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bones; the women both upon their wrists and ancles, the meň upon their wrifts only; but to compensate for the want of bracelets on their legs, they wore a kind of fillet of brown' worsted round their heads. They feemed to set a particular value upon any thing that was red, and preferred beads even to a knife or a hatchet.

Their language in general is guttural, and they express some of their words by a found exactly like that which we make to clear the throat when any thing happens to obstruct it; yet they have words that would be deemed foft in the better languages' of Europe. Mr. Banks learnt what he supposés to be their name for beads and water. When they wanted beads; instead of ribbons or other trifles, they said hallēcă; and when they were taken on shore from the ship, and by signs afked where water migh¢ be found; they made the sign of drinking, and pointing as well to the casks as the wateringplace, cried Ooda.

We saw no appearance of their having any food but shell-filhi; for though feals were frequently seen near the shore, they seemed to have no implements for taking them. The shell fish is collected by the women, whose business it seems to be to attend at low water, with a basket in one hand, and a stick, pointed and barbed, in the other, and a fatchel at' their backs: they loosen the limpets, and other fifh that adhere to U 2


1769. January

the rocks with the stick, and put them into the
basket; which, when full, they empty into the
· The only things that we found among them
in which there was the least appearance of neat-
ness or ingenuity, were their weapons, which
consisted of a bow and arrows. The bow was
noc inelegantly made, and the arrows were the
neatest that we had ever seen: they were of
wood, polished to the highest degree ; and the.
point, which was of glass or Aint, and barbed,
was formed and fitted with wonderful dexterity.
We saw also some pieces of glass and fint among
them unwrought, besides rings, buttons, cloth,
and canvas, with other European commodities;
they must therefore sometimes travel to the
northward, for it is many years since any lhip
has been so far south as this part of Terra del
Fuego. We observed also, that they shewed no
surprise at our fire-arms, with the use of which
they appeared to be well acquainted; for they
made signs to Mr. Banks to shoot a seal which
followed the boat, as they were going on shore
from the ship.

M. de Bougainville, who, in January 1768, just one year before us, had been on shore upon this coast in latitude 53° 40 41", had, among other things, given glass to the people whom he found here; for he says, that a boy about twelve years old took it into his head to eat

some 1769. January.

Tome of it: by this unhappy accident he died
in great misery ; but the endeavours of the good
father, the French Aumonier, were more success-
ful than those of the surgeon; for though the
surgeon could not save his life, the charitable
Priest found means to steal a Christian baptisin
upon him so secretly, that none of his Pagan re.
lations knew any thing of the matter. These
people might probably have some of the very
glass which Bougainville left behind him, either
from other natives, or perhaps from himself;
for they appeared rather to be a travelling hords
than to have any fixed habitation. Their houses
are built to stand but for a short time; they
have no utensil or furniture but the basket and
satchel, which have been mentioned before, and
which have handles adapted to the carrying
them about, in the hand and upon the back;
the only clothing they had here was scarcely fuffi-
cient to prevent their perishing with cold in the
summer of this country, much less in the extreme
severity of winter; the shell-fish, which seems to
be their only food, muft soon be exhausted at
any one place; and we had seen houses upon
what appeared to be a deserted station in St.
Vincent's bay.

It is also probable that the place where we found them was only a temporary residence, from their having here nothing like a boat or canoe, of which it can scarcely be supposed that they


U 3

1769. January.

were wholly destitute, especially as they were
not sea-sick, or particularly affected, either in
our boat or on board the thip. We conjectured
that there might be a streight or inlet, running
from the sea through great part of this ihand,
from the Streight of Magellan, whence these
people might come, leaving their canoes where
such inlet terminated.
· They did not appear to have among them
any government or subordination: none was
more respected than another; yet they seemed,
to live together in the utmost harmony and good
fellowship. Neither did we discover any ap-
pearance of religion among them, except the
noises which have been mentioned, and which
we supposed to be a fuperftitious ceremony,
merely becaufe we could refer them to nothing
else: they were used only by one of those who
came on board the thip, and the two who con-
ducted Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander to the town,
whom we therefore conjectured to be priests.
Upon the whole, these people appeared to be
the most destitute and forlorn, as well as the
most stupid of all human beings; the outcasts
of Nature, who spent their lives in wandering
about the dreary wastes, where two of our people
perished with cold in the midft of fummer; with
no dwelling but a wretched hovel of sticks
and grass, which would not only admit the
wind, but the snow and the rain ; almost naked;


1969: January.

and deftitute of every convenience that is furnished by the rudeft art, having no implement even to dress their food: yêt they were contenti

They seemed to have no wish for any thing more than they possessed, nor did any thing that we offered them appear acceptable but beads, as an ornamental fuperfluity of life. What bodily pain they might suffer from the severities of their winter we could not know, but it is certain; that they suffered nothing from the want of the innumerable articles which we consider, not as the luxuries and conveniencies only, but the neceffaries of life: as their desires are few, they probably enjoy them all; and how much they may be gainers by an exemption from the carey labour, and solicitude; which arise from a per. petual and unsuccessful effort to gratify that infinite variety of defires which the refinements of artificial life have produced among us, is not very easy to determine : poffibly this may counterbalance all the real disadvantages of their situation in comparison with ours, and make the scales by which good and evil are distributed to man, hang even between us.

In this place we faw no quadruped except feals, sea-lions, and dogs; of the dogs it is remarkable that they bark, which thofe that are originally bred in America do not. And this is a further proof, that the people we saw here had, either immediately or remotely, communicated U 4


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