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member of a subsisting association of universities, and that in consequence of a decree of its senate, it refused matriculation, after the disturbances at Gottingen, to all students from that place who were not provided with a certificate of their conduct while there. “3. But in changes which their royal and serene highnesses will admit, they will not consent to any dispositions which would invade the interior constitution of the universities, and destroy their academical liberties by convertiny them into gymnasia, &c. “4. The universities must preserve their freedom of opinion and instruction.” The grand duke of Saxe Weimar subsequently declared his resolution to permit no foreigners to study at Jena, without a recommendation from their own government; in consequence, the Prussian students were immediately recalled from this university, as were the Russian ones from all those of Germany. An attempt made by a young medical student on the life of M. Ibel, president of the regency of Nassau, augmented the general panic ; numerous arrests took place in several parts of Germany, but especially in the Prussian dominions; papers were seized; professors of known popular principles were subjected to severe examinations; suspicion was particularly directed against the founders of a patriotic association called the Tugenbund, instituted in 1813, and the members of the more recent burseuschaft, or student's club. - It was affirmed, that information

had been obtained of the existence of secret democratic societies, extending widely over the country, in which the plan of converting Germany into a republic, one and indivisible, had been decided upon. Revolutionary poems and daggers were reported to be found among the effects of the persons arrested, and the public were led to believe that an atrocious plot would in time be revealed, though for the present it was judged prudent to refrain from the disclosure of particulars. In the meantime the security and nappiness of private life was invaded ; no one knew what to fear or whom to trust; secret dilations were listened to, persons were torn from the bosoms of their families without knowing their offence, and in some instances contrary to the laws, and it was remarked with sorrow, that the individuals arrested and accused, particularly in Prussia, were the same who had displayed most zeal in the general rising against the French tyranny, and who had earned for themselves the proud title of deliverers of their country. The senate of the new university of Bonn, made a public protest against the illegal seizure of the papers of three of its professors by civil functionaries, supported by a military force, sent from Berlin; and the chamber of justice at Berlin addressed three successive remonstrances to the minister of justice on the illegal violence of his proceedings. The police, finding at last no proofs of the existence of a plot, offered their liberty to several of the persons arrested; but on terms, it is said, which oneindividual alone thought fit to accept. Finally, a commission appointed by the Prussian minister, prince Hardenberg, to examine all the documents and the papers seized delivered to him their report, stating in the most unequivocal manner, that no man of any influence was concerned in the secret associations; and also that these associations had not for their object the revolutionizing of Germany. They added, that though presumptions, of different degrees of force existed against several of the persons in custody, not one of them could legally be put in a state of accusation. Thus then ended the cause of this alarm; but not its consequences. These will best be traced from the “Propositions of the minister of his royal and apostolie majesty” to the diet at Frankfort; the “Circular of the cabinet of Berlin,” the “Edict of censorship for the kingdom of Hanover; and that for the kingdom of Prussia.” (See State Papers.) Of all the severe measures of coercion indicated in the Austrian . that which gave most offence to the German people, and which was even a source of discontent to several of the smaller princes, was the proposed establishment of a general central commission at Mentz, authorized to prosecute inquiries in all parts of Germany concernin the “demagogical intrigues,” supposed to be in action;–to examine any persons whatever as witnesses on these subjects,-to cause the arrest of suspected persons, and to take the punishment of political offenders into

its own hands. No sooner was the decision of the diet in favor of the erection of this new and formidable tribunal known at Berlin, than the members of the different supreme courts of justice met to protest solemnly against a measure which would so essentially infringe upon their jurisdiction. In a body they desired an audience of prince Hardenberg, and laid through him their complaints before the king. They represented, that by recognizing the late decisions of the diet, and conforming to them, his majesty would renounce the most sacred rights of a sovereign, not excepting that of granting pardons; and that the establishment of a tribunal at Mentz invested with the power of trying Prussian citizens, was incompatible with the dignity of an independent state and in direct opposition to the laws of Prussia. A memorial nearly to the same effect was presented to the king by his minister of state baron Humboldt, which was graciously received, and transmitted to the court of Austria. Several of the secondary powers, and the grand duke of Baden in the number, testified their dissatisfaction. The king of Bavaria published the decisions of the diet commanding all persons in authority, and his subjects generally, to conform themselves to them; — adding however the following remarkable salvo:—“having regard to the sovereignty which is guaranteed to us by existing compacts and the act of the confederation, according to the constitution given by us to our faithful people, and according to the laws of our kingdom.” Notwithstanding all op

