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1768. an hour. The variation here, by the mean of
several azimuths, appeared to be 8° 39' W. Monday 10. On the 10th, Mr. Banks shot the black-toed
gull, not yet described according to Linnæus's system; he gave it the name of Larus crepidatus: iç is remarkable that the dung of thiş bird is of a lively red, somewhat like that of the liquor procured from the shells, only not so full; its principal food therefore is probably the Helix
just mentioned. A current to the N. W. preMonday 24. vailed more or less till Monday the 24th, when
we were in: latitude 1° 7N, and longitude 28
On the 25th we crossed the line with the usual ceremonies in longitude 29° 30', when, by the result of several very good azimuths, the variațion was 2° 24.:
On the 28th, at noon, being in the latitude of Ferdinand Naronka, and, by the mean of feyeral observations by Mr. Green and myself, in longitude 32° 5.16 W. which is to the westward of it by some charts, and to the eastward by others, we expected to see the isand, or some of the shoals that are laid down in the charts between it and the main, but we saw neither one nor the other ..
In the evening of the 29th, we observed that luminous appearance of the sea which has been fo often mentioned by navigators, and of which such various causes have been assigned ; some
supposing it to be occasioned by fith, which 1968, agitated the water by darting at their prey, L some by the putrefaction of fish and other ma. Saturd: 29. rine animals, some by electricity, and others , référring it into a great variety of different causes. It appeared to emit Hafhes of light exactly refenibling those of lightning, only not so considerable, but they were fo frequent that sometimes eight or ten were visible almost at the fame moment. We were of opinion that they proceeded from fome luminous 'animal, and upon throwing out the casting net our opinion was confirmed: it brought up à fpecies of the Medusa, which when it came on board had the appearance of metal violently heated, and emit. ted a white light : with these animals were taken some very small cråbs, of three different fpecies, each of which gave as much light as a glow-worm, though the creature was not fo large by nine tenths : upon éxamination of these animals Mr. Banks had the fatisfaction to find that they were all'entirely new.. i ;
On Wednesday thè 2d of November, about November. noon, being in the latitude of -102 38 S. and Wednes. 2.. longitude 32° 13' 43" W. we palled the line in which the needle at this time would have points ed due north and fouth, without any variation : for in the morning, having decreased gradually in its deviation for some days, it’was no more than 18' W. and in the afternoon it was 34' East.
1768. On the 6th, being in latitude 19° 3' South, November.
longitude 35° 50' West, the colour of the wa.. Sunday 6.
ter was oblerved to change, upon which we sounded, and found ground at the depth of 32 fathoms; the lead was cast three times within about four hours, without a foot difference in the depth or quality of the bottom, which was coral rock, fine sand, and shells; we therefore supposed that we had passed over the tail of the great shoal which is laid down in all our charts by the name of Abrothos, on which Lord Anson
ftruck soundings in his passage outwards : at: Monday :: four the next morning we had no ground with
As several articles of our stock and provisions now began to fall short, I determined to put. into Rio de Janeiro, rather than at any port in Brazil or Falkland's Inands, knowing that it could better supply us with what we wanted, and making no doubt but that we should be
well received. Tuesday So ' On the 8th, at day-break, we saw the coast
of Brazil, and about ten o'clock we brought to,
lines, and their fresh cargo, the chief part of 1768.
November.. which Mr. Banks bought, consisted of dolphins, m large pelagic scombers of two kinds, sea bream, and some of the fish which in the West Indies are called Wellhmen. Mr. Banks had taken Spanish silver with him, which he imagined to be the currency of the continent, but to his great surprise the people asked him for English Thil. lings; he gave them two, which he happened to have about him, and it was not without fome dispute that they cook the rest of the money in piftereens. Their business seemed to be to catch large fish at a good distance from the shore, which they falted in bulk, in a place made for that purpose in the middle of their boat : of this merchandise they had about two quintals on board, which they offered for about 15 shillings, and would probably have sold for half the money. The fresh fish, which was bought for about nineteen shillings and fix pence, served the whole ship's company; the salt was not wanted.
The sea provision of these fishermen confifted of nothing more than a cask of water, and a bag of Cassada flour, which they called Farinha de Pao, or wooden four, which indeed is a name which very well suits its taste and appearance. Their water cask was large, as wide as their boat, and exactly fitted a place that was made for it in the ballast; it was impossible
therefore to draw out any of its contents by a tap, the sides being, from the bottom to the top, wholly inaccessible; neither could any be taken out by dipping a vessel in at the head, for an opening suficiently wide for that purpose would have endangered the loss of great part of it by the rolling of the vessel : their expedient to get at their water, fo situated, was curious ; when one of them wanted to drink, he applied to his neighbour, who accompanied him to the water calk with a hollow cane about three feet long, which was open at both ends; this he thrust into the cask through a small hole in the top, and then, stopping the upper end with the palm of his hand, drew it out; the pressure of the air against the other end keeping in the water which it contained; to this end the person who wanted to drink applied his mouth, and the assistant then taking his hand from the other, and admitting the air above, the cane immedi. ately parted with its contents, which the drinker drew off till he was satisfied.
We stood off and on along the shore till the 12th, and successively saw a remarkable hill near Santo Espirito, then Cape St. Thomas, and then an island just without Cape Frio, which in some maps is called the island of Frio, and which being high, with a hollow in the middle has the appearance of two islands when seen at a distance. On this day we stood along the shore