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travellers by land, and of which, if they had been laid down in the chart, I should have hesitated to have attempted the passage, without assistance to the sea-ward. As it is, we are indebted for our preservation, and that of the horses, to the providential discovery of a small boat on the beach, which the men with the most cheerful alacrity carried upwards of ninety miles on their shoulders, thereby enabling us to overcome obstacles otherwise insurmountable. Until within these few days, I hoped to have had the satisfaction to report the return of the expedition without accident to any individual composing it; but such is the ferocious treachery of the natives along the coast to the northward, that our utmost circumspection could not save, us from having one man (W. Blake) severely wounded by them; but by the skilful care bestowed upon him by Dr. Harris (who accompanied the expedition as a volunteer, and to whom, upon this occasion and throughout the whole course of it, we are indebted for much valuable assistance), I trust his recovery is no longer doubtful. The general merits of Mr. Evans are so well known to your excellency, that it will here be sufficient to observe, that by his zealous attention to every point that could facilitate the progress of the expedition, he has endeavoured to deserve a continuance of M. excellency's approbation. r. Charles Frazier, the colonial botanist, has added near 700 new specimens to the already extended catalogue of Australian
plants, besides many seeds, &c, and in the collection and preservation he has indefatigably endeavoured to obtain your excellency's approval of his services.
I confidently hope that the journal of the expedition will amply evince to your excellency the exemplary and praiseworthy conduct of the men employed on it, and I feel the sincerest pleasure in earnestly soliciting for them your excellency’s favourable consideration.
Respectfully hoping, that on a perusal and inspection of the journals and charts of the expedition that the course I have pursued in the execution of your excellency's instruction will be honoured by your approbation, I beg leave to subscribe myself, with the greatest respect, Sir, your excellency's most obedient and humble servant,
(Signed) J. Oxley, Surveyor-Gen. To his Exc. Governor Macquarie, &c. &c.
Extract of a General Order by the
“Government-House, Sydney, May 31, 1819–His excellency the governor having received and perused the journal of a tour lately made by Charles Throsby, esq. by the way of the Cow Pastures to Bathurst, in the new discovered country westward of the Blue Mountains, takes this early opportunity publicly to announce the happy result of an enterprise which promises to conduce, in a very eminent degree, to the future interest and prosperity of the colony.—The communication with the western country having been heretofore heretofore over a long and difficult range of mountains, alike ungenial to man and cattle, from their parched and barren state, it became an object of great importance to discover another route, whereby those almost insurmountable barriers would be avoided, and a more practicable, and consequently less hazardous access effected to the rich and extensive plains of Bathurst.—His excellency adverts with pleasure to Mr. Throsby's general report of the capabilities, qualities, and features of the country intervening between the Cow Pastures and Bathurst; which he represents to be, with few exceptions, rich, fertile, and luxuriant, abounding with fine runs of water, and all the happy varieties of soil, hill, and valley, to render it not only
delightful to the view, but highly suitable to all the purposes of pasturage and agriculture.—The importance of these discoveries is enhanced by the consideration that a continuous range of valuable country, extending from the Cow Pastures to the remote plains of Bathurst, is now fully ascertained, connecting those countries with present settlements on this side the Nepean.—His excellency the governor, highly appreciating" Mr. Throsby's services on this occasion, offers him this public tributeofacknowledgment,for the zeal and perseverance by which he was actuated throughout this arduous undertaking; and desires his acceptance of one thousand acres of land in any part of the country discovered by himself that he may choose to select.
2 N MISCELLANIES.
MONASTIC SCHOOLS IN RUSSIA.
THE emperor'of Russia has advanced 180,000 roubles, out of 300,000, the sum destined for the establishment and support of conventional schools, or seminaries, attached to the monasteries in Russia. In the ukase published upon the subject, his majesty expresses himself in the following terms:—“It is my personal wish to see schools of truth flourish. Minds are not truly enlightened, except by that divine light which shines in darkness, and which darkness cannot extinguish. Jesus Christ is the way, the truth, and the life. Education ought to be founded on practical Christianity.
