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at the head of about 10,000 men,
and directing his course inland,
entered upon a toilsome route of many hundreds of miles with the
intention of reaching the banks of the Orinoco and dispossessing the independents of the city of Angostura their capital. In the
mean while, Bolivar, who had received a very important accession of force, principally from the arrival of English troops, prepared for a campaign comprising a rather complicated system of action. An encampment was formed in the Island of Margaretta of about 1,500 men, who were to remain there in readiness till circumstances should decide on what point of the coast a descent might be attempted with most effect in support of the operations carrying on in the interior: general Santander was dispatched to the westward to oppose the advance of a body of troops sent from New Granada to form a junction with Morillo; General Marino marched into the province of Barcelona to intercept the division of Morillo's army which was destined for an attempt upon Angostura; and Bolivar in person, attended by Paez, at the head of a light cavalry armed with lances, composed of the free people of colour and the inhabitants of the plains, called Llaneros, watched the motions of Morillo himself. On every point the efforts of the Venezuelans were crowned with success. Marino totally defeated the force opposed to him at a place called Cispero or Centaura, in the neighbourhood of Barcelona, and con
centrating his forces advanced
upon that important city. This
success decided the destination of the troops at Margaretta. The Spanish squadron of six large vessels and eight flecheras had been shut up by the Venezuelan fleet of 15 ships of war, in the port of Cumana, which was placed in a state of blockade; and in the mean time col. Ursler, with 300 English and German auxiliaries under gen. English, forming part of the expedition from Margaretta, effected a landing at Barcelona, and on Jul 18th carried the fortress called the Moro, with the loss of only 18 men. Three Spanish ships which came with troops in aid of the place were also captured, and another division of general Urdeneta's force from Margaretta, disembarked to the leeward of Cumana to form the siege of that place. Santander advancing into the plains of Casanare, forming the western boundary of the province of Parinas, encountered a Spanish division of about 3,500 men, over whom he gained a splendid victory, cutting to pieces or making prisoners of the whole. Disappointed of this expected reinforcement, Morillo, notwithstanding some partial advantages with which he began the campaign, was gradually driven back, by the incessant harassing of an enemy greatly superior to him in cavalry; and retreating northwards and westwards, received, on July 26th, a defeat at a place called Columboso, a short distance from the mouth of the lake of Maracaibo. In the state of feebleness and destitution to which the army of Morillo had thus been reduced, Bolivar was enabled to avail him| self self to the utmost of the victory of Santander, by which an unobstructed course was opened into the kingdom of New Grenada; a province already ripe for revolution, from the inhabitants of which he received frequent deputations, congratulating him on his victories, and offering him supplies of men and money. Departing from the cautious and defensive system which he had judged it necessary to preserve in the early part of the campaign, the president directed his march from Warinas towards Santa Fe de Bogota, the distant capital of New Grenada. His own bulletins will best record his success.
BATTLE OF BOJACA.
Fourth Bulletin of the Liberating Army of New Granada.
Yesterday, at day-light, our advanced corps giving notice that the enemy was in march by the road of Samaca, the army was put under arms; and as soon as it was ascertained that he intended passing the bridge of Bojaca, in order to open direct communication, and be in contact with the capital, we marched by the high-road to prevent him, or force him to give battle.
At two in the afternoon, the enemy's first division reached the bridge, where he saw only our advance of cavalry. Not then able to ascertain our force, and believing those opposed to him were nothing more than a reconnoitering party, he attacked them with his Cazadores to clear the way whilst the main body followed up. Our divisions quickened their march, and to the great surprise of the enemy, the
whole of our infantry showed themselves in a column on a height commanding his position. The enemy's van had ascended part of the road, following our advance, and the remainder of his army was below, about a quarter of a league from the bridge, and showed a force of 3,000 men. Our battalion of Cazadores of the van sent out a company of skirmishers, and with the remainder in column attacked the enemy's Cazadores, and drove them back precipitately to a wall, from whence they were also dislodged; they then passed the bridge, and took up a position on the other side, and in the meanwhile our infantry came down, and the cavalry marched along the road. The enemy made a movement by his right, which was opposed by the rifles, and the British com|. The battalions, first of arcelona and Paez's Bravos, with the squadron of the cavalry of the upper plain, marched by the centre. The battalion of the line of New Granada, and the Guides of the rear, joined the battalion of Cazadores and formed the left. The columns of Tunja and Socorro remained in reserve. The action began at the same instant all along the line, general Anzoategui directed the operations of the centre and right; he ordered a battalion to be attacked which the enemy had sent out as skirmishers in a glen, and forced it to retire on the main body, which, formed in column on a height with three pieces of artillery in the centre , and two corps of cavalry in the flanks, waited the attack.
Our troops of the centre, disregarding the fire of some corps of the enemy posted on their left flank, attacked the main body. The enemy gave a dreadful fire, but our troops, with the most daring movements, executed with the strictest discipline, surrounded all the enemy’s corps. The squadron of cavalry of the Upperplain charged with its wonted valour, and from that moment all the efforts of the Spanish general were fruitless; he lost his position. The company of horse grenadiers (all Spaniards), was the first that cowardly left the field of battle. The infantry endeavoured to reform on another height, and was instantly destroyed. A corps of cavalry in reserve waited ours with the lances in rest, and was pierced through-and-through by our lancers; the whole Spanish army, in complete rout and closed in on all sides, after suffering dreadful carnage, threw down their arms and surrendered.
With an almost simultaneous movement, general Santander, who directed the operations of the left, and who had met with an inconsiderable resistance from the enemy's van, and to which he had only opposed his Cazadores, charged with some companies of the battalion of the line, and the Guides of the rear passed the bridge and completed the victory.
