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magisterial action may have been intended to suppress what remained of the edition of the Certane Tractatis' published in May, and this work at the same time. It was certainly Winzet's ‘Last Blast' in his native land.


He had now to consult his personal safety by stealthy flight. The Protestants were closely watching the ports for a mysterious messenger from the Pope - Nicolaus Goudanus, who had been flitting about the Court. Both made a hairbreadth escape. A ship bound for Flanders hovered about the coast for the Papal Nuncio, and Winzet with Goudanus gained it on the 3d of September. Ten days afterwards they reached Antwerp, and on the same day proceeded to Louvain.1

The Jesuit Goudanus, in a letter describing his Scottish mission, which he despatched to the General of the Society, James Laynez, recommends Winzet to him as one understanding the position of Scotch affairs, at the same time suggesting that he should be called to Rome, and should obtain some scholastic appointment. The Jesuit's opinion of him is interesting : “He is of slender means, and unable to support himself. Otherwise he is a man learned and pious, who also, by his published works, contended with the arch-heretic in Scotland, who at present there is much incensed."2 This fervour assumed a practical form

” in the prosecution of the more prominent and active of the Catholics, for celebrating the Mass and attempting to restore Popery. On the 19th May 1563, we find “John,


1 'Laacher Stimmen' (P. Goudanus am Hofe Maria Stuarts), xix. I, p. 103. ? Ibid., p. 106.


Archiebishop of Sanctandrois,” and forty-seven others, including “Schir William Winzett," indicted in the High Court of Justiciary for “the controuentioune of our Souerane ladeis Act and Proclamatioune, charging all hir leigis, that euery ane of thaim suld contene thaim selffis in quietnes, keip peax and ciuile societie amang thame selffis, and that nane of thame take vpone hand priuatlie nor opinlie to mak ony alteratioun or innouation of the Stait of Religione, or attempt ony thing agains the forme quhilk hir Grace fand publictlie and vniversallie standing at hir arrywell vithin this realme.” The particular offences are condescended upon, found proven, and a verdict given for the incarceration of the Archbishop in Edinburgh, and of other offenders elsewhere; while the rest were dischargit of our souerane ladeis


in spect thai fand souirtie thai suld not in ony tyme cuming controuene the said Act.” In the same minute it is stated : “The said Mr Wileam Wynzett, in Will for the forsaid cryme (ministring of the Sacrament of the Lordis Supper), done be him in the hous of David Lyndsay in Glasgw, the tyme aboue written.” While the indictment specifies the date of some of the offences as "the moneth of Apryill last bypast," and of others, “efter our soueranis arryvell foirsaid," the precise date of Winzett's breach of the law is not given by Pitcairn. And it is still more tantalising to discover that, since Pitcairn made these extracts, the 'Aucht Buik of Adjournal,' extending from May 17, 1563, to May 17, 1564, like the preceding volume, has gone amissing.

It will be remembered that the publication of the 'Last Blast' by Winzet was an offence against this Act, for which the magistrates unsuccessfully endeavoured to apprehend him in Edinburgh. But the Book of Ad

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journal’here indicates that William Winzett was in custody (in Will) in St Andrews, although it does not specify the precise period of that incarceration, which may have been anterior to Ninian's escape with Nicolas Goudanus in the summer previous to this trial, at which he did not compear. Otherwise, we must fall back on the supposition that this “Sir William Winzett” was not identical with “ Sir Niniane Winzet,” who, in a few years afterwards, was attracting the attention of the Privy Council. But the total disappearance of William Winzett's name from history at the very time when Ninian's notoriety and reputation are increasing, creates the impression that Winzet was known by both his baptismal and his assumed name at this time.1

Mackenzie makes a mistake in the statement that the exile “stayed for some time at the University of Louvain.” His name is not enrolled among the students of this university. Louvain had become the rendezvous of exiled British Catholics, who resided in two houses called “Oxford ” and “Canterbury” there, from which they issued treatises in defence of the old and in confutation of the new faith, which were smuggled into Britain.4

Winzet employed his leisure in revising and superintending the publication of The Buke of Four Scoir Thre Questions,' which was still circulating in copies “corruptit be unleirnit writtaris,” because the author was unable to print it through the want of his “small freind Dame Cun

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1 Pitcairn, ‘Crim. Trials in Scot.,' vol. i. pt. i. pp. 427-430. Edin. 1833. 2 Mackenzie, 'Lives,' &c., vol. iii. p. 149.

