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law in said State; and if the number hereby provided for shall in any State be less than it was before the change lrereby made, then the whole number to such State hereby provided for shall be elected at large, unless the legislatures of said States have provided or shall otherwise provide before the time fixed by law for the next election of Representatives therein. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed. Ratio of representation, 1 to 151,912.

The several ratios of representation established by the acts above cited under the several censuses are as follows, viz: Census of 1790 (First) (105 Representatives)..

.1 to 33,000 Census of 1800 (Second) (141 Representatives).

1 to 33,000 Census of 1810 (Third) (181 Representatives)

.1 to 35,000 Census of 1820 (Fourth) (212 Representatives)

.1 to 40,000 Census of 1830 (Fifth) (240 Representatives)

.1 to 47, 700 Census of 1840 (Sixth) (223 Representatives)

1 to 70, 680 Census of 1850 (Seventh) (233 Representatives)

.1 to 93, 420 Census of 1860 (Eighth) (241 Representatives)

.1 to 127, 381 Census of 1870 (Ninth) (293 Representatives)

.1 to 131, 425 Census of 1880 (Tentb) (325 Representatives)

.1 to 151, 912 Census of 1890 (Eleventh) (356 Representatives, as per House bill). .....

.1 to 173, 901 In this connection see table on pp. 116 and 117 and 198 and 199.

The act of February 22, 1889, providing for the admission of the States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington, increased the representation in the House to three hundred and thirty members, which was further increased by the acts of July 3 and 10, 1890, admitting the States of Idaho and Wyoming, to three hundrell and thirty-two members.

A bill making an apportionment of Representatives in Congress among the several States under the last census is a priv. ileged question.—Journal, 1, 47, p.519; 2,51, p. , Dec. 16, 1890.

APPROPRIATION BILLS.

Style and title of.--See R. S., sec. 11.

No appropriation shall be reported in any general appropriation bill, or be in order as an amendment thereto, for any expenditure not previously authorized by law, unless in continua. tion of appropriation for such public works and objects as are already in progress; nor shall any provision changing existing law be in order in any general appropriation bill or in any amendment thereto.-RULE XXI, clause 2.

Since the foregoing clause was changed to its present form in the first session Forty-ninth Congress, it has been alınost uniformly held in the Committee of the Whole that a "limitation" of a specific appropriation which has the effect of chang ing existing law is not in order as a provision in, or amendment to, a general appropriation bill.

As to what constitutes a "work or object already in progress," see debate on and ruling of Chairman Wellborn, Congressional Record, 2d sess. 48th Cong., February 19, 1885, vol. 73, p. 1914. See, also, ruling of Chairman McCreary, 2d sess. 49th Cong., on H. R. 11020, Cong. Record, vol. 18, part 3, p. 2228. Also of Chairman Cox, 2d sess. 50th Cong., vol. 20, part 1, p. 717.

To be first discussed in Committee of the Whole.-RULE XXIII, clause 3.

During the first forty years of our history all appropriations (with the exception of an occasional special bill making appropriation for some particular branch of the public service) were made in one act, entitled "An act making appropriations for the support of the Government."

In 1823 the appropriations for fortifications, and in 1826 the appropriations for pensions, were made in separate bills. The first separate act for rivers and harbors appeared in 1828, and in 1814 the Post Office and general deficiency bills were first passed as separate acts.

In 1847 the appropriations were made in nine separate bills, viz: Army, Civil and Diplomatic, Deficiency, Fortifications, Indians, Military Academy, Navy, Pensions, and Post Office.

In 1856 the consular and diplomatic appropriations were first embodied in a separate bill, and in 1857 the legislative, executive, and judicial bill first appeared in the form which is still maintained.

In 1862 the sundry civil bill was added, containing the vari. ous miscellaneous items not embraced in the other bills.

In 1880 the agricultural and District of Columbia appropriations were first reported in separate bills, the Committee on Agriculture being given jurisdiction of the first-named bill.

Since then there have been thirteen regular annual appropri. ation bills, the river and harbor bill not being included, that being held to be not one of the general appropriation bills. See decision of Chairman Carlisle February 15, 1881, 3d session, sion, 46th Congress, Congressional Record, p. 1624.

