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be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” Were we not disjointed by nature; what need would there be for us to be taken down, and put up again : If the first birth were right, what need would there be for a second II. I come now to shew wherein original sin consists. It consists in these three things: the guilt of Adam's first sin. the want of original righteousness, and the corruption of the whole nature. - First, Original sin consists in the guilt of Adam's first sin. Guilt is an obligation to punishment. For this sin, which is ours by imputation, we are liable to punishment. This guilt lies on all men by nature, Rom. v. 18. And this guilt of Adam's first sin is original sin imputed; of which I spoke in the former discourse. The only remedy for it is in Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. xv. 22. Eph. i. 7. Rom, iii. 24. Secondly, It consists in the want of original righteousness. Original righteousness is that righteousness and entire rectitude of all the faculties of the soul wherein man was created. Man's soul was so adorned with it, that it resembled its great Maker. But now man is stript of these ornaments, he is left quite naked. 1. There is a want of that knowledge in the mind wherewith man was created. That light that was set up in the soul of man is now gone; though the candlestick is not removed, the candle is, Job. xi. 12. ‘For vain man would be wise, though man be born like a wild ass's colt.” The mind is like the ostrich, whom God hath deprived of understanding. ‘The understanding is darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in men, because of the blindness of their heart, Eph. iv. 18. “The matural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness unto him: neither can ye know them, because they are spiritually discerned, 1 Cor. ii. 14. 2. That righteousness which was in the will of man, that bent and inclination to good, is now removed, Eccl. vii. 29. ‘ I know [says the apostle) that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing : for to will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good, I find not, Rom. vii. 18. 3. The holiness of the affeetions is gone. Spiritual affections have taken the wing, and left the soul as a bird without wings which hath nothing whereby it can mount, Rom. vii. 18. forecited. Vol. I. R T

This want of original righteousness is a sin, being a want of conformity to the law of God, which requires all moral perfection. It is also a punishment of sin, and so is justly inflicted by God. And though the want of this righteousness be sin, yet God's depriving man of it, or rather not giving it him, is a most just act; seeing Adam, having got it for himself and his posterity, threw it away, and God is not ob. liged to restore it. And it can be no other sin but the first sin, whereof this with-holding of original righteousness is the punishment. So true it is, that if the imputation of Adam's first sin be denied, original sin is quite rased, there is no foundation left for it. Thirdly, It consists in the corruption of the whole nature. Concerning which two things are to be considered. 1. That the nature of man is indeed corrupted, We must not think that original sin lies only in the want of original righteousness. No, man is not only void of good qualities naturally, but he is filled with evil ones. (1.) The scripture holds it forth so, while it calls this sin * the flesh which lusteth against the Spirit, the old man, the body of death, the law of the members warring against the law of the mind,’ &c. (2.) The soul of man cannot be otherwise. It must needs be morally right or wrong; either it is habitually conform. able to the law of God, or not ; if it be not, its inclinations are against it. The soul has either God’s image or that of the devil upon it. If there is not light in the mind, there must be darkness there. 2. Consider the nature and extent of this corruption. As to its extent, 1st. All men are corrupted. There is no exception of any one of Adam's posterity descending from him by ordina. ry generation: Gen. vi. 5. “God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.” Job xiv. 4. ‘Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one.” The virgin Mary, of the substance of whose body the holy human nature of Christ was formed by the operation of the Holy Spirit, is included among the rest. Even the children of holy parents are corrupted; for generation is by nature, not by grace. The circumcised father begets an

uncircumcised child, as the purest corn that is sown produceth chaff.

