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We took in 270 lb. of fresh beef, and a live 1768.
September bullock, charged at 613 lb. 3,032 gallons of water, and ten tons of wine; and in the night,
Surday 18. between Sunday the 18th and Monday the 19th Monday 19. of September, we set sail in prosecution of our voyage.
When Funchiale bore North, 13 East, at the distance of 76 miles, the variation appeared by feveral azimuths to be 16° 26West.
CH A P. II.
The Passage from Madeira to Rio de Ja
neiro, with forme account of the Country, and the Incidents that happened there.
1768. N the zift of September we faw the September.
islands called the Salvages, to the north ef.21. of the Canarius; when the principal of these
bore S. į.W. at the distance of about five leagues, we found the variation of the compass by an azimuth to be 17° 50'. I make these inands to lie in latitude 30° ' North, and distant 58 leagues from Funchiale in Madeira,
in the direction of S. 16 E. Friday 22. On Friday the 23d we faw the Peak of Te
neriffe bearing W. by S. S. and found the va. riation of the compass to be from 17° 22' to 16' 30'. The height of this mountain, from which I took a new departure, has been determined by Dr. Heberden, who has been upon it, to be 15,396 feet, which is but 148 yards less than three miles, reckoning the mile at 1760 yards. Its appearance at sunset was very striking; when the sun was below the horizon, and the rest of the island appeared of a deep black, the mountain itill reflected his rays, and glowed with a warmth of colour which no painting can
express. There is no eruption of visible fire 1768.
September. from it, but a heat issues from the chinks near the top, too strong to be borne by the hand Friday 23. when it is held near them. We had received from Dr. Heberden, among other favours, some salt which he collected on the top of the mountain, where it is found in large quantities, and which he supposes to be the true neirum or ni.. trum of the ancients: he gave us also some native sulphur exceedingly pure, which he had likewise found upon the surface in great plenty.
On the next day, Saturday the 24th, we came Saturd. 24 into the north east trade wind, and on Friday the 30th saw Bona Vista, one of the Cape de Friday 30. Verd islands; we ranged the east side of it, at the distance of three or four miles from the shore, till we were obliged to haul off to avoid a ledge of rocks which stretch out S. W. by W. from the body, or S. E. point of the island, to the extent of a league and an half. Bona Vista by our observation lies in latitude 16 N. and longitude 21° 51' Weft. . On the ift of October, in latitude 14° 6' N. O&ober. and longitude 22° 10' W. we found the varia. Satu tion by a very good azimuth to be 10° 37 W. and the next morning it appeared to be 10°. Sunday 2. This day we found the ship five miles a head of the log, and the next day seven. On the third, Monday 3. hoisted out the boat to discover whether there was a current, and found one to the eastward,
at the rate of three quarters of a mile an
During our course from Teneriffe to Bona Vista we saw great nunibers of fiying fish, which from the cabbin windows appear beautiful be. yond imagination, their sides having the colour and brightness of burnished silver ; when they are seen from the deck they do not appear to so much advantage, because their backs are of a dark colour. We also tock a shark, which proved to be the Squalus Carcharias of Linnæus.
Having lost the trade wind on the 3d, in latitude 12° 14', and longitude 22° 10', the wind became somewhat variable, and we had light airs and calms by turns.
On the 7th, Mr. Banks went out in the boat and took what the seamen call a Portuguese man of war; it is the Holuthuria Physalis of Linnæus, and a species of the Mollusca. To consisted of a small bladder about seven inches long, very much resembling the air-bladder of fishes, from the bottom of which descended a number of strings, of a bright blue and red, some of them three or four feet in length, which upon being touched fting like a nettle, but with much more force. On the top of the bladder is a membrane which is used as a fail, and turned so as to receive the wind which way soever it blows: this membrane is marked in
fine pink coloured veins, and the animal is in 1768. every respect an object exquisitely curious and a beautiful. ..
Friday 7. We also took several of the shell-fishes, or testaceous animals, which are always found floating upon the water, particularly the Helix Jan. thina and Violacea; they are about the size of a' snaid, and are supported upon the surface of the water by a small cluiter of bubbles, which are filled with air, and consist of a tenacious Nimy substance that will not easily part with its contents; the animal is oviparous, and these bub. bles serve also as a nidus for its eggs.' It is pro. bable that it never goes down to the bottom, nor willingly approaches any Thore; for the shell is exceedingly brittle, and that of few fresh water snails is so thin : every shell contains about a tea-spoonful of liquor, which it easily discharges upon being touched, and which is of the most beautiful red purple that can be conceived. It dies linen cloth, and it may perhaps be worth inquiry, as the shell is certainly found in the Mediterranean, whether it be not the Purpura of the ancients.
On the 8th, in latitude 8° 25' North, longi- Saturd. 8. tude 22° 4 West, we found a current setting to the southward, which the next day in latitude 79 58', longitude 22° 13' shifted to the N. N. W. ? W. at the rate of one mile and a furlong