An amendment in the nature of a private claim on the Gov. ernment is not in order to a general appropriation bill.—Congressional Globe, 1, 31, pp. 1617, 1651; 2, 32, p. 736; 1, 33, pp. 385, 1483 (and such is the well-established practice).

Preference given to general appropriation bills in Committee of the Whole.-RULE XVI, clause I, and RULE XXIII, clause 4.

A motion to go into Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union to consider general appropriation bills is in order on Friday. Journal 1, 51, p. 398.

General appropriation bills are given a bighly privileged character which attaches to them at all stages of proceedings. Journal 1, 51, p. 910.

In considering general appropriation bills the clauses are invariably treated as sections.

As to the right of the Senate to originate appropriation bills, see House Report 147, third session Forty-sixth Congress.

The “ general appropriation” bills under the present practice of the House number thirteen, viz :

Agricultural; Army; Consular and Diplomatic; Deficiency; District of Columbia; Fortification; Indian; Legislative, Executive, and Judicial; Military Academy; Naval; Pension; PostOffice, and Sundry Civil; what is known as the “River and Harbor bill” not being one of the general appropriation bills. The Committee on Appropriations report the Deficiency; Dis. trict of Columbia; Fortification; Legislative, Executive, and Judicial; Pension, and Sundry Civil bills, the remaining bills being reported by the several committees having jurisdiction of their subject-matter. (See clauses 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 15, RULE XI.)

As a matter of interest and for convenience of reference, the following chronological history of general appropriation bills passed during the last session, together with estimates and appropriations for the fiscal year 1890–91, and appropriations for the fiscal year 1889–90, prepared by the clerks to the committees on appropriation of the two houses, is herewith given.

1890-91.

Chronological history of appropriation bills, first session of the Fifty-first

propriations for fiscal year 1881-'90. [Prepared by the clerks to the

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1890.

1890. Agricultural

$1,838, 430.00 June 4 $1, 753, 600,00 June 12 $1,753, 600.00 Army

25, 064, 618,75 Feb. 28 24, 458, 220.52 Mar. 31 24, 288, 083.52 Diplomatic and consnlar. 1, 805, 785.00 Apr. 22 1, 489, 925, 00 May 3 1, 489, 925.00

1889, District of Columbia a.... 5, 380, 111.27 Dec. 21 5, 331, 934. 15. Jan. 8 5, 332, 934.15

1890. Fortification

8, 486,998.00 Mar. 18 4,521, 678.00 Apr. 1 4,521, 678.00 Indian

5, 804, 399. 77 June Il 6, 272, 874.32 June 18 6.022, 638.75 Legislative, etc.

21, 627, 250, 70 Apr. 7 20, 861, 326.75 Apr. 28 20, 812. 446,75 Military Academy

497, 546.81 Mar. 13 429, 996. 11. Apr. 16 429, 996. 11 Navy

25, 599, 253, 79 Apr. 1 22, 151, 335.53 Apr. 15 22, 160, 535, 53 Pension

98, 587, 252.00' Feb. 18 98, 427. 461.00. Mar. 21 98, 427, 461.00 Post-Officed

72, 434, 698. 99. Apr. 29 71, 976, 698.99 June 10 71,988, 698.99 River and harbor.

e 237,000.00. Apr. 18 20, 932, 445.00 May 28 19, 973, 945.00 Sundry civil.

37, 849, 513. 96 June 11 27, 926, 143.22 June 17 28, 060, 620.22 Total ....... 305, 214, 862.04 306, 536, 638. 59

305, 292, 565. 02 Deficiency, printing and

1889.

1889. census, 190

Dec. 16 400,000.00 Dec. 16 400,000.00 Deficiency, urgent, 1890

1890

1890. and prior years.

Feb. 26 24,050, 213, 72 Feb. 28 24, 050, 213.72 Deficiency.printing, 1890 940,000,000.00 May 22 90,000.00 May 22 90,000.00 Deficiency, pensions and censns, 1890

June 12 6, 783, 898.35 June 12 6, 783, 898.35 Deficiency, general, 1899 and prior sears... )

(July 19 5, 140, 440.03 Aug. 8 5, 230, 535,78 Total 315, 214, 862. 04 34), 001, 190,69

341, 847, 212.87 Miscellaneous

97,500,000.00 Total, regular anna

al appiopriations 352, 714, 862.04 Permanent annual appro. priations

101, 628, 453.00 Grand total, regular and

permanent annual appropriations....