3 Private letter from M. le Bibliothécaire, Louvain University, 6th Nov. 1887.

4 ‘Records of the English Catholics : Douay Diaries,' pref. p. xix ; quoting Worthington's Catalogus Martyrium, p. 4; Maziere Brady's 'Episcopal Succession,' vol. iii. p. 56.


zey.” The prefatory address “To the Christiane Reidar," is dated at Louvain on the 7th of October 1563; and the volume concludes with a postscript addressed to “Iohne Knox, writtin 27th October 1563,” from Antwerp, at which place the “buke” was being published. In this note the author reminds the Reformer of his promise to answer this tractate, apologises for his “auld plane Scottis,” he "being nocht acquyntit with zour Southeroun ”-and ends in a lament over his penniless condition—“Och for mair paper or mair pennyis!”

The activity of his fellow-exiles, and the memory of his persecution, tended to increase his polemical enthusiasm, which found a suitable sphere to expend itself in translating, “conforme to our auld brade Scottis," standard works of antiquity bearing upon the controversies of his time. Unfortunately, the only one of these preserved is a translation of the famous 'Commonitorium' of Vincent of Lerins.1

The work is prefaced by a dedication to Mary Queen of Scots, dated at Antwerp on the ad of December 1563.

Popular translations of other“ Tractatis writtin be anciant Fatheris mony zeris ago" were also made, but these still remain unrecognised. Nor do they appear to have graced the shelves of the great monastic library at Ratisbon among his other treatises. Evidently they were printed. In the marginal notes to the first of the 'Four Scoir Thre Questions,' the reader is referred to Vincentius, "newlie putt in Scottis."

Similarly to the second Question he adds, “Reid for this Quaestioun the sext buik of Optatus, putt

1 Vincentius Lirinensis,' &c. Antverpiæ, 1563. 2 Ibid., p. a. ii.

3 ' Bibliotheca Principalis Ecclesiæ et Monasterii Ord. S. Benedicti (ad S. Emmerianum Episc. et Martyr, Ratisbonæ, &c.),’ Par. i. p. 171. Ratisbon, 1748. (Glasgow University, Hamilton Collection.)


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in Scottis, with utheris tractatis for this purpose.” The third Question is annotated thus: “Quha pleiss to reid Tertulliane de Præscriptionibus adversus Hæreticos, newlie putt in Scottis (quha wrait about 1400 zeris passit), sall knaw quha is now a Catholik, and quha is an haretik.” 1 We may presume these translations were by Winzet. We do not know whether Ninian went to Rome in the company of some Scottish students who proceeded there at this time or not.


He next betook himself to Paris University to renew his studies, in which he was materially assisted by Archbishop Beaton. While in Paris, in 1565, he issued from the press a translation of Benoist's treatise,‘Certus Modus,' before mentioned. It appears to have been entitled 'Concerning Composing Discords in Religion.'3 No copy of this tract has been as yet discovered.

The name of Winzet first appears in connection with the Sorbonne in 1566. There are preserved in the Archives Nationales, Paris, two folio volumes of Minutes of the business of the “German Nation” in the University, which relate to the appointments of various proctors, the discharge of accounts, and other matters.4

1 Winzet, “Certain Tractates,' vol. i. pp. 70, 71. 2 Mackenzie, 'Lives,' &c., vol. iii. p. 462.

3 Ames, 'Typo. Antiq.' by Herbert, vol. iii. p. 1614; Mackenzie, 'Lives,' &c., vol. iii. p. 156; Ziegelbauer, ‘Hist. Rei.,' pt. iii. p. 361 ; 'Renati Benedicti Tractatus de componendis disidiis circa Religionem exortis Anglico idiomate donatus cum insigni præfatione ad Episcopos et clerum Scotiæ,' Parisiis, 1565.

4 A facsimile of a folio of the Minute- slightly reduced from a photograph taken under the superintendence of the Editor, is given at page xcviii. Archives Nationales, Paris, Registers H. 2589, H. 2590.

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