position, position, the central commission, with the full powers originally projected, met for the first time on October 15. It was composed of seven members, delegated by the sovereigns of the following states.—Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Hanover, Baden, Hesse and Nassau. The king of Prussia, evinced peculiar zeal in carrying into effect the system thus founded in Germany. Several professors of Prussian universities were dismissed from their posts; the papers of M. Goerres, author of a work intituled “Germany and the Revolution,” were sealed up, and the city of Frankfort was somewhat imperiously required to seize all copies of the work and to give up the author. With the former part of this mandate the senate of Frankfort complied, nor did it apparently demur to the latter;-M. Goerres however was enabled to escape into France. A commission was appointed at Berlin to examine into charges of high treason and where it should appear necessary to transmit the prisoners to Mentz. It should seem however that the integrity or the patriotism of the commissioners prompted them to liberate most of the persons brought before them, some of whom were also to receive a public reparation of character. Meantime, the new constitution for Prussia was affirmed to be in a state of diligent preparation, but no public measures have yet been taken to bring it into action. The assassin Sandt was transferred to Mentz in safe custody, but his trial has been postponed


from time to time, probably in the hope, which has not, it should seem, been realised, of extracting from him some confessions tending to implicate others in a crime which he has repeatedly affirmed

to be exclusively his own. A circumstance equally extraordinary and disgraceful in the annals of modern Germany, was the persecution of which the Jews were the victims during the year 1819. The motive of the injuries and insults inflicted on this unfortunate people is somewhat obscure; but it seems to have been some sentiment more akin to political or commercial jealousy than to the ancient reli

gious antipathy.

The condition of the Jews in Germany had received the most important amelioration within the last twenty years. Buonaparté, on entering Germany, had effaced the ancient stigma impressed upon the race by declaring them “citizens and members of society :” Yet, during the late war, hoping to obtain from the legitimate sovereigns of Germany a confirmation of the privileges thus granted them, the Jews had freely offered their property, and even their lives for the defence of the £ountry; and in return, had obtained strong testimonies of apobation from several of the alied princes; and from the king of Prussia, the rights of citizens, with eligibility to all offices. These acquisitions of civil privileges when combined with their extensive command of capital, enabled the Jews in some commercial towns to assume a port which their Christian neighbours regarded regarded as presumptuous and offensive; — a cry was raised against them, and but for the powerful and prompt protection extended by the German sovereigns, the fury of the people would apparently have quenched itself in their blood. The senate of the free town of Lubeck had been the first to mark its animosity against this people by reinforcing an edict of 1788, forbidding all strangers to carry on commerce of any kind within Lubec; (see State Papers). A prohibition which is stated to have been followed up, with regard to the Jews, by measures of great harshness and insult. The police officers were ordered to search all Jews openly in the streets, and to burst open their houses and take possession of all their property, sealing up even the common necessaries of life. The senate further decreed, that any person - acting for, or in any shape transacting business with a Jew, should for the first offence be fined ; and for the second, should be further visited with imprisonment and loss of citizenship; and that any clerk, porter or menial servant living with a Jew, should be imprisoned and expelled the town. The next expulsion of this unhappy race was from the town of Meiningen. This place, it seems, had long enjoyed the privilege of admitting no Jews within its walls; nevertheless a considerable number had established themselves there on sufferance; a sudden resolution of the magis

trates to inforce again the old regulations, had compelled the lower order of these to quit the

town; but a few wealthy families still lingered, and the magistrates were asked whether it was intended that their longer abode would be tolerated. These authorities referred the question to an assembly of the people; but scarcely had the debate commenced, when some of the citizens collected together the empty waggons standing in the market, and ended the doubt by compelling the remaining Jews to pack themselves and their goods into them and causing them to be

transported over the frontiers. At Hamburgh, Frankfort, Wurtzburgh and other free towns in Germany, popular tumults occurred in which the Jews were insulted, plundered and menaced. At length these outrages attracted the attention of the higher powers; and a notification, signed by all the envoys assembled at the conference of Carlsbad, was forwarded to the resident ministers at the towns where these scenes had been acted. They were hereby directed to remonstrate with the local authorities; and to claim for the Jews that equal protection which every government is bound to afford to all its subjects without distinction ; they were further to state, that a repetition of the offence would subject these authorities themselves to the punishment due to accessories,—deprivation of rank and office: nor would the chastisement stophere; the place itself would be subjected to military occupation, either by Austria or Prussia, and perhaps, eventually, to accession to some neighbouring state. The king of Ba* varia

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