454, 313, 315. 04

Amount of estimated revenues for fiscal year 1891

$385,000,000.00 Amount of estimated postal revenues for fiscal year 1991

67, 414 337. 34 Total estimated revenues for fiscal year 1891

430, 414, 337.34 a Fifts per centum of the amounts appropriated for the District of Columbia is paid by the l'niiei States. The amount for the water department (estimated for 1891 at $234,474.18) is paid out of the revenues of that department.

6 This amount includes $1.912,942.02 for payment to Seminole Indians for lands. c This amount includes $1,000,000 appropriated by joint resolution September 29, 1890, for nickel ore or nickle matte for naval purpises.

d Appropriations for postal service are paid out of postal revenues (estimated for 1891 at $63, 414, 337.34), and any deficiency in revenue is provided for out of the U. S. Treasury.

e This is the estimate subiuitted for rivers and harbors for 1891. * The amount that can be profitably expended,” as reported by the Chief of Engineers, is $38,532,550. (Book of Estimates pages 175-180.)

1890-91.

Congress; estimates and appropriations for the fiscal year 1890–91, and apCommittees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatires. ]

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1890. 1890.

1870. June 28 $1,778, 600.00 June 30 $1,781, 300.00' July 14 May 24, 187, 781.79 May 10 24, 187, 781.79 June 13 June 20 1,717, 835. 00 June 21 1,723, 455.00 July 14 Apr. 17

6,019, 994. 15 Apr, 22 6,085, 744. 15 Aug. 6 May 28

7,310, 935.00 June 4 7, 593, 935.00 Aug. 18 July 16

7, 153, 811.43 July 24 7, 250, 276.62 Aug. 19 June 12 21, 173, 817.55 June 20 21, 338, 768.75 July 11 May 7 401, 766. 11 May 9 404, 766. 11 June 20 May 19 22, 650, 185. 53 May 26 23, 116, 685. 53 June 30 Apr. 24

98, 457, 461.00 May 9 98, 465, 461.00 June 30 June 20 72, 461, 698. 99 June 24 72, 461, 698.99 Jupe 30 June 18 23, 662, 695.00 Aug. 16 25, 786, 53,00 Sept. 19 July 9 31, 241, 680.22 July 19 33, 6.8, 792. 22 Aug. 30 318, 221, 261,77

323, 827, 518. 16

$1,799, 100,00' $1, 669, 770.00 24, 206, 471. 79 24, 316, 615.73 1, 710, 815.00

1, 980,025.00 5, 769, 544. 15 5, 682, 409.91 4, 232, 935.00 1, 233, 594,00 7, 262, 016. 02 68,077, 453. 39 21, 030, 752.75 20, 813, 615.81

435, 296. 11 902, 766. 69 c24, 136, 035.53 21, 692, 510.27 98, 457, 461.00 81,758, 700.00 72, 226, 698. 99 66, 605, 344. 28 25, 136, 295.00 29, 738, 282.22 25, 297, 341. 65

316, 141, 703.56 260, 060, 146, 73

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I No appropriations made for rivers and harbors for 1890. g This amount is approximated.

k The aggregate amont of the five deficiency appropriation acts is $38,617,448.96, which incinder $25,321,907.35 for pensions for the fiscal year 1890.

il bis amount includes $8,000,000 for pensions for the fiscal year 1889.

j This amount includes $1,000,000 for procuring farm mortgage and other statistics; $1,364,000 for aid to agricultural colleges ; $1,200,000 for Rock Creek Park, and $598,085.81 for additional clerical force for Pension and other offices.

k This amount includes $2,375,000 for public buildings; $1,000,000 for Eleventh Census; $2,280,857,10 for payment to Creek Nation of Indians for lands; $3,153,200 to secure relin quishment of a portion of the Sioux Indian Reservation.

i This is the amount originally submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury as estimated to be necessary under permanent specific and indefinite appropriations.

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