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2dly, All of every man is corrupted; it is a leprosy that has overspread universally; a leaven that hath leavened the whole lump. It has overspread, 1. The soul in all its faculties, Tit. i. 15, “Unto them. that are defiled and unbelieving, is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.” 1st, If we look to the understanding, there we will see, (1.) Darkness over all that region. It is the land of dark. . ness and shadow of death, where the very light is darkness; darkness in the abstract, Eph. v. 8. We are born blind, and cannot be restored without a miracle. There is a dreadful stupidity in spiritual things; the natural man cannot take them up, 1 Cor. ii. 14.; but he is a fool, and a madman, because in these things he is a mere natural. (2.) A bitter root of unbelief naturally grows there, which overspreads the whole life. Men by nature are “children of disobedience, Eph. ii. 2. Or, “ of impersuasibleness.” How like Adam do we look! how universally is that article embraced, ‘Ye shall not surely die!’ and how does it spread itself through the lives of men, as if they were resolved to fall after the same example of unbelief! 2dly, As for the will, call it no more will, but lust. It is free to evil, but not to good. ‘God made man upright, his will straight with his own, with a power in the will todo good and an inclination and bent thereto. But now behold in it, (1.) A pitiful weakness. Man naturally cannot will what is good and acceptable to God. He cannot produce one holy act until grace change the heart, more than a stone can feel, or a beast reason. Hence the apostle says, Phil. ii. 13. * It is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure.” Rom. v. 6. “We are without strength.” 2 Cor. iii. 5. “We are not sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of ourselves: but our sufficiency is of God.” Men by nature are dead spiritually ‘dead in trespasses and sins, Eph. ii. 1. If they will what is good, it is in a carnal IIlan DiCIT. (2.) An aversion to good. We are backward to it, and therefore must be drawn as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke. Sin is the natural man's element; and as the fish is averse to come out of the water, so is the sinner from the puddle of sin, in which he delights to lie. Hence says our Lord, John v. 40. ‘Ye will not come unto me, that ye might have life.” They were not only naturally unable to come, but they had no inclination to the duty. Their stomachs are full, and, like the full soul that loaths the honey. comb, they nauseate the heavenly food in their offer. (3.) There is a proneness to evil, a bent and inclination to it, Hos. xi. 7. “My people are bent to backsliding from me.’ Hence natural man are mad on idols. Set sin and duty, death and life, cursing and blessing before the natural man, and leave the will to itself, it will naturally run to sin, to death, and the curse, as the waters run down a steep place. (4.) There is a crossness and contrariety in the will to God and goodness, Rom. viii. 7. “The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.’ That God forbids a thing is a motive to the will to like it. No fruit is so sweet to the corrupt appetite as the forbidden fruit. Strip sin naked of all its ornaments and allurements, and the natural man will court it for itself. The will naturally lies cross to God. (1.) It is cross to his nature. He is holiness itself; and the will rejects holiness for itself. Hence men “say to God, Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways,’ Job xxi. 14. The will is an enemy to the scripture God, and hence they do what they can for the change, Psal. 1. 21. It was most agreeable to nature, that the Pa. gans made their gods prophane. The proud man desires to have none above him to controul him, or call him to account, and the natural man wants to have no God, Ps. xiv. l. (2.) It is cross to his will. (1.) To his law, which binds to conformity to God, which the natural man hates, Rom. viii. 7. Corrupt nature rises against this yoke: they would have the law brought down to their corruptions. Hence that is a distinguishing mark of the godly man, “His delight is in the law of the Lord and in his law doth he meditate day and night, Psal. i. 2. (2.) To his gospel. The will of man naturally is quite opposite to the grand device of salvation through the Lord Jesus; and natural men, like Judas, would rather hang themselves than go to Christ, submitting themselves unto the righteousness of God, Rom. x. 3. They say, “We will not have this man to reign over us.” Luke xix. 14. The gospel is designed for humbling the pride and selfishness of men; but they are for exalting self, and placing it on the throne. It lies cross to the will of God in its chief acts. (1.) As to the intention, the will is wholly cross and perverse as to the ultimate end. Self is set up for the chief end instead of God, 2 Tim. iii. 2. “Men shall be lovers of their own selves.”. In this we follow our first fathers footsteps. The will is like a traitor, who, instead of gathering in the rents of the crown to the king, gathers them in to itself. (2.) As to the choice, Psal. iv. 6. “There be many that say, Who will shew us any good?” God offers himself to be the sinner's portion; but he chuses the creatures for his portion, and sin for the way to obtain it. (5.) There is contumacy in it. The will is wilful in evil and will not be turned, though it should run on the swordpoint of vengeance, Ezek. xviii. 31. ‘Why will ye die, O house of Israel?' Like the leviathan in his way, it “laugheth at the shaking of a spear, Job xli. 29. “I shall have peace (says the natural man), though I walk in the imagination of mine heart, to add drunkenness to thirst,' Deut. xxix. 19. This is the stony heart, which as a stone is insensible, resisting, inflexible, but by the power of divine grace, hard to receive impressions, but as the water to let them go. 3dly, As to the affections, they are quite disordered. While man stood, his reason was subject to the law, and his affections to his reason: but now, like the unruly horse, they will either not receive, or else run away with the rider, Jer. ii. 23, 24. (1.) The affections are misplaced as to their objects. The natural man is a spiritual monster. His heart is there, where his feet should be, fixed on the earth; his heels are lifted up against Heaven, which his heart should be set on. He loves what he should hate, and hates what he should love; joys in what he ought to mourn for, and mourns for what he should rejoice in; glories in his shame, and is ashamed of his glory; abhors what he should desire, and desires what he should abhor; acting in direct opposition to the apostolical injunction of ‘seeking those things which are above,’ Col. i. 1. (2.) When the natural man's affections are fixed on lawful objects, they can keep no bounds. They cannot flow to the greature, without overflowing; they cannot love a lawful object, without overloving it; nor joy in any created comfort, without excess. The affections are never right, only evil. Further, this corruption has spread even to the body.

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