and study.
4. His first essay of eloquence was against his guardians, whom he obliged to restore part of his fortune. Encouraged by this good success, he ventured to speak before the people, but he acquitted himself very ill on that occasion, for he had a faint voice, stammered in his speech, and had a very short breath.
5. He therefore was hissed by the whole audience, and went home quite dejected, and determined to abandon för ever a profession to which he imagined himself unequal. But one of his hearers, who perceived an excellent genius amidst his faults, encouraged bim, by the strong remonstrances he made, and the salutary advice he gave him. Ha
therefore appeared a second time before the people, but with no better success than before.
6. As he was going home with downcast eyes, and full of confusion, he was met by his friend Satyrus, one of the best actors of the age; who being informed of the cause of his chagrin, told Demosthenes only to repeat some verses to him, which he immediately did. 7. Satyrus then repeated them after him, and
gave them quite another grace, by the tone of voice, the gesture, and vivacity with which he spoke them, so that Demosthenes observed they had quite a different effect. This made him sensible of what he wanted, and he applied himself to the attainment of it.
8. His endeavours to correct the natural impediment in his speech, and to perfect himself in utterance, of the value of which his friend had made him so sensible, seem almost incredible, and demonstrate that indefatigable industry can overcome all difficulties.
9. He stammered to such a degree that he could not pronounce certain letters at all, and among others that which began the name of the art he studied; and his breath was so short that he could not utter a whole period without stopping. However, Demosthenes overcame all these obstacles, by putting little pebbles into his mouth, and then repeating several verses without taking breath.
10. He would do this when he walked, and ascended very craggy and steep places, so that at last he could pronounce all the letters without hesitating, and speak the longest periods without once taking breath. But this was not all, for he used to go to the sea shore and speak his orations when the weather was most boisterous, in order to prepare himself, by the confused noise of the waves, for the uproar of the people, and the cries of tumultuous assemblies.
11. He had a large mirror, before which he used to declaim before he spoke in public ; and as he had an ill habit of drawing up his shoulders, he hung a drawn sword over them with the point downwards. He was well paid for his trouble, since by these methods he carried the art of declaiming to the highest perfection of which it was capable,