DISCOVERY OF ANTIQUITIES IN
[Philosophical Magazine, March.j
From Thebes M. Belzoni proceeded to Nubia to examine the great Temple of Ybsambul IIbsambul, Ebsambul, or Absinbul], which lies buried more than twice its height in the sands near the second cataract. - On this occasion, however, he was unable to effect any thing, and therefore returned to Thebes,
where he employed himself in new researches at the Temple of Karnack. Here, several feet under-ground, he found, surrounded by a wall, a range of sphynxes, about forty in number, with heads of lions on busts of women, of black granite, and for the greater part beautifully executed. While absent, on his second visit to Ybsambul, Mrs. Belzoni succeeded in digging up at the same place a statue of Jupiter Ammon, holding a ram’s head on his knees. And on his second journey to Thebes in 1817, M. Belzoni discovered a colossal head of Orus, of fine granite, larger than the Memnon, measuring ten feet from the neck to the top of the mitre, with which it is crowned, exquisitely finished, and in fine preservation. He carried with him to Cairo one of the arms belonging to this statue. As he succeeded so well in removing the Memnon, may we not hope that he will be encouraged also to attempt the removal of this head, and that we may ere long see it laced beside its colossal brother in the British Museum. After this, M. Belzoni proceeded again to Nubia, and, in spite of many hindrances and much or. which he experienced, suceeded in opening the celebrated temple of *
bul, which no European had ever before entered. In this temple (the largest and most wonderful excavation in Egypt or in Nubia), he found fourteen chambers and a great hall; and in the latter, standing, eight colossal figures, each thirty feet high. The walls and pilasters are covered with hieroglyphics beautifully cut, and groups of large figures in fine preservation. At the end of the sanctuary he found four sitting figures about twelve feet high, cut out of the natural rock and well preserved. Belzoni’s labour may be conceived when we state, that on commencing his operations, the bed of loose sand which he had to clear away was upwards of fifty feet deep. He carried hence two lions with the heads of vultures, and a small statue of Jupiter Ammon. From the suerior style of sculpture found in this temple to any thing yet met with in Egypt, $1. Salt infers that the arts descended hither from Ethiopia. M. Belzoni, by a kind of tact which seems to be peculiarly his own, discovered, on his return to Thebes, six tombs in the valley of Biban El Moluck, or the tombs [or rather gates] of the kings (in a part of the mountains where ordinary observers would hardly have sought for such excavations), all in a perfect state, not having been viewed by previous intruders, and giving a wonderful i. of Egyptian magnificence and posthumous splendor. From the front entrance to the innermost chamber in one of them, the length of passage, cut through the solid rock, is 309 feet: the chambers, which are numerous,
cut in a pure white rock, are covered with paintings al fresco, well executed, and with hieroglyphics quite perfect, and the colours as fresh as if newly laid on. In one of these chambers he found an exquisitely - beautiful sarcophagus of alabaster nine feet five inches long, three feet nine inches high, and two feet, one inch wide, covered within and without with hieroglyphics in intaglio, sounding like a bell, and as transparent as glass— supposed, by M. Belzoni, to have been the depository of the remains of Apis. In the innermost room he found the carcase of a bull, embalmed with asphaltum, which seems to give some confirmation to his idea. We are happy to learn that this matchless production is now on its way to England, to be placed by the side of the sarcophagus supposed to have contained the remains of Alexander. Mr. Salt, assisted by Mr. Beechey (son of the wellknown artist of the same name), has, with much labour and care, copied several of the paintings within this tomb, which will byand-by be given to the public. These paintings are quite fresh and perfect. The colours emo: are “ vermilion, ochres, and indigo;" and yet they are not gaudy, owing to the judicious balance of colours, and the artful management of the blacks. It is
uite obvious (says Mr. Salt)
at they worked on a regular system, which had for its basis, as Mr. West would say, the colours of the rainbow; as there is not an ornament throughout their dresses where the red, ło and blue, are not alternately mingled, which produces a harmony that in some of the designs is really delicious. It is a curious fact, that in one of the Theban tombs two statues of wood, a little larger than life, were found as perfect as if newly carved, excepting in the sockets of the eyes, which had been of metal, probably copper.
2 N 2 gled, effect. § 1806.
ON LARCH TIMBER, BY THE DUKE OF A THOL. .
[Philosophical Magazine, June.]
The introduction of this most valuable tree into Scotland, at least into the county of Perth, took place in the year 1738; when a Highland gentleman, Mr. Menzies, of Glenlyon, Perthshire, brought a few small plants from London; his servant carrying them on horseback on the top of his portmanteau. Some of these plants he left at Monzie, near Crieff; some at Dunkeld, and the remainder he carried home, where some have been cut, within these few years, of a great size. The four left at Monzie are in full vigour (1807); the largest nearly twelve feet in circumference, at three feet and a half above the ground. Those left at Dunkeld are also in full vigour (1807); some were placed in a green-house, but not thriving, were turned out. The largest is about twelve feet in girth, at three feet and a half above the ground, and is computed to contain four load of solid timber, or two hundred feet. Some years elapsed before any more larch were planted at Dunkeld. A few, however, were planted at Blair in that interval; but the larch plant
ed between the years 1740 and 1750 were inconsiderable in point of number. the rocky mountains round Dunkeld, with a view to their growing wood, which has since been done, would at that time have been treated as a chimerical idea. The plantations on the lower grounds were necessarily small in
Trials of Larch.
1777.—It is now thirty years since I have cut and used larch for different purposes; and as yet I have met with no instance to induce me to depart from my opinion, that larch is the most valuable acquisition, in point of useful timber, that has ever been introduced into Scotland; and I speak from having used and cut larch of from fifty to sixty years' growth. The small larch I have used were thinned out of plantations for upright paling, rails, and hurdles. Those fit for sawing were sawn through the middle; the smaller used round, with the bark on. I have found young larch, so used, more durable than oak copse-wood of twenty-four years' rowth. 1795.-The larger and older Iarch which I have cut, have been used for a variety of puroses; boats built of it have §. found sound, when the ribs, made of oak forty years old, were decayed. I have for years built all my ferry and fishing-boats of
larch. In mill-work, and especially in mill-axles (where oak only used formerly to be employed), larch has been substituted with the best
For the planting of J