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for Rio de Janeiro, and at nine the next morn..
November ing made fail for the harbour. I then sent Mr. ima Hicks, my First Lieutenant, before us in the Sunday 13. pinnace, up to the city, to acquaint the Governor, that we put in there to procure water and refreshments; and to desire the assistance of a pilot to bring us into proper anchoring-ground. I continued to stand up the river, trusting to Mr. Bellise's draught, published in the Petit
Atlas maritime, Vol. II. N° 54, which we found very good, till five o'clock in the evening, expecting the return of my Lieutenant; and just as I was about to anchor, above the island of Cobras, which lies before the city, the pinnace came back without him, having on board a Portuguese officer, but no pilot. The people in the boat told me, that my Lieutenant was detained by the Viceroy till I should go on shore. We came immediately to an anchor; and, almost at the same time, a ten oared boat, full of soldiers, came up and kept rowing round the ship, without exchanging a word: in less than a quarter of an hour, another boat came on board with several of the Viceroy's officers, who asked, whence we came; what was our cargo; the number of men and guns on board ; the object of our voyage, and several other questions, which we directly and truly answered: they then told me, as a kind of apology for de taining my Lieutenant, and putting an çfficer VOL. II.
1768. on board my pinnace, that it was the invariable Novembe:
custom of the place, to detain the first officer who came on shore from any ship on her arrival, till a boat from the viceroy had visited her, and to fuffer no boat to go either from or to a fhip, while she lay there, without having a soldier on board. They said that I might go on shore when I pleased; but wished that every other perfon might remain on board till the paper which they should draw up had been delivered to the viceroy, promising that, immediately upon their return, the lieutenant should be sent on
board. Monday 14. This promise was performed; and on the next
morning, the 14th, I went on fore, and obtained leave of the viceroy to purchase provisions and refreshments for the ship, provided I would em. ploy one of their own people as a factor, but not otherwise. I made some objections to this, but he insisted upon it as the custom of the place. I objected also against the putting a foldier into the boat every time she went between the ship and the shore; but he told me, that this was done by the express orders of his court, with which he could in no cafe dispense. . I then requested, that the gentlemen whom I had on board might reside on shore during our stay, and that Mr. Banks might go up the country to gather plants; but this he absolutely refufed. I judged from his extreme caucion, and the seve
| rity of thefe restrictions, that he fufpecied we 1768., were come to trade; I therefore took some pains war to convince him of the contrary. I told him, that we were bound to the southward, by the order of his Britannic Majesty, to observe à tranfit of the planet Venus over the Sun, an aftronomical phænomonon of great importance to navigation. Of the transit of Venus, however, he could form no other conception, than that it was the passing of the North Star through the South Pole; for thefe are the very words of his interpréter, who was a Swede, and fpoke English very well. I did not think it neceflarý to ask permission for the gentlemen to come on shore during the day, or that, when I was on fhoré myself, I might be at liberty, taking for granted that nothing was intended to the con. trary; but in this I was unfortunately mistakén. As soon as I took leave of his excellency, I found an officer who had orders to attend me wherever I went: of this I desired an explanation, and was told thar ic was meant as a compliment; I earnestly desired to be excused from accepting fúch an honour, but the good viceroy would by no means suffer it to be dispensed with.
With this officer, therefore, I returned on board, about twelve o'clock, where I was inipa tiently expected by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, who made no doubt' but that a fair aco: count of us having been given by the officers
who had been on board the evening before, in their paper called a Prakiica, and every scruple of the viceroy removed in my conference with his excellency, they should immediately be at liberty to go on fhore, and dispose of themselves as they pleased. Their disappointment at receiving my report may easily be conceived ; and it was still increased by an account, that it had been resolved, not only to prevent their residing on fhore, and going up the country, but even their leaving the ship; orders having been given, that no person except the captain, and such common sailors as were required to be upon duty, should be permitted to land; and that there was probably a particular view to the passengers in this prohibition, as they were reported to be gentlemen sent abroad to make observations and discoveries, and were uncommonly qualified for that purpose. In the evening, however, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander dressed themselves, and at. tempted to go on shore, in order to make a visit to the viceroy; but they were stopped by the guard-boat which had come off with our pinnace, and which kept hovering round the ship all the while she lay here, for that purpose; the officer on board saying, that he had particular orders, which he could not disobey, to suffer no passenger, nor any officer, except the captain, to pass the boat. After much expoftulation to no
purpose, they were obliged, with whatever reluc- ,,1768.
November. tance and mortification, to return on board. I hope then went on shore myself, but found the viceroy inflexible; he had one answer ready for every thing I could say, That the restrictions un. der which he had laid us, were in obedience to the King of Portugal's commands, and therefore indispensable.
In this situation I determined, rather than be made a prisoner in my own boat, to go on shore no more; for the officer who, under pretence of a compliment, attended me when I was alhore, insisted also upon going with me to and from the ship: but still imagining, that the scrupulous vigilance of the viceroy must proceed from some mistaken notion about us, which might more. easily be removed by writing than in conversation, I drew up a memorial, and Mr. Banks drew up another, which we sent on shore. These memorials were both answered, but by no means to our satisfaction; we therefore replied: in consequence of which, several other papers were interchanged between us and the viceroy, but still without effect. However, as I thought some degree of force, on the part of the viceroy, to enforce these restrictions, necessary to justify my acquiescence in them to the Admiralty; I gave orders to my lieutenant, Mr. Hicks, when I sent him with our last reply on Sunday the 20th, in Sunday 20. the evening, not to suffer a guard to be put into R 3