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1769.

Terra del Fuego within sight of land, for it will then, of itself, be fufficiently conspicuous; and Staten Land, which forms the east side, will be ftill more manifeitly distinguished, for there, is no land on Terra del Fuego like it. The Streight of Le Maire can be missed only by. standing too far to the eastward, without keeping the land of Terra del Fuego in fight : if this is done, it may be missed, however acçurately the appearance of the coast of Staten Land may have been exhibited; and if this is not done, it cannot be missed, though the appearance of that coast be not known. The entrance of the Screight should not be attenipted but with a fair wind and moderate weather, and upon the very beginning of the tide of Aood, which happens here, at the full and change of the moon, about one or two o'clock ; it is also best to keep as near to the Terra del Fuego shore as the winds will admit. By attending to these particulars, a ship may be got quite through the Streight in one tide; or, at least, to the southward of Success Bay, into which it will be more prudent to put, if the wind should be southerly, than to attempt the weathering of Staten Land with a lee wind and a current, which may endanger her being driven on that ifand,

The Streight itself, which is bounded on the west by Terra del Fuego, and on the east by

the

1969. January

the west end of Staten Land, is about five feagues
,
long, and as many broad. The Bay of Good
Success lies about the middle of it, on the Terra
del Fuego fide, and is discovered immediately
upon entering the Streight from the northward ;
and the south head of it may be distinguished
by a mark on the land, that has the appear
ance of a broad road, leading up from the feat
into the country: at the entrance it is half a
league wide, and runs in westward about two
Miles and an half. There is good anchorage
in every part of it, in from ten to leven fathom,
clear ground, and it affords plenty of exceeds
ing good wood and water. The tide's flow in
the Bay, at the full and change of the moon,
about four or five o'clock, and rise about five
or six feet perpendicular. But the food run's two
or three hours longer in the Streight' than in the
Bay; and the ebb, or' northerly current, run's
with near double the strength of the flood.

In the appearance of Staten Land, we did nor discover the wildness and horror that is af. cribed to it in the account of Lord Anson's voyage. On the north side' are the appearances of bays or harbours; and the land, when we saw ir, - wasî neither' destitute of wood nor ver. dure, nor covered with snow. The island seems to be about twelve leagues in length, and five broad.

On the weft fide of the Cape of Good Suco 1760. cess, which forms the S. W. entrance of the January. Streight, lies. Valentine's Bay, of which we only. faw the entrance ; from this bay the land trendsi away to the W. S. W. fion twenty or thirty leagues ; it appears to be high and mguntain. ous, and forms several baysi and inletst

At the distance of fourteen. leagues from the Bay of Good Success, in the direction of S. W. & W. and between two and three leagues from the shore, lies New Island. It is about two leagues in length from N. E. to S.W. and terminates to the N. E. in a remark able hillock. At the distance of seven leagues from New INand, in the direction of S. W. lies the isle Evouts; and, a little to the west of the south of this isand lie Barnevele's two small fat islands, close to each other; they are partly sur., rounded with rocks, which rise to different heights- above the water, and lie twenty-four leagues from the Streight of Le Maire. At the distance of three leagues from Barnevel's islands, in the direction of S. W. by S. lies the '. S. E. point of Hermit's islands: these islands, lie S. E. and N. W. and are pretty high: from most points: of view they will be taken for oneisland, or a part of the main.

From the S. E. point of Hermit's islands to Cape Horn the course is S. W. by S. distance three leagues.

The

1769. The appearance of this Cape and Hermit's

i inands is represented in the chart of this coast,

from our first making land to the Cape, which includes the Streight of Le Maire,, and parc. of Staten Land. In this chart I have laid down no land, nor traced out any shore but what I saw myself, and thus far it may be depended upon : the bays and inlets, of which we saw only the openings, are not traced ; it can, however, scarcely be doubted, but that most, if not all of them, afford anchorage, wood and water. The Dutch squadron, commanded by Hermit, certainly put into some of them in the year 1624: and it was Chapenham, the Vice-Admiral of this squadron, who first discovered that the land of Cape Horn confifted of a number of islands. The account, however, which those who failed in Hermit's fleet have given of these parts is extremely defective ; and those of Schouton and Le Maire are fill worse: it is therefore no wonder that the charts hitherto published should be erroneous, not only in laying down the land, but in the latitude and longitude of the places they contain. I will, however, venture to affert, that the longi. túde of few parts of the world is better ascer. tained than that of the Streight of Le Maire, and Cape Horn, in the chart now. offered to the Public, as it was laid down by several observations of the sun and moon, that were made both by myself and Mr. Green,

The

The variation of the compass on this coast 1769.

January: I found to be from 23° to 25° E. except near Barnevelt's islands and Cape Horn, where we found it less, and unsettled: probably it is difturbed here by the land, as Hermit's squadron, in this very place, found all their compasses differ from each other. The declination of the dipping.needle, when set upon shore in Success Bay, was 689 15 below the horizon.

Between Streight Le Maire and Cape Horn we found a current setting, generally very strong, to the N. E. when we were in with the shore ; but lost it when we were at the distance of fifteen or twenty leagues.

On the 26th of January, we took our depar. Thursd. 26. ture from Cape Horn, which lies in latitude 55° 53' S. longitude 68° 13' W. The farthest southern latitude that we made was 609 16, our longitude was then 74° 30' W.; and we found the variation of the compass, by the mean of eighteen azimuths, to be 270 gʻ E. As the weather was frequently calm, Mr. Banks went out in a small boat to shoot birds, among which were some albatrosses and sheerwaters. The albatrosses were observed to be larger than those which had been taken northward of the Streight; one of them measured ten feet two inches from the tip of one wing to that of the other, when they were extended: the sheer-water, on the contrary, is less, and darker coloured on VOL. II. х

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