All the enemy's army remained in our hands. General Barreyro, commander-in-chief of the army of New Granada, is a prisoner, and was taken in the field of battle by a soldier of the first Rifles, Pedro Martinez: the second in command, colonel Xime
nez, is also a prisoner; almost all the commandants and majors of corps, a multitude of inferior officers, and more than 1,600 men are likewise taken, and moreover all their arms, ammunition, artillery, horses, &c. &c. Hardly 50 men escaped, and amongst them some chiefs and officers of cavalry, who fled before the action was decided. General Santander with the van, and the Guides of the rear, pursued at the same time the dispersed to this place, and general Anzoategui, with the remainder of the army, remained all night in the field. The advantages are incalculable which will ensue to the republic from the glorious victory of yesterday. Our troops never triumphed more decidedly, and have seldom engaged troops so well disciplined, and so well commanded. Nothing can be compared to the intrepidity with which general Anzoategui at the head of two battalions, and a squadron of cavalry, attacked and overthrew the enemy's main body, and to him the victory is in great measure due. - General Santander made his movements with vigour and firmness. The battalions (Paez's Bravos) and the first of Barcelona, and the squadron of the Upper-plain, fought with astonishing valour. The columns of Tunja and Socorro joined the left on the battle being decided. In short, his excellency is highly satisfied with the behaviour of every chief, officer, and soldier of the liberating army on this memorable day. Our
Lieutenant-col. Mugica, with the corps of Guides and Dragoons, continued the pursuit of the enemy on the 8th, at daybreak. . At 11, his excellency followed with the squadron of Llanoarriba, and joined him at Choconta. On the 9th, all the infantry set out. On the 10th, on the arrival of his excellency at the bridge of Comun, he received advice from the capital, that the Viceroy, the Audience, with the guard of honour, and the regiment of Cazadores of Aragon, and all the civil and mi. officers, had abandoned it on the morning of the 9th, leaving it in a state of frightful anarchy. His excellency hastened his march; and on the same day, entered the capital amidst the acclamations of an immense population, which knew not how to express its joy—a population, which, after three years of the most cruel oppression, beheld itself unexpectedly liberated, and could not help doubting its immense good fortune. The streets and the public places were filled with people. All sought to see
his excellency the president, in order to convince themselves of the reality. • . The Viceroy Samano has fled in the direction of Honda, and Calzado follows him on the southern side. All the cavalry and the corps of the rear-guard pursue him on all sides, and there is reason to hope that none will escape. The Liberating Army has attained the object which it purposed on undertaking the campaign. After 75 days' march from Pueblo de Mantecal, in the province of Varinas, his excellency entered the capital of New Granada, having overcome greater labours and difficulties than were foreseen on undertaking this great operation, and having destroyed an army three times stronger than the invading one. The precipitation with which the Viceroy and his satellites fled, on the first report of the battle of Bojaca, did not permit him to save any of the public property. In the Mint we found more than half a million of dollars in cash; and in all the other magazines and depôts sufficient completely to arm and equip, a numerous army. It may be said, that the liberation of New Granada has ensured io that of all South America, and that the year 1819 will be the end of a war, which, with so much horror to humanity, Spain has waged since 1810. The General in Chief of the Staff, CARLos SoubleTTE. Head Quarters at Santa Fe, 11th of August. In an official despatch, duo - a
at Santa Fe, on the 14th of August, and addressed by the president Bolivar to the vice president of the Republic, he says, that “the people of New Gramada, regardless of their own defenceless state, by attacking dispersed parties of the enemy, have actively co-operated in his absolute extermination, taking arms, and making a great number of prisoners.” He adds, that “notwithstanding the general devastation which this kingdom has suffered, the Republic may reckon on a million dollars in cash, besides the large sum which the property of the fugitive oppressors and discontented will produce.” The rainy season caused a temporary o to military ations. Morillo entrenched himself for some time in Tinaquillo, the independents having taken possession of St. Fermandez de Apure and of Calaboza, immediately on his evacuation of those places. Marino with 2,000 men remained posted at Maturia in Cumana, ready to co-operate with 1,500 Irish troops of gen. Pevereux's legion which Bermudez was organising in Marga
retta. Paez prepared to march
with 6,000 men against Morillo. Bolivar continued strengthening himself in New Granada; and such was the general spirit of animosity against the Spanish government, which had endeavoured to support its declining authority by acts of the most atrocious cruelty, that the people every where joined his standard. On the re-opening of the cam
aign, he is said to have found
imself at the head of an army
of 8,000 men raised in New Gremada, and to have sent a detachment against Santa Martha. The Spanish garrisons had been greatly weakened before the invasion of Bolivar by the aids which it had been found necessary to dispatch to Lima, and there is reason to believe that by the end of autumn, the whole of this extensive kingdom, or province, with the exception of Carthagena, was free. Meanwhile, a congress assembled at Angostura was occupied in examining the articles of a constitution, nearly resembling the English, which had been submitted to its scrutiny by Bolivar, and which appeared to meet with general approbation. Such was the prosperous state of the “United Republics of Venezuela and New Grenada,” at the latter end of
the year 1819. Buenos Ayres.—The most full and authentic account of the present state of the provinces of the river de la Plata, which has reached Europe, is to be found in the report of the North American commissioner sent purposely to inquire into their situation which was laid before Conress, and afterwards printed; it
s here subjoined. “The country formerly known as the vice-royalty of Buenos Ayres, extending from the northwestern sources of the river La Plata to the southern cape of America, and from the confines of Brazil and the ocean to the ridge of the Andes, may be considered that which is called “ the United Provinces of South AmeT1Ca.
“Under